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1. The________ allows everything smaller than a protein to pass into the Bowman’s capsule
a. proximal convoluted tubule
b. glomerulus
c. loop of Henle
d. afferent arteriole
2. Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?
a. regulation of body fluid concentrations
b. removal of nitrogenous and acidic wastes
c. Release of renin
d. Production of red blood cells
3. Where does blood flow in the kidney?
a. afferent arteriole to the peritubular capillaries to the venule
b. efferent arteriole to the glomerular capillaries to the peritubular capillaries
c. peritubular capillaries to the glomerular capillaries to the venule
d. afferent arteriole to the glomerular capillaries to the efferent arteriole
4. Where does the filtrate flow from in the kidney?
a. the collecting duct to the distal convoluted tubule to the renal pelvis
b. Bowman’s capsule to the proximal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle
c. the loop of Henle to the collecting duct to Bowman’s capsule
d. the distal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle to the collecting duct
5. Which of the following increases glomerular filtration rate?
a. increased plasma osmotic pressure
b. dilation of the efferent arteriole
c. increased hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries
d. constriction of the afferent arteriole
6. Normally, which of the following is reabsorbed completely from the filtrate?
a. glucose
b. sodium
c. water
d. urea
7. Which substance directly controls the reabsorption of sodium?
a. renin
b. aldosterone
c. angiotensin
d. antidiuretic hormone
8. When do cells in the kidneys secrete renin?
a. the urine pH decreases
b. blood flow in the afferent arteriole decreases
c. serum potassium levels are high
d. Hydrostatic of the blood pressure increases
9. Which of the following should be present in the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule?
a. plasma proteins
b. erythrocytes
c. sodium and potassium ions
d. leukocytes
10. From the following, choose the substance likely to appear in the urine when the glomerulus
is inflamed:
a. Albumin/protein
b. urea
c. sodium
d. creatinine
11. What is the cause of most cases of pyelonephritis?
a. an ascending infection up the urinary tract by bacteria
b. abnormal immune response, causing inflammation
c. dialysis or other invasive procedure
d. viruses in the blood
12. In a case of acute pyelonephritis, what is the cause of flank pain?
a. ischemia in the tubules
b. inflammation, stretching the renal capsule from kidney swelling
c. increasing permeability, creating an increased volume of filtrate in the kidney
d. microbes irritating the tissues
13. Hypertension frequently develops with renal disease for all the following reasons except:
a. increased aldosterone secretion because of increased renin release
b. glomerular congestion reduces GFR
c. Increased flow of fluid into the interstitial space
d. increased vascular volume from inability of kidneys to excrete water
14. Which of the following would result from obstruction of the left ureter by a renal calculus
(kidney stone)?
a. mild flank pain on the affected side
b. hydronephrosis in both kidneys
c. immediate cessation of urine production
d. an attack of renal colic and severe flank pain
15. What does hydronephrosis lead to?
a. ischemia and fibrosis in the compressed area
b. multiple hemorrhages in the kidney
c. Renal lithiasis (kidney stones)
d. increased GFR
16. With severe (not end stage) kidney disease, the most serious effect is
a. cardiac arrhythmias because of dumping of electrolytes
b. encephalopathy
c. hypervolemia
d. skeletal muscle twitch or spasm
17. What is a cause of acute renal failure?
a. prolonged circulatory shock
b. sudden significant exposure to nephrotoxins
c. crush injuries or burns
d. all of the above
18. Which of the following would likely cause chronic renal failure?
a. a mild/short term UTI
b. circulatory shock
c. persistent glomerulonephritis
d. obstruction by a renal calculus
19. Why are UTI’s more common in females?
a. the mucosa in the urinary tract is continuous
b. the urethra is short, wide and adjacent to areas with resident flora
c. the pH of urine is more acidic in females
d. females have a higher incidence of congenital anomalies
20. Which of the following indicate a decreased GFR?
a. increased urea in blood plasma and low urine output
b. urine with dark color
c. albuminuria and hematuria
d. hyponatremia and hypokalemia
21. Which of the following is not likely to lead to hydronephrosis?
a. renal calculi (kidney stones)
b. Pyelonephritis (kidney infection)
c. hypovolemia
d. benign prostatic hypertrophy
22. Choose the correct proportion of water to body weight to be expected in a healthy male
adult’s body:
a. 30%
b. 25%
c. 60%
d. 100%
23. What percentage of glomeruli have to be destroyed to be in mild renal failure
a. 60%
b. 6%
c. 100%
d. I have no idea
24. When the osmotic pressure of the blood is elevated above normal, water would shift from
a. blood into the cells
b. interstitial compartment into the cells
c. interstitial compartment into the blood
d. cells into the interstitial compartment
25. What would a deficit of plasma proteins likely cause?
a. increased osmotic pressure of blood
b. decreased osmotic pressure of blood
c. increased hydrostatic pressure of cells
d. decreased hydrostatic pressure of cells
26. What would cause edema?
a. decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure
b. increased capillary osmotic pressure
c. decreased capillary permeability
d. increased capillary permeability
27. What would be related to an elevated hematocrit?
a. fluid excess (overhydration)
b. fluid deficit (dehydration)
c. increased sodium level
d. decreased erythrocytes
28. What is a typical sign of dehydration?
a. strong pulse
b. low hematocrit
c. increased urine output
d. dry and rough oral mucosa
29. You are in a plane crash in the Himalayan mountains, you have no food but plenty of water.
You are given the following choices. Choose which one would kill you the fastest. (and yes
I realize this is a ridiculous question).
a. Increased GFR
b. Decreased GFR
c. Fighting an abominable snowman (hint…these are not real so do not pick this one
30. Which of the following would be considered normal serum pH?
a. 4.5-8
b. 7.0
c. 7.4
d. 8