SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION TDA (Text-Dependent Analysis) Pick 1 Question to answer: Use at least 3 separate reasons (supported by 3 separate documents) to support your response: 1.) What conflicts developed as a result of the Scientific Revolution? 2.) How did society change as a result of the Scientific Revolution? 3.) Who benefited and who was harmed by the changes brought about during the Scientific Revolution? Document A: Source: World History by McDougal Littell, 2006 Although backed by authority and common sense, the geocentric theory did not accurately explain the movements of the sun, the moon, and planets. This problem troubled a Polish cleric and astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus. In the early 1500s, Copernicus became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun stood at the center of the universe. After studying planetary movements for more than 25 years, Copernicus reasoned that indeed, stars, the earth, and other planets revolved around the sun. 1. What ideas did Copernicus call into question? Document B: Source: The Copernican Model: A Sun‐Centered Solar System, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee The following are diagrams of the universe showing the relationship between the planets and the sun. Ptolemy’s Geocentric Model Copernicus’ Heliocentric Model 1. What is the major difference between the heliocentric (sun centered) model and the geocentric (earth centered) model? 2. Why might people have problems accepting Copernicus’ model? Document C: Cartoon about Galileo and the Church Use the following cartoon to answer the questions that follow. 1.) The Greek philosopher and astronomer Aristotle theorized that moon and stars were made of pure and perfect substance, and were perfect spheres. Why would the Catholic Church have supported Aristotle’s claim? 2.) According to the cartoon how does Galileo’s observation of Aristotle’s “perfect” moon differ? 3.) According to this cartoon, what is the Catholic Church’s view of Galileo’s observations of the moon and laws of motion that supported Copernicus’ heliocentric model? Document D: Source: Galileo Galilei, “Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina” (1615) This is an excerpt from a letter written by Galileo Galilei defending his approach to science. Some years ago, as Your Serene Highness well knows, I discovered in the heavens many things that had not been seen before our own age. The newness of these things, as well as some consequences which followed from them that contradicted ideas commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up against me no small number of professors.... Showing a greater fondness for their own opinions than for truth, they sought to deny and disprove the new things ... To this end they hurled various charges and published numerous writings filled with inaccurate arguments, and they made the grave mistake of sprinkling these with passages taken from places in the Bible which they had failed to understand properly, and which were poorly chosen to support their argument. 1. According to Galileo, what happened when he challenged long held ideas? Document E: Second Cartoon about Galileo and the Church Use the cartoon about the Church’s treatment of Galileo below to answer the questions. 1.) What “truth” was discovered by Galileo that is depicted burning in the fire with him? 2.) Why is word “fear” shown in the background or shadows? Document F: Source: Statement of Galileo to the Church during his Trial in 1633 “With sincere heart and unprecedented faith I (reject)…, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies (of Copernicus) and also every other error…contrary to the Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert…anything that might cause a similar suspicion toward me.” - Galileo 1.) Why would Galileo have made this statement? Document G: Source: Sir Isaac Newton- Written in the margin of a notebook while a student at Cambridge. In Richard S. Westfall, Never at Rest (1980), 89. Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my greatest friend is truth. 1. Based on this quote, how does Newton feel about the scientists from Ancient Greece? Document H: Source: Guide to the Essentials of World History, Prentice Hall, 1999 (adapted) . . . At first, the discoveries of Copernicus and Galileo upset many Europeans. Over time, however, a new way of thinking about science emerged. Scientists began to observe the world around them and to develop ideas about why things happened. They did experiments to test these ideas. This new way of thinking was called the scientific method. . . . 1. Based on this excerpt and diagram, what is one way Copernicus, Galileo, and others influenced how scientists work?