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Viral Diseases
Viral types and Diseases
Group and type of virus
Description of disease
1. Double-stranded DNA Viruses
Papilloma virus (Small virus Warts, which are rough,
that causes tumors)
elevated benign tumors on the
skin, urinary tract, or genitals
Herpes virus (Medium to large
size enveloped virus)
Herpes simples virus (human
herpes virus – HHV)
Fever blisters, which are painful
or itchy recurrent vesicular
lesions usually on the lips or
genitals;
Poxvirus
(Very
large, Replication of the virus causes
enveloped, brick-shaped virus) smallpox, a deadly disease that
has been eliminated
Group and type of virus
Description of disease
2. Single-stranded (Plus-strand) RNA Viruses
Picornavirus
Poliomyelitis (commonly called
polio or infantile paralysis)
meningitis
Rhinovirus
Common cold, bronchitis, and
croup
Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
Infectious hepatitis (hepatitis
A),
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
Hepatitis C is characterized by
a high fever and jaundice
Group and type of virus
Description of disease
3. Single-stranded (Minus-strand) RNA Viruses
Orthomyxovirus(Medium to
large size, enveloped virus)
Influenza A, B, and C virus
Influenza, which is commonly
called flu
Paramyxovirus (Medium to large Measles, which is characterized
by a red skin rash, high fever,
size, enveloped virus)
cough, and malaise
Measles virus
Mumps virus
Mumps, which is characterized
by swelling of one or both
salivary glands
Rhabdovirus (Medium-size,
enveloped, bullet-shaped virus)
Rabies virus
Rabies
Group and type of
Description of disease
virus
4. Double – stranded RNA Viruses
Reovirus Rotavirus
(Small, naked virus)
Infantile
gastroenteritis
characterized by severe
diarrhea
5.Double-stranded RNA Viruses
Reverse Transcription
containing
Retroviruses (Medium – size Acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS)
enveloped virus)
Human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV)
Virus – Host Interactions
Host Effector Functions in Viral Infections
Host Defense
Effector
Target of Effector
Early nonspecific
responses
Fever
Phagocytosis
Inflammation
NK cell activity
Interferon
Virus replication
Virus
Virus replication
Virus-infected cell
Virus replication,
Immune-modulation
Immune responses
mediated by cells
Cytotoxic T
lymphocytes
Activated macrophages
Lymphokines
ADCC
Virus infected cell
Virus, Virus-infected cell
Virus-infected cells,
immune-modulation
Virus-infected cell
Humoral immune
responses
Antibody
Antibody+ complement
Virus, Virus-infected cell
Virus, Virus-infected cell
Virus – virus interactions:
• (VVI) a measurable difference in the course of
infection of one virus as a result of a concurrent
or prior infection by a different species or strain
of virus.
• Measurable differences include changes in
tissue permissiveness or tropism, viral
replication, patterns of progeny production and
release,
latency,
pathology
including
immunopathology,
and
immunological
responses.
Viral interference and interferon
• Interference is a phenomenon for which a
cell infected by a virus becomes resistant
toward a second out-coming infection by a
superinfectant virus.
• Chemically interferons are glycoprotein
cytokines with a complex array of
immunomodulating
and
antiviral
properties.
• Classified as α, β and γ, the natural
sources are leukocytes, fibroblasts and
lymphocytes respectively.
• Interferon acts by inducing the production
of a second cellular protein, called antiviral
protein,
Control of viral infections
Disease / agent
virus
1. Herpes virus infections
Therapeutics against the
infectious
Acyclovir and Valaciclovir
2. Respiratory viral infections Amantadive, Ribavirin
3. Hepatitis and Papilloma
virus
Interferous
4. Retroviral infections
Reverse
inhibitors
inhibitors.
Transcriptase
and
protease