Participles Latin II Definition A participle is that form of the verb which is used like an adjective. Since it is a verb, it has tense and voice. It can take a direct object, an indirect object, etc. Since it is an adjective, it has case, number, and gender, and it will modify a noun. Formation Present 2nd pp - re + ns, ntis “x-ing” Perfect Future 4th pp “having been x-ed” 4th pp - us +urus, a, um “about to x” 2nd pp - re + ndus, a, um “must be x-ed” Present active participles are declined like third declension adjectives, while perfect passive, future active and passive participles are declined like first/second declension adjectives. Third -io and Fourth Conjugation Verbs Be careful when forming the present active and future passive participles for 3rd -io and 4th conjugation verbs: drop the entire infinitive ending (ire/ere) add -ie then add the -ns, -ntis or -ndus, a, um Present Active Participle 2nd pp - re + ns, ntis servo, servare servans servantis servanti servantem servante drop the “re”, add -ns, -ntis servantes servantium servantibus servantes servantibus These are the endings for the masculine and feminine forms of the adjective. For the neuter forms, use the third declension neuter endings. Recall that for the third declension, you must go to the genitive to get the stem. Present Active Participle 2nd pp - re + ns, ntis servo, servare servans servantis servanti servants servante drop the “re”, add -ns, -ntis servantia servantium servantibus servantia servantibus These are the endings for the neuter forms of the adjective. Recall that for the third declension, you must go to the genitive to get the stem. Perfect Passive Participle 4th pp servo, servare, servavi, servatus servatus, a, um servati, ae, i servato, ae, o servatum, am, um servato, a, o servati, ae, a servatorum, arum, orum servatis, is, is servatos, as, a servatis, is, is “having been saved” Future Active Participle 4th pp - us + urus, a, um servo, servare, servavi, servatus servaturus, a, um servaturi, ae, i servaturo, ae, o servaturum, am, um servaturo, a, o “about to save” servaturi, ae, a servaturorum, arum, orum servaturis, is, is servaturos, as, a servaturis, is, is Declined like a 1st/2nd declension adjective Future Passive Participle 2nd pp - re + ndus, a, um servo, servare, servavi, servatus servandus, a, um servandi, ae, i servando, ae, o servandum, am, um servando, a, o “must be saved” servandi, ae, a servandorum, arum, orum servandis, is, is servandos, as, a servandis, is, is indicate the time of the action in relation to the adjoining verb – present participle indicates the action is going on at the same time as the verb – future participle indicates the action will happen after the verb – perfect participle indicates that the action happened before the verb Sedens in lecto, puer edit. Sitting on the couch, the boy eats. The boy is sitting on the couch at the same time that he is eating. Just like any other adjective, it describes a noun legati necati violati hospites slaughtered ambassadors violated guests Practice declining and translating….. Munio, munire, munivi, munitus 2nd pp - re + ns, ntis* muniens munientis munienti munientem muniente munientes munientum munientibus munientes munientibus “building, fortifying” * Remember that for 3rd-io and 4th conjugation verbs, you must drop the entire infinitive ending, then add -ie- before adding the adjective endings Practice declining and translating….. Munio, munire, munivi, munitus 4th pp munitus, a, um muniti, ae, i munito, ae, o munitum, am, um munito, a, o muniti, ae, a munitorum, arum, orum munitis, is, is munitos, as, a munitis, is, is “having been built, having been fortified” Practice declining and translating….. Munio, munire, munivi, munitus 4th pp - us + urus muniturus, a, um munituri, ae, i munituro, ae, o muniturum, am, um munituro, a, o munituri, ae, a muniturorum, arum, orum munituris, is, is munituros, as, a munituris, is, is “about to build, about to fortify” More on Future Active Participles….. Sometimes they are best translated as relative (dependent) clauses……. Hannibal proelium cum Romanis commissurus de montes in Italiam venit. Hannibal, about to begin battle, ….. Hannibal, who was going to begin battle, ….. Practice declining and translating….. Munio, munire, munivi, munitus 2nd pp - re + ndus* muniendus, a, um muniendi, ae, i muniendo, ae, o muniendum, am, um muniendo, a, o muniendi, ae, a muniendorum, arum, orum muniendis, is, is muniendos, as, a muniendis, is, is “must be built, must be fortified” * again, remember that with 3rd-io and 4th conjugation verbs, you need to drop the entire infinitive ending, add -ie-, then add the adjective ending 1. Another name for the fourth principal part of a verb is the perfect ___________________, passive participle and it functions as a(n) adjective ___________________. 2. Participles can/cannot CANNOT function by themselves as the main verb of a sentence. 3. A participle can modify what part of speech? a noun or pronoun 4. Translate the following sentence: Vir ducens animalia Hannibal est. The man leading the animals is Hannibal. What is/are the object(s) of ducens? Animalia is not the object of est!!! It is the object of ducens! Practice Sentences Senex, multas iniurias passus, auxilium petivit. The old man, having suffered many injuries, sought help. Ab amicis incitatus, certavit. Encouraged by his friends, he competed. Anulum inventum ad dominum tulimus. When the ring had been found, we took it to the master. (We took the ring having been found to the master.) ANY QUESTIONS?