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Components of Computer
A personal computer is made up of multiple
physical components of computer hardware,
upon which can be installed an operating
system and a multitude of software
applications to perform the operator's
desired functions.
provide data from the outside world to the
processor: keyboards, mice, joysticks, microphones,
digital cameras, scanners, and so forth, including
various sensors for embedded computers that
measure temperature, speed, throttle position, or
Keyboard - This is where the user enters text
commands into the computer.
Mouse - A point and click interface for entering
commands which works well in graphical
2. Output –
devices allow the processor to communicate the
results of its work to the outside world:
monitors, printers, speakers, LED and LCD
displays, and all sorts of different servos and
actuators for embedded
1. Monitor:The monitor displays the computer's
user interface and open programs, allowing the
user to interact with the computer, typically
using the keyboard and mouse.
Printer: A printer is a device that accepts text
and graphic output from a computer and
transfers the information to paper, usually to
standard size sheets of paper.
Video cards: A video card can be used to
process the graphics portion of the processing
load. Because most of today's programs are
graphically oriented, the video card can help
almost any program run more efficiently.
devices are used by the processor to temporarily or
permanently store data so that it can be retrieved at a
later time.
There are two types of memories:
1. Volatile(RAM)
2. Non-volatile(ROM)
 "Volatile" storage loses its contents when the
computer power is turned off (the human analogy
would be your own memories). The most common
example of this type of storage is Random Access
Memory, or RAM, or just "memory".
"Persistent", or "non-volatile", storage does not
lose its contents when the power is turned off:
hard disks, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and
so forth (the human analogy would be books,
cave drawings, and oral histories passed from
generation to generation).
•Hard disk drive(s) - This is where your files are
permanently stored on your computer. Also,
normally, your operating system is installed
•CD-ROM drive(s) - This is normally a read only
drive where files are permanently stored.
There are now read/write CD-ROM drives that
use special software to allow users to read
from and write to these drives.
•Floppy drive(s) - A floppy is a small disk
storage device that today typically has about
1.4 Megabytes of memory capacity.
4. The Central Processing Unit
or just "processor" for short, is the engine or
brain of a computer. The processor executes a
series of instructions that gather data from the
input devices, occasionally store intermediate
results using the storage devices, and then
produce final results suitable for the output
•Motherboard - This is where the core
components of your computer reside which
are listed below. Also the support cards for
video, sound, networking and more are
mounted into this board.
•Microprocessor - This is the brain of your
computer. It performs commands and
instructions and controls the operation of
the computer.
•Drive controllers - The drive
controllers control the interface of your
system to your hard drives. The
controllers let your hard drives work
by controlling their operation. On most
systems, they are included on the
motherboard, however you may add
additional controllers for faster or
other types of drives.
5. The Operating System (OS) is also shown as
an intermediary between the CPU and its
attached input, output, and storage devices.
The responsibilities of the operating system
. As far as human analogies are concerned, while
it's a bit of a stretch, you could say the operating
system is like the autonomic brain functions
that handle breathing, beating the heart, and
all of the muscle coordination needed to catch a
ball--in other words, things that we don't
consciously think about.
6.Power Supply
The power supply comes with the case, but this
component is mentioned separately since there
are various types of power supplies. The one you
should get depends on the requirements of your
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