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សន្និសីទអន្តរជាតិ
សតីពី ជីវៈចំរុះុ ន្ិងសុខភាព
Symposium on Biodiversity and Health
17-18 November 2014
University of Health Sciences, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Organized by
1
TABLE OF CONTANTS
PRELIMINARY AGENDA ............................................................................................. 3
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 7
COMMITTEE .............................................................................................................. 8
ABSTRACT FOR ORAL PRESENTATION ..................................................................... 10
ABSTRACT FOR POSTER ........................................................................................... 42
2
Preliminary Agenda
Time
7.30 - 8h30
8h30
8h30 - 9h30
Duration
(min)
60
Arriving of participants & Registration
60
10
10
Arriving of H.E Prof. SEA HUONG, Undersecretary of State, Ministry of Health, Cambodia
Opening ceremony/ Aim of the Symposium
Welcome Speech
Aim of Symposium
10
CIRAD, IRD
30
Opening Speech
Day 1: November 17, 2014
Philippe Girard (CIRAD), Marc Souris
(IRD)
H.E Prof. SEA HUONG, Undersecretary
of State Ministry of Health, Cambodia
9h30 -9h50
20
Refreshment break / Posters
9h50 - 10h50
K1
60
Two Keynote Speakers
K2
10h50-12h20
90
S1-O-1
Ass. Prof. Khat Sphal, Vice rector of UHS
Serge Morand (BiodiveHealthSEA)
Overview Conservation Of Wildlife And Emerging Of Diseases In Malaysia
Impact of the Diversification of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Southeast Asia on Malaria
Transmission: the Leucosphyrus Group as a Case Study
Session 1: Antibiotics
Antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production in Southeast Asia:
beyond the farms
Chair: Prof. Monidarin Chou
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah
Catherine Walton, UK
Chair:Juan Carrique-Mas
ORAL 1: J Carrique-Mas
S1-O-2
Antimicrobial resistance profiling in domestic and wild animals in the Mekong Delta of
Vientam
ORAL 2: Nguyen Thi Nhung
S1-O-3
The dynamics and control of multiply antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital settings
ORAL 3: Ben Cooper
S1-O-4
Virulence management works: toward evolutionary medicine
ORAL 4: Bruno Walther
S1-O-5
Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Sihanouk hospital Center of HOPE (2007 – 2013)
ORAL 5: Thong Phe
Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes among Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 isolates
from pig-derived products
POSTER 1: Ha Huynh Ngan
S1-Po-1
S1-Po-2
12h 20 - 12h50
30
12h50 - 14h00
75
Diversity of colistin-resistant bacteria in the human gut and mechanisms mediating acquired
colistin resistance.
1st Round Table: Biodiversity and the global threat of antibiotics and other drug resistance
Anne-Laure Bañuls, Juan Carrique Mas, Dr. Phe Thon
Lunch
3
POSTER 2: Abiola Olaitan
Chair: Anne-Laure Bañuls
14h00 - 15h15
75
Session 2: Biodiversity and infectious diseases
Chair : Dr. Christophe Boëte
S2-O-1
Zoonotic malaria in Southeast Asia
ORAL 1: Balbir Singh
S2-O-2
Modeling aspects related to climate, biodiversity and health
ORAL 2: Marc Choisy
Occurrence of toxoplasmosis on animal, wildlife and human interface in Indonesia
Diversity of Bartonella identified in bats in southern Vietnam
Detection of coronaviruses in bats in Cambodia and Laos
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection in newly-vaccinated meat duck flocks in
the Mekong delta of Vietnam
Bartonella spp. in rats from the Mekong Delta and Central Highlands, Vietnam
ORAL 3: Wisnu Nurcahyo
ORAL 4: Anh Pham Hong
S2-O-3
S2-O-4
S2-Po-1
S2-Po-2
S2-Po-3
15H15 -15h35
20
refreshment break / Posters
15h35-16h50
75
Session 3: Ecosystem services, conservation and health
S3-O-1
25
Ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation: historical perspective
S3-O-2
20
Host biodiversity and the regulation of human diseases
S3-O-3
20
S3-O-4
20
S3-Po-1
2
S3-Po-2
2
16h20-18h05
S4-O-1
S4-O-2
S4-O-3
S4-O-4
S4-Po-1
19h00-20h30
75
POSTER 1: Audrey Lacroix
POSTER 2: Vo Nhu Thanh Truc
POSTER 3: Cuong Nguyen Van
Chair : Dr. Julien Capelle (CIRAD,
Pasteur Institute Cambodia)
ORAL 1: Philippe Meral (IRD) &
Malyne Neang (URA)
ORAL 2: Frédéric Bordes
Forests and food in northern Laos: Linking biodiversity, ecosystem services and human
nutrition
Measuring the impact of biodiversity conservation on local human well-being
Preliminary Survey of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Ranging Primates In Bako National
Park, Sarawak, Malaysia
Interaction of Ectoparasites-Small Mammals in Tropical Rainforest of Malaysia
ORAL 3: Mathieu Pruvost
ORAL 4: Emile Beauchamp
POSTER 1: Madinah Adrus
POSTER 2: Madinah Adrus
Session 4: Natural substances from biodiversity and for health
Lessons learned from a project aiming preserving medicinal plants and traditional medical
Knowledge in Mondulkiri province
School medicinal plants garden PHC promotion by well using the traditional medicine
knowledge and human resource
Traditional remedies in Northeast Cambodia : a survey in the Bunong community
New antiplasmodial alkaloids from Stephania rotunda Lour.
