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Chapter 10
Medieval Kingdoms
in Europe
LESSON 1 – Feudalism
LESSON 2 – Peasants, Trade and Cities
LESSON 3 – The Growth of
European Kingdoms
Feudalism reached it height by the High
Middle Ages ( 1000-1300 A.D. )
Stronger kings began to assert their
authority
They often clashed with lesser kings and
lords
England
England had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings for
centuries, but in 1066 , William of Normandy invaded
England and defeated the forces of their king,
Harold.
This was a famous battle known as the Battle of
Hastings .
England
The battle determined the language and ruling class
of England in the Middle Ages.
The Normans spoke French and it blended with the
locals into a new English language.
Other traditions blended as well. The French nobles
held fiefs under William's rule. William, who became
known as " William the Conqueror " had a famous
census taken which also took count of all his land
holdings. The census was called the " Domesday
Book".
England
Changes in England:
1) England had strong rulers, but eventually the
nobility resented the King's power.
2) 1215: nobles forced King John to sign the Magna
Carta
3) Magna Carta:
a) limited the king's power to punish outside
the
law
b) the king had to obey the law
England
Changes in England:
Parliament: a representative body made up of:
1-two knights from each county
2-two people per town
3-all the nobility
This eventually became two bodies: The
House of Lords / The House of Commons
France
1) became a large country
2) had the best governing monarchy in
Europe
3) Parliament with Three Estates :
1st Estate: Clergy
2nd Estate: Nobility
3rd Estate: everyone else
Holy Roman Empire
Otto I of Germany tried to unify Germany and
Italy into what was called the Holy Roman
Empire
He was not able to accomplish this and others
tried to unify these states as well.
None of the powers backed by the Roman
Catholic Germany and Italy would remain as
many independent states and territories until
the 19th century.
Spain/Umayyad Caliphate
Spain was conquered by the Umayyads in 725
Had been known as the province of Al-Andalus.
Rule lasted for several centuries .
Jews and Christians were allowed to live and
practice their religions there.
Spain/Umayyad Caliphate
They had to abide by the concept of DHIMITUDE
1) paid a special tax
2) followed other special rules and limits.
Several Christian groups resisted and began the
RECONQUISTA (Re-Conquering) of Spain.
By 929 A.D., several Christian kingdoms were in
Northern Spain.
The Reconquista would still last for 500 more years.
Central and Eastern Europe
The Slavic people were originally a single group
from central Europe
They divided into three groups:
Western, Southern, Eastern
Central and Eastern Europe
Western: Kingdom of Poland and Hungarian
kingdoms were converted to Christianity and most
became Catholics
Southern: most accepted Eastern Orthodox
Christianity due to the influence of the Byzantine
Empire
Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern: KIEVAN RUS
1) Eastern Slavs were originally in present
day Ukraine and Russia.
2) In the late 8th Century, Vikings (called
the RUS) conquered the area and settled
with the Slavs there.
Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern: KIEVAN RUS
3) This area attracted Byzantine
missionaries, who converted them to
Eastern Orthodox Christianity. This
established a link to Byz.
4) 13th Century: Infighting by the K-R
enabled them to be overtaken by the
MONGOLS.
Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern: KIEVAN RUS
5) One benefit of this was that the Russian
state later unified to work to oust the
Mongols some decades later.
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