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Participles
Latin II
Definition
A participle is that form of the verb
which is used like an adjective.
 Since it is a verb, it has tense and
voice. It can take a direct object, an
indirect object, etc.
 Since it is an adjective, it has case,
number, and gender, and it will
modify a noun.

Formation
Present
2nd pp - re + ns, ntis
“x-ing”
Perfect
Future
4th pp
“having been x-ed”
4th pp - us +urus, a, um
“about to x”
2nd pp - re + ndus, a, um
“must be x-ed”
Present active participles are declined like third declension adjectives,
while perfect passive, future active and passive participles are
declined like first/second declension adjectives.
Third -io and Fourth Conjugation Verbs
Be careful when forming the present
active and future passive participles for
3rd -io and 4th conjugation verbs:
 drop the entire infinitive ending (ire/ere)
 add -ie then add the -ns, -ntis or -ndus, a, um

Present Active Participle

2nd pp - re + ns, ntis
servo, servare
servans
servantis
servanti
servantem
servante
drop the “re”, add -ns, -ntis
servantes
servantium
servantibus
servantes
servantibus
These are the endings for the masculine and feminine forms of the adjective.
For the neuter forms, use the third declension neuter endings.
Recall that for the third declension, you
must go to the genitive to get the stem.
Present Active Participle

2nd pp - re + ns, ntis
servo, servare
servans
servantis
servanti
servants
servante
drop the “re”, add -ns, -ntis
servantia
servantium
servantibus
servantia
servantibus
These are the endings for the neuter forms of the adjective.
Recall that for the third declension, you
must go to the genitive to get the stem.
Perfect Passive Participle

4th pp
servo, servare, servavi, servatus
servatus, a, um
servati, ae, i
servato, ae, o
servatum, am, um
servato, a, o
servati, ae, a
servatorum, arum, orum
servatis, is, is
servatos, as, a
servatis, is, is
“having been saved”
Future Active Participle

4th pp - us + urus, a, um
servo, servare, servavi, servatus
servaturus, a, um
servaturi, ae, i
servaturo, ae, o
servaturum, am, um
servaturo, a, o
“about to save”
servaturi, ae, a
servaturorum, arum, orum
servaturis, is, is
servaturos, as, a
servaturis, is, is
Declined like a 1st/2nd
declension adjective
Future Passive Participle

2nd pp - re + ndus, a, um
servo, servare, servavi, servatus
servandus, a, um
servandi, ae, i
servando, ae, o
servandum, am, um
servando, a, o
“must be saved”
servandi, ae, a
servandorum, arum, orum
servandis, is, is
servandos, as, a
servandis, is, is

indicate the time of the action in
relation to the adjoining verb
– present participle indicates the action is going on
at the same time as the verb
– future participle indicates the action will happen
after the verb
– perfect participle indicates that the action
happened before the verb
Sedens in lecto, puer edit.
Sitting on the couch, the boy eats.
The boy is sitting on the couch at the same time that he is eating.

Just like any other adjective, it
describes a noun
legati necati
violati hospites
slaughtered ambassadors
violated guests
Practice declining and translating…..
Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

2nd pp - re + ns, ntis*
muniens
munientis
munienti
munientem
muniente
munientes
munientum
munientibus
munientes
munientibus
“building, fortifying”
* Remember that for 3rd-io and 4th conjugation verbs, you must drop the
entire infinitive ending, then add -ie- before adding the adjective endings
Practice declining and translating…..
Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

4th pp
munitus, a, um
muniti, ae, i
munito, ae, o
munitum, am, um
munito, a, o
muniti, ae, a
munitorum, arum, orum
munitis, is, is
munitos, as, a
munitis, is, is
“having been built, having been fortified”
Practice declining and translating…..
Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

4th pp - us + urus
muniturus, a, um
munituri, ae, i
munituro, ae, o
muniturum, am, um
munituro, a, o
munituri, ae, a
muniturorum, arum, orum
munituris, is, is
munituros, as, a
munituris, is, is
“about to build, about to fortify”
More on Future Active Participles…..
Sometimes they are best translated as
relative (dependent) clauses…….
Hannibal proelium cum Romanis commissurus de montes
in Italiam venit.
Hannibal, about to begin battle, …..
Hannibal, who was going to begin battle, …..
Practice declining and translating…..
Munio, munire, munivi, munitus

2nd pp - re + ndus*
muniendus, a, um
muniendi, ae, i
muniendo, ae, o
muniendum, am, um
muniendo, a, o
muniendi, ae, a
muniendorum, arum, orum
muniendis, is, is
muniendos, as, a
muniendis, is, is
“must be built, must be fortified”
* again, remember that with 3rd-io and 4th conjugation verbs,
you need to drop the entire infinitive ending, add -ie-, then add
the adjective ending
1. Another name for the fourth principal part of a verb is
the perfect
___________________,
passive participle and it functions as a(n)
adjective
___________________.
2. Participles can/cannot
CANNOT function by themselves as the
main verb of a sentence.
3. A participle can modify what part of speech?
a noun or pronoun
4. Translate the following sentence:
Vir ducens animalia Hannibal est.
The man leading the animals is Hannibal.
What is/are the object(s) of ducens?
Animalia is not the object of est!!!
It is the object of ducens!
Practice Sentences
Senex, multas iniurias passus, auxilium petivit.
The old man, having suffered many injuries, sought help.
Ab amicis incitatus, certavit.
Encouraged by his friends, he competed.
Anulum inventum ad dominum tulimus.
When the ring had been found, we took it to the master.
(We took the ring having been found to the master.)
ANY
QUESTIONS?