Chair : Dr. Kim Sothea
Proposition of monograph of Terminalia nigrovenulosa Pierre
Dinner Cocktail
Poster 1: Meng Channeth
4
ORAL 1: Nicolas Savajol
ORAL 2: Takada Tadanori
ORAL 3: François Chassagne
ORAL 4: Bory Sothavireak
Time
8h00 -9h30
S5-O-1
S5-O-2
S5-O-3
S5-O-4
Duration
(min)
90
S5-O-5
S5-O-6
S5-Po-1
S5-Po-2
S5-Po-3
S5-Po-4
9h30-10h00
30
Day 2: November 18, 2014
Session 5: Pollutant, herbicide, pesticide, heavy metals and trophic web
Chair: Dr. Sovan Lek
Trophic Web of the Tonle Sap
Genetic diversity of fish and health
Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants in fish of Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia
Rice frog as a sentinel of environmental contamination in agricultural area
ORAL 1: Vittoria Elliot
ORAL 2: Filip Volkaert
ORAL 3: Chanleakhena Phoeun
Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia
Fish diversity and conservation as a protein sources security for hill tribe people in Northern
Thailand
Impact of deteriorated environment on the occurrence of external parasites in cultured
Tilapia, Noetheast of Thailand
Breeding performances of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos populations in relation to
prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini in Northeastern region of Thailand
Water quality in lower Mekong basin (LMB)
Herbicide residues in the edible rice field crab Esanthelphusa nani living in paddy fields at
Nan Province, northern part of Thailand
2nd Round Table: Ecosystem services for health and biodiversity
ORAL 5: John-James Wilson
ORAL 4: Noppadon Kitina
ORAL 6: Apinun Suvarnaraksha
POSTER 1: Kanjana Payooha Buakaew
Vongamnat and Achara Jutagate
Poster 2: Thanathip Lamkoma,
Dechnarong Phosri
POSTER 3: Chea Ratha & Sovan Lek
POSTER 4: Rachata Maneein
Chair: Dr. Philippe Méral, IRD
Philippe Méral, Sovan Lek, Neil Furey, Vittoria Elliot (CI), Lim Puy (Tonle Sap Authority),
Nam So (IFReDI)
10h00-10h20
20
S6-O-3
Refreshment break
Session 6 The 'One Health' Approach & Biodiversity: Ethics, Law and intersectoral
practices in Research
One Health and Culling
The multiscale approach of law and ethics regarding health and biodiversity: a complex
landscape
One Health in practice: pathways toward cross sectoral land management
10h20 -11h50
90
S6-O-4
Disease Surveillance at the Wildlife-Domestic Animal-Human Interface in Cambodia
ORAL 4: Sokha Chea (WCS)
S6-O-5
Ethical regulation in Cambodia
ORAL 5: Dr Chap Seek Chhay
POSTER 1: Kanokwan Suwannarong
POSTER 2: Thamonwan Jitsong
(Thammasat University)
S6-O-1
S6-O-2
S6-Po-1
S6-Po-2
S6-Po-3
Rodent consumption in Khon Kaen province, Thailand
Local Government Organization and the Promotion of Sustainable Agriculture: Reflection
on Agrochemical Impacts in Nan Province
Working in partnership at the animal-environment-human interface in Southeast Asia:
Initiatives for new One Health ventures in Asia taking ecosystems and farming systems into
account (INNOVATE EU program)
5
Chair: Dr. Aurélie Binot - CIRAD
ORAL 1: Zohar Lederman (NUS)
ORAL 2: Claire Lajaunie (INSERM)
ORAL 3: Aurélie Binot (CIRAD)
POSTER 3: ComAcross & LACANET
projects
Debate with the Audiences: how to implement cross-sectoral approaches to health in SEA?
