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PresentationExpress
The Triumph of Industry (1850–1900)
Witness History: “The March of American Progress”
Technology and Industrial Growth
The Rise of Big Business
The Organized Labor Movement
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Technology and Industrial Growth
Encouraging Industrial Growth
Main Idea: The Civil War challenged industries to make products more quickly and efficiently
than they had been made before. Factories stepped up production, the food industry
transformed itself, and railroads expanded. Meanwhile, the government encouraged
immigration to meet the increasing demand for labor in the nation’s factories.
Innovation Drives the Nation
Main Idea: By the late 1800s, the drive for innovation and efficiency seemed to touch every
sphere of life in the United States. The number of patents grew exponentially during this time.
Businessmen invested heavily in these new innovations, hoping to create new industries and
expand old ones.
The Impact of Industrialization
Main Idea: Industrialization touched every aspect of American life, from the way businesses
and farms operated to the kinds of products used by average Americans. It also affected the
country’s relationship with the rest of the world and with its own environment.
Witness History: Celebrating the Nation’s Centennial
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects
Color Transparencies: Industry in the United States
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects
TRANSPARENCY
Industry in the United States
The Rise of Big Business
Fighting for Profits
Main Idea: Until the mid-nineteenth century, most businesses were run by one person or family
and were local. Industrialization and railroads changed all this. Business leaders, lured by the
profits offered by these larger markets, responded by combining funds and resources.
Debating the Role of Big Business
Main Idea: Throughout the 1880s, business mergers created powerful empires for those who
invested in steel, railroads, meat, farm equipment, sugar, lumber, and a number of other
enterprises. However, while business leaders grew wealthy, many smaller companies and
consumers began to question their goals and tactics.
The Government Imposes Regulations
Main Idea: The great industrialists’ methods and their stranglehold on the nation’s economy
worried some Americans. The railroad industry, for example, was renowned for unjust business
practices. In 1887, the United States Senate created the Interstate Commerce Commission
(ICC) to oversee railroad operations. This was the first federal body ever set up to monitor
American business operations.
Witness History: From Rags to Riches
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details
Continued…
The Rise of Big Business (continued…)
Color Transparencies: Robber Barons
Chart: Structure of a Corporation
Comparing Viewpoints: What is the legacy of the business tycoon?
History Interactive: More about big business
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details
TRANSPARENCY
Robber Barons
CHART
Structure of a Corporation
COMPARING
VIEWPOINTS
What is the legacy of the business tycoon?
The Organized Labor Movement
Workers Endure Hardships
Main Idea: The industrial expansion in the United States made the American economy grow
by leaps and bounds. However, the people who actually performed the work in factories and
industries struggled to survive. In addition, workers—especially immigrants, women, and
minorities—often faced ridicule and discrimination.
Labor Unions Form
Main Idea: Industrialization lowered the prices of consumer goods, but in the late 1800s most
factory workers still did not earn enough to buy them. Increasingly, workers took their
complaints directly and forcefully to their employers, often through organized unions.
Employers usually opposed the growing labor movement, which they saw as a threat to their
businesses and profits.
Strikes Rock the Nation
Main Idea: As membership in labor unions rose and labor activists became more skilled in
organizing large-scale protests, a wave of bitter confrontations between labor and
management hit the nation.
Witness History: The Right to Strike
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
Continued…
The Organized Labor Movement (continued…)
Chart: Shifts in U.S. Labor Force
Color Transparencies: Labor Riots
Quick Study: Major Strikes of the Late 1800s
Analyzing Political Cartoons: A Different Kind of Knight
Color Transparencies: The Haymarket Riot
NOTE TAKING
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
CHART
Shifts in U.S. Labor Force
TRANSPARENCY
Labor Riots
QUICK STUDY
Major Strikes of the Late 1800s
TRANSPARENCY
Analyzing Political Cartoons: A Different Kind of Knight
TRANSPARENCY
The Haymarket Riot
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