S6-Po-4
11h50 -12h35
45
3rd Round Table: Biodiversity and Health at the International and Regional Agenda
Chair: Dr. Aurélie Binot (CIRA)
co-chair: Claire Lajaunie (INSERM)
Chair: Dr. Chantal Pacteau CNRS, GIS
Climate Environment & Society)
Chantal Pacteau (GIS Climat), Cristina Romanelli (CBD), Philomène Robin (UNESCO),
Alex Costa (WHO), Lofti Allal (FAO)
Lunch
12h35 -14h00
14h00 - 15.00
15h00-15h20
15h20-16h20
60
4st Round Table: Platform and research networks
20
60
Juliet Bryant (Oxford Univ, Welcome Trust), Tan Boon Huan (Singapore), Aurélie Binot
(CIRAD), Anne-Laure Banuls (IRD-CNRS), Youlet By (Fondation Mérieux), Didier
Fontenille (Pasteur Institute), It Ponndara (UHS)
Refreshment break
Closing ceremony
Chair : Dr Didier Fontenille IRD, Institut
Pasteur du Cambodge)
Best posters
Summary and conclusion of symposium
Closing remark
Ass.Prof. Khat Sphal, Vice rector of UHS
6
Introduction
South East Asia (SEA) remains vulnerable for the emergence of infectious diseases and
the factors responsible for their impact inflicted on human health remain to be urgently
investigated. To address this “One-Health” concept, the project titled “Pathogen Diversity in
Southeast Asia” was implemented in 2012. The project is supported by funding from Agence
Française de Dévelopement (AFD) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and
aimed to organise a series of symposium in a small group setting for capacity building and
technical training in SEA. The first symposium made its debut in Singapore in August 2013.
Here, we propose to organise a symposium entitled ‘Biodiversity & Health’ in Phnom
Penh, Cambodia. This symposium will be mainly organised by the Laboratory of Rodolphe
Mérieux (LRMC) of University of health Sciences (UHS) in Cambodia. LRMC was initiated in
2005 for the technical training of university students in the area of infectious diseases and to
this day it has provided post-graduate level training to over 40 students.
The importance of biodiversity was the aim of an international workshop “Biodiversity:
the challenges in a changing environment in Southeast Asia” co-organized by Maha Sarakham
University (Thailand) and the French ANR project BiodivHealthSEA, in 2012, where scientists
from Southeast Asia confronted the advances and gaps in knowledge. It is now time to
investigate how biodiversity is important for human wellbeing and how the threat on
biodiversity is affecting human health.
This symposium aimed to provide a platform for the sharing of scientific and technical
expertise linking biodiversity and health concerns, and will further allow stakeholders to
prioritise research on issues that link biodiversity and human health: emerging diseases and
biodiversity loss, antimicrobial drug resistance, insecticide resistance, Ethno botanic and plant
biodiversity, contaminants in the food web, ecosystem services and health, and the ‘One Health’
concept. The objectives of the symposium are:

To share knowledge and experiences acquired with partners, projects and authorities.

To improve training capacities of students.

To enhance further collaboration on related projects.
The symposium is relevant to participants from Cambodian authorities, international
institutions, non-governmental organisations, scientists and students from Cambodian and SEA
Universities.
7
Committee
Organization Committee
Prof. Vonthanak Saphonn (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Prof. Monidarin Chou (LRM, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Dr. Youlet By (Fondation Mérieux, Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Ass Prof. Boon-Huan Tan (National University Singapore, Singapore)
Assoc. Prof. Suphachai Samapito (Maha Sarakham University, Thailand)
Prof. Preecha Prataepha (Maha Sarakham University, Thailand)
Dr. Serge Morand (CNRS-CIRAD, CICM Laos)
Dr. Aurélie Binot (CIRAD- Kasetsart University, Thailand)
Dr. Christophe Boëte (IRD, Université Marseilles, France)
Local Organizing Committee at UHS
Prof. Suchivy San (Faculty of Pharmacy, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Prof. Sena Chheang (Faculty of Pharmacy, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Dr Sorya Theng (Faculty of Pharmacy, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mrs. Pheakdey Phuong (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Dr. Vuthy Ty (Faculty of Pharmacy, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Dr. Chanleakhena Phoung (LRM, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mss. Makteyka Chrea (LRM, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Dr. Makara Neak (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mr. Seangho Phan (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mr. Kunboth Lam (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mr. Narin Lonh (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mr Phally Moy (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mr Sotheary Hy (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Mr. Vichet Heng (UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
8
Scientific Committee
Dr. Balbir Singh (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Dr. Catherine Walton (University of Manchester, UK)
Dr. Claire Lajaunie (INSERM, France)
Dr. Didier Fontenille (Institut Pasteur du Cambodge /IRD, France)
Prof. Filip Volckaert (University of Leuven, Belgium)
Prof. Hsuan-Wien Chen (National Chiayi University, Taiwan)
Dr. Juliet Bryant (OUCRU Hanoi, Vietnam)
Dr. Julien Cappelle (CIRAD, Pasteur Institute of Cambodia, Cambodia)
Dr. Juan Carrique-Mas (OUCRU HCMC, Vietnam)
Assoc. Prof. Kevin Pethe (NTU, Singapore)
Dr. Marc Choisy (IRD, NIHE, Vietnam)
Dr. Rothmony Eang (Fac Pharma, UHS, Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Prof. Neil Furey (Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Prof. Noppadon Kitina (Chulalongkorn University, Thailand)
Prof. Sovan Lek (University of Toulouse, France)
Prof. Pascal Millet (French corporation, UHS Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Dr. Ponndara Ith (Research Unit, UHS Phnom Penh), Cambodia
Dr. Rachanee Nam-Matra (Maha Sarakham University, Thailand)
Prof. Rojchai Satrawaha (Maha Sarakham University, Thailand)
Dr. Sothea Kim (Phytochemistry IRPF/UHS, Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Dr. Sothavireak Bory (Fac Pharma, UHS, Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
9
Abstract for oral presentation
K1
Overview conservation of wildlife and emerging of diseases in Malaysia
MT Abdullah1, Madinah A.2, Noraina Jamal Rashid & Sivapiragasam Thayaparan3
1
Centre for Kenyir Ecosystems, Kenyir Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030
Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
2
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
3
School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Science, Murdoch
University, 6150 Murdoch, Western Australia
Abstract
Malaysia is high in species richness and diversity of flora and fauna. There are many
challenges to maintain and conserve the biodiversity due to habitat fragmentation from deforestation,
agricultural and infrastructural expansion to meet the increasing human population. Since 1994, many
wildlife surveys have been done throughout in Sarawak and Sabah in Borneo and Peninsula Malaysia.
There are several study related with conservation of wildlife with different taxa of animals such as
bats, rodents and primates and emerging zoonotic diseases have been done and selected case studies
are reviewed through this presentation. Currently, we are interested to develop canopy biology and
ecology and this have provided good opportunities for many researchers who are keen on wildlife in
the canopy level and to relate with potentially zoonotic emerging diseases in Lake Kenyir in
Terengganu, Malaysia.
Keywords: Wildlife survey, emerging disease, canopy biology and ecology.
10
K2
Impact of the Diversification of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Southeast Asia on Malaria
Transmission: the Leucosphyrus Group as a Case Study
Catherine Walton,
Computational Evolutionary Biology Group, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester,
Manchester, M13 9PT, U.K.
Malaria transmission depends on complex interactions between the parasite, the mosquito
host, the human host and the environment. The heterogeneity of the environment and the complexity
of historical environmental change in Southeast Asia have likely been major factors generating the
large diversity of malaria vectors that occur in this region. This can be seen in the Leucosphyrus
Group of Anopheles mosquitoes, which contains many vectors of both human and simian malarias. A
molecular phylogeny of this group reveals its origin in insular Southeast Asia and subsequent spread
to, and diversification on, the mainland. Speciation of the group appears to involve both adaptation to
new hosts and new environments. Population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear
sequence data reveal that allopatric fragmentation due to Pleistocene climatic change has also
generated genetic diversity in this group. Yet more recent diversification in one member of the group,
Anopheles baimaii, is revealed by restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) genomic data.
Understanding past evolutionary change and adaptation is critical if we are to understand the current
complexity of malaria transmission in Southeast Asia and the potential for future changes that could
affect malaria epidemiology and control.
11
S1-O-1
Antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production in Southeast Asia:
beyond the farms
Juan Carrique-Mas
OUCRU, Vietnam
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health emergency, making many infections hard or
impossible to treat. AMR is now one of the major concerns identified by the World Health
Organization in its recent report.
In contrast with human medicine where antimicrobials are almost always used at the individual level
for therapeutic purposes (the patient), in livestock and fish production antimicrobials are used on
whole flocks/herds/ponds, both prevent and to treat disease, as well as to promote rapid, low-cost
growth and productivity. There is now wide scientific consensus that current levels of antimicrobial
use in animal production are responsible for the generation and spread of AMR bacteria to animals,
humans and the environment.
The vast majority of the research conducted on AMR in veterinary medicine to date has aimed at
describing the prevalence and epidemiology of AMR on human pathogens (i.e. Salmonella,
Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, etc.), animal pathogens (i.e. bovine mastitis-causing bacteria,
Streptococcus suis) as well as commensal ‘indicator bacteria’ (i.e. certain strains of Escherichia coli,
Enterococcus spp., etc.) present in animal hosts. Exposure of pathogenic bacteria, as well as on
commensal ‘bystanders’ to antimicrobials during treatment is undoubtedly an important step for
generation of AMR on farms, probably driven by mutation mechanisms. This phenomenon is
analogous to the situation of human antimicrobial usage.
However the interaction between pathogenic and commensal organisms capable of colonizing animal
hosts and environmental bacteria, and its implications for AMR has received much less attention. The
vast majority of bacteria (the ‘microbiosphere’) in fact consist of environmental bacteria living
outside human or animal hosts. Many such bacteria have high levels of intrinsic resistance due to
biological reasons (i.e. either because the bacteria themselves produce antibiotics or as signaling
mechanisms), and represent an immense reservoir pool of resistance genes for pathogenic and
12
commensal bacteria. In fact most acquired resistant traits now present in pathogenic bacteria due to
horizontal gene transfer (HGT) have their origins in environmental bacteria: for example, qnr
quinolone resistance genes that have become now common in Gram negative pathogenic bacteria
have their original source in waterborne bacteria. The first biological hurdle for this transfer is the
integration of the antimicrobial resistant genes (ARG) in gene-transfer elements (i.e. integrons,
plasmids and transposons).
The rapid growth of human and animal populations and the discovery of antimicrobials are relatively
recent events in evolutionary terms. The release of animal waste containing antimicrobials from farms
as well as vast amounts of excreta containing pathogenic and commensal bacteria into the
environment can have important consequences for the generation and maintenance of resistance. To
this effect we should also add the impact of the discharge of untreated human waste from hospitals
and community in some areas. These ‘hotspots’ provide conditions that promote HGT between
commensal, pathogenic and environmental bacteria. Unlike most antibiotics, which are degraded in
nature, the genetic platforms containing resistance genes might be rather stable.
Other products commonly present in farm effluents such as heavy metals and disinfectants (biocides)
may also contribute to the co-selection of AMR even in the absence of antimicrobials. Since heavy
metal resistance and biocide resistance genes can be associated with antibiotic resistance,
contamination with these products may also select for antibiotic resistance in natural environments.
Recently ARG present in genetic platforms compatible readily transferable to bacterial pathogens
have been detected in pristine environments with non-detectable concentrations of antibiotics. In
addition wild animals trapped in areas of little human density and absence of farming suggesting that
ARM induced by human activity/farming may also become integrated in the environmental
microbiosphere. Furthermore, important changes have already been described in wild animals
inhabiting conditions remote from human settlements and farmland.
Southeast Asia is currently experiencing rapid economic development, accompanied by rapid growth
of human and animal populations. In most southeast Asian countries antimicrobial resistance has been
recognized as a particularly serious problem for human health, and a few number of studies have
demonstrated high levels of resistance among (commensal and zoonotic) bacteria isolated from
animals. Excessive antimicrobial use on farms is driven by the easy availability of antimicrobials, low
13
cost, and the lack of strong, effective veterinary services. Farming in southeast Asia is often lowscale, and commonly practiced with limited bio-containment. Farm waste is directly discharged into
the environment without any safeguards. This adds to the fact that many human communities still
have no proper sanitation facilities. These are all conditions that are conducive for the creation of
‘environmental AMR hotspots’ likely to be contributing to the magnitude of the problem of AMR in
the region beyond the use of antimicrobials on farms. Clearly even though our understanding on the
interaction between the environment and farming at the microbiological level is far from complete;
we already know that unsustainable farming is already having negative impact on the environmental
microbiosphere. More vigorous research efforts are needed to establish the risks and providing
farmers in southeast Asia with the tools and knowledge to carry out more environmentally-friendly
farming practices, as well as more stringent legislation based on the precautionary principle.
References
1. WHO. Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on surveillance. 2014.
2. Page SW, Gautier P. Use of antimicrobial agents in livestock. Rev Sci Tech. 2012;31(1):145-88.
3. Da Costa PM, Loureiro L, Matos AJF. Transfer of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Between
Intermingled Ecological Niches: The Interface Between Humans, Animals and the Environment.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013;10(1):278-94.
4. Cantas L, Shah SQ, Cavaco LM, Manaia CM, Walsh F, Popowska M, et al. A brief multidisciplinary review on antimicrobial resistance in medicine and its linkage to the global
environmental microbiota. Front Microbiol. 2013;4:96.
5 Martinez, JL. The role of natural environments in the evolution of resistance traits in pathogenic
bacteria. Proc. R. Soc. B (2009) 276, 2521–2530.
6 Suzuki S, Hoa PT. Distribution of quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines in aquatic environment
and antibiotic resistance in Indochina. Front Microbiol, 3: 67.
14
S1-O-2
Antimicrobial resistance profiling of Escherichia coli from farmed and wild animals in
the Mekong Delta of Vietnam
NT Nhung, NV Cuong, J Carrique-Mas
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
Abstract
In the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) antimicrobials are used liberally in animal production, but limited
data are available on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on farms and wildlife. We performed a
structured survey of commensal E. coli from 90 pig, chicken and duck farms, and 66 small wild
animals trapped on farms and in forest/rice fields. We susceptibility tested 668 E. coli against eight
antimicrobials. Isolates recovered from farms (n=434), were resistant against to a median of 4 [IQR 36] antimicrobials, compared with 1 [IQR 1-2] among wild mammal isolates (n=234) (p<0.001). The
prevalence of AMR among isolates from farms (vs. small wild mammals) was: tetracycline (84.7%
vs. 25.6%), ampicillin (78.9% vs. 85.9%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (52.1% vs. 18.8%),
chloramphenicol (39.9% vs. 22.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic (36.6% vs. 34.5%) and ciprofloxacin
(24.9% vs. 7.3%). Pig isolates had the highest prevalence of multidrug resistance (resistance against
three or more antimicrobial classes, MDR) (86.7%). MDR was ~8 times greater among isolates from
wild mammals trapped in farms compared with those trapped in the wild (p<0.001). Isolates were
assigned to a unique profile representing their unique combination of susceptibility results, and were
analysed by non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. The term ‘farm’ explained 41-55% of
total variability in profiles from farm animals, strongly suggesting that AMR is largely driven by onfarm interventions. Among trapped mammals, there was a greater degree of similarity between
profiles from those trapped on farms and the farmed animals themselves. Results strongly suggest that
AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta.
15
S1-O-3
The dynamics and control of multiply antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital settings.
Ben Cooper
Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Thailand
Abstract
Multiply-antibiotic resistant bacteria are a major source of morbidity and mortality amongst
hospitalised patients, yet the forces shaping their persistence, evolution and spread in hospital settings
are imperfectly understood. In this talk I summarise how new tools, combining mathematical models
and whole genome sequencing, are beginning to shed light on the forces shaping the diversity of these
organisms, their persistence in hospitals and the community, networks of transmission and options for
their control.
16
S1-O-4
Virulence management works: An individual-based, probabilistic, cellular automata
model to simulate the effects of host mobility, host avoidance and hygienic behaviour on the
evolution of pathogen virulence
Yu-Yun Dai, Bruno A. Walther
College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan
Abstract
Many experimental and modelling studies have tried to understand why the virulence of a
pathogen evolves towards higher or lower levels. Here, we focus on one often misunderstood
interaction between pathogen virulence and pathogen transmission. Generally, a more virulent
pathogen strain sheds more of its replicates into the environment than a more harmless one. However,
whether such higher shedding then results in a higher number of newly infected hosts or not
differentiates traditional models from alternative models which take behavioural changes of healthy
and sick hosts into account. We investigated the effects of three important behavioural adaptations,
namely host immobility, host avoidance and hygienic behaviours, inside an individual-based,
probabilistic, cellular automata model which, unlike traditional models, takes into account the
temporal and spatial locations of pathogens and hosts and their likely behavioural reactions. Based on
previously published studies, we assumed that increasing sickness levels correspond with increasing
host immobility of sick hosts and increasing avoidance and hygienic behaviours of healthy hosts. We
show that all three behaviours decrease virulence, but in markedly different manners. Increasing host
immobility decreases virulence in an asymptotic manner. Increasing host avoidance decreases
virulence in an almost linear manner, but only for non-durable pathogens; for durable pathogens, host
avoidance has no effect on virulence. Increasing levels of hygiene which is targeted at the sickest
hosts, however, decreases virulence of both durable and non-durable pathogens. Therefore, the
community-wide application of targeted, hygienic behaviours should have the greatest potential for
reducing virulence, while increasing host avoidance and decreasing host mobility can further aid
virulence management. A comprehensive review of the literature on virulence evolution and
management demonstrated that, to our knowledge, these results are novel. These results have general
and wide-ranging implications for virulence evolution and management and the prevention of future
epidemics of high morbidity and mortality.
17
S1-O-5
Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Sihanouk hospital Center of HOPE
(2007 – 2013)
1
Thong Phe , Kruy Lim , Chhunheng Veng1, Chun Kham1, Jan Jacobs2, Erika Vlieghe2
(1)
(2)
1
Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE (SHCH); Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium
Abstract
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) cause important morbidity and mortality worldwide. In
Cambodia, there are limited data available on the key pathogens causing BSI and their resistance
patterns. We describe the key pathogens and resistance pattern from a surveillance of antibiotic
resistance in the Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between July 2007 –
December 2013.
Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all adult patients presenting with systemic inflammatory
response syndrome (SIRS) at Sihanouk Hospital Centre of HOPE. Isolates were identified using
standard microbiological techniques; antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed using disk diffusion and
MicroScan, with additional E-test, D-test and double disk test where applicable, according to CLSI
guidelines.
Results: A total of 14291 samples from 10352 adult patients yielded 1248 clinically significant
organisms (8.7%). The patients’ median age was 45 years (IQR=41–59), 54.1% were women. Among
the positive isolate, 78% are Gram-negative bacteria. The most frequent pathogens included
Escherichia coli (n = 365; 29.2%); Salmonella spp. (n= 214, 17.3%); Burkholderia pseudomallei (n =
119, 9.6%), Klebsiella spp. (n = 86; 7.0%); and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 110, 8.8%). Methicillin
resistance was seen in 28/110 (26%) of S. aureus. We noted combined resistance to amoxicillin,
SMX-TMP and ciprofloxacin in 226 E. coli isolates (62%); 137 isolates among 248 patients who had
tested (55%) were confirmed as producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Among
Salmonella Typhi (and other Salmonella spp.), there is a trend of increasing reduced susceptibility to
ciprofloxacin. Resistance to the third generation cephalosporins is less common among these
pathogens. Two patients with invasive infections presented with a carbapenem resistant Klebsiella
pneumoniae infection. For Burkholderia pseudomallei, we did not note resistance towards the drugs
of use (i.e. ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole, doxycyclin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid).
Conclusions: BSI in Cambodian adults is mainly caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens. These data
urge for microbiological capacity building, nationwide surveillance and solid interventions to contain
antibiotic resistance.
18
S2-O-1
Zoonotic malaria in Southeast Asia
Balbir Singh.
Malaria Research Centre, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kuching 93150, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Abstract
Until recently, malaria in humans was thought to be caused by four species of Plasmodium: P.
falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale. Naturally acquired human infections with simian
malaria parasites were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human P. knowlesi
infections were reported in 2004 in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human
knowlesi malaria cases have since been described in other parts of Malaysian Borneo and in
Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Vietnam, Cambodia, Philippines and Indonesia,
resulting in the recognition of P. knowlesi as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing human malaria.
Long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, the most common non-human primates in Southeast Asia, are
the natural hosts of P. knowlesi. Analysis of mitochondrial genome sequence data indicates that P.
knowlesi existed in macaques prior to human settlement in Southeast Asia. Thus, humans were
infected with these parasites from the original and reservoir macaque hosts probably since they first
entered the forests of Southeast Asia. Human P. knowlesi infections were undiagnosed until
molecular tools to distinguish P. knowlesi and the morphologically similar P. malariae became
available. Although morphologically similar, P. knolwesi infections can be fatal unless detected early
and treated appropriately. The molecular, entomological and epidemiological data indicate that human
infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent in Southeast Asia and that knowlesi malaria is
primarily a zoonosis, with wild macaques as the reservoir hosts. Whether knowlesi malaria continues
as a zoonosis or whether ecological changes due to deforestation, coupled with changes in the vector
species and bionomics, and an increasing human population result in a host switch for P. knowlesi
remain to be seen.
19
S2-O-2
Modeling aspects of biodiversity and health
Marc Choisy
(1) MIVEGEC, UMR CNRS IRD Université Montpellier, Hanoi, Vietnam
(2) Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam
Abstract
I will give a brief review of the literature on the mathematical approaches that have been
developed on biodiversity and health. This concerns epidemiological systems with multiple hosts,
vectors, or parasites. Models of parasite interactions (coinfection, superinfection) will be presented
through the different mechanisms at work, and at different levels (within- and between-host). For
hosts and vectors diversity, I will present models on the dilution effects. The talk will be illustrated
with real examples and models confronted to real data as much as possible.
20
S2-O-3
Occurrence of toxoplasmosis on animal, wildlife and human interface in Indonesia
Wisnu Nurcahyo
Dept. of Parasitology, Fac. of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University (UGM)
Yogyakarta – Indonesia, Email: wisnu-nc@ugm.ac.id
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis disease which is significant in Indonesia; it is caused by
Toxoplasma gondii protozoa. This disease can be infectious for humans and mammals, including
wildlife with cats as the definitive hosts. People fancy to have cats as their pets without considering
the pets' health, bad environments in Indonesia that become the habitats for rats, habits of eating
meats that are not cooked well and unwashed vegetables are the factors that drive high case of
toxoplasmosis in Indonesia. Rats and cats in public places, such as markets, hospitals, shopping
centres and houses can incur risk factors of toxoplasmosis occurrence on humans. Toxoplasmosis
cases on humans are often characterized by miscarriages, hydrocephalus on newborns, nervous
breakdown, mental setback and growth disorder on babies and children. For cats and other mammals,
specific clinical symptoms are not found. Cats known to have toxoplasmosis only experience mild
diarrhoea. The toxoplasmosis occurrences on stray rats are known to be around 3.8%; meanwhile, the
prevalence on domesticated cats with coprodiagnostic method are 11.2%, and with CATT method are
6.8%. Considering the high prevalence rate on human, i.e up to 60%, and on sheep and lambs can be
as high as 70%, there should be preventive actions, attentions on communities and better health
education for them in order to prevent the risks of toxoplasmosis disease. The comprehension on
interaction among the wild, animals and humans becomes significantly important in learning
toxoplasmosis pathogenicity. Integrated prevention and eradication based on OneHealth approach are
needed in handling the danger of toxoplasmosis on Indonesian people.
Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, cat, rat, prevalence, Indonesia
21
S2-O-4
Diversity of Bartonella identified in bats in southern Vietnam
Pham Hong Anh, Nguyen Van Cuong, Nguyen Truong Son, Ngo Tri Tue, Michael Kosoy, Mark E. J.
Woolhouse, Stephen Baker, Juliet E. Bryant, Guy Thwaites, Juan J. Carrique-Mas*, Maia A. Rabaa
Author affiliations:
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (H. Anh Pham, C. Van
Nguyen, T. Tri Ngo, S. Baker, G. Thwaites, J. Carrique-Mas, M. Rabaa)
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam (J. Bryant)
Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam (S. Truong Nguyen)
U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (M. Kosoy)
University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (M. Woolhouse, M. Rabaa)
Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford,
UK (S. Baker, J. Bryant, G. Thwaites, J. Carrique-Mas)
The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (S. Baker)
Abstract
Bartonella spp. are intracellular Gram-negative bacteria considered to be opportunistic human
pathogens, with some species also capable of causing disease among healthy people. Some studies
have identified bats as potential reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella spp. ,but none in southeast Asia.
We investigate the prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. among 60 bats trapped in the southern
province of Dong Nai, Vietnam. Bats were identified as belonging to ten species within five genera.
Seven (Hipposideros armiger, H. larvatus, Megaderma spasma, Rhinolophus acuminatus, R. chaseli,
R. sinicus and R. luctus) are insectivorous, two (Cynopterus sphinx and Megaerops niphanae) are
fruit eaters, and one (Megaderma lyra) is considered a carnivorous bat. Using primers to amplify a
partial region of citrate cynthase (gltA) gene of genus of Bartonella, we detected Bartonella spp.
DNA in 21 (35%) bats. Prevalence of insectivore/carnivore bats was 20/44 (45.5%) compared with
1/16 (6.2%) among fruit eating bats (χ2=6.3; p=0.012). Sequence analysis of DNA from 21 Bartonella
spp. positive specimens revealed 17 genetic variants, clustered into 10 phylogentic groups. The
distance between groups ranged between 78.8% and 91.3%. The phylogroups were distant from
previously described Bartonella species including other Bartonella in bats, suggesting that they
belonged to newly identified species. These findings indicate that more research is needed to establish
transmission mechanisms and zoonotic potential of Bartonella organisms present in bat populations.
22
S3-O-1
Ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation: historical perspective
Philippe Meral (IRD) & Malyne Neang (URA)
23
S3-O-2
Host biodiversity and human diseases
Bordes Frédéric, DMV, Phd
Université Montpellier, France
Presentation: French private veterinarian confronted to basic veterinary problems (emerging
infectious diseases, antibiotic resistance) doing academic research in collaboration with ISEM-CNRS,
mainly in the field of rodents/ parasites interactions, epidemiology and disease ecology.
Abstract
With accelerating anthropogenic changes, biodiversity loss, defaunation and increasing
awareness of the global public health importance of zoonotic diseases, a critical question in ecology is
whether and how biodiversity can be managed for disease control. A very popular concept, the
‘‘dilution effect’’, states that high biodiversity (rich communities) can limit pathogen spread, host
prevalence and then human disease risk mainly due to the negative effects of incompetent hosts on
parasite transmission. But despite the attention devoted to this hypothesis, numerous empirical
examples contradict the generality of the dilution effect. Because hosts serve as habitats and resources
for pathogens, an « amplification effect », linked to higher biodiversity of hosts, may rather amplify
parasite transmission. Whatever the spatial scales considered to date (global, regional, local) we can
find examples for the two opposites hypotheses for various pathogens. Leaving the field of the
dilution effect, we have to face the fact that the links between biodiversity and pathogen prevalence
are not always predictable. We have also to keep in mind that other epidemiological factors directly
or indirectly linked to human activities may operate to amplify or limit disease extension or
persistence like abundance of definitive hosts, ecology and abundance of vectors or landscapes
characteristics.
24
S3-O-3
Forests and food in northern Laos: Linking biodiversity, ecosystem
services and human nutrition
Mathieu Pruvost
WSC, Cambodia
25
S3-O-4
Measuring the impact of biodiversity conservation on local human well-being
Emile Beauchamp
26
S4-O-1
Lessons learned from a project aiming preserving medicinal plants and traditional
medical Knowledge in Mondulkiri province.
Nicolas SAVAJOL
Technical director, Nomad RSI Cambodia
PO box: 1013 Phnom Penh Cambodia
Tel: [+855] 97 39 51 573
Email: nicolas.savajol@gmail.com
Abstract
The diversity of knowledge of medicinal plants and medical traditions of Indigenous communities is
an important part of the global biocultural diversity, often threaten by globalisation of culture and
economy. Bunong people are the main ethnic group of the mountainous Cambodian province of
Mondulkiri, which, as most of South-East Asia’s highlanders, have remained socio-culturally distinct
from lowlanders such as the Khmer. Nowadays, dominant global forces are strongly impacting this
historical distinction. Drastic development endeavours, agro-business activities and mainstream
Khmer culture are interacting with traditional livelihoods threatening to reduce cultural and to damage
plant diversity.
Nomad RSI has been working in this context since 1997 and has, particularly, implemented research
and development projects on traditional medicine. The presenter wants to provide an overview of the
work done by Nomad RSI regarding traditional medicine and drive attention on the importance to
consider livelihoods into conservation projects.
27
S4-O-2
School medicinal plants garden PHC promotion by well using the traditional medicine
knowledge and human resource
Tadanori Takada
Advisor of CaTHA and Technical advisor of NCTM, MoH
Abstract
Traditional medicine that is utilized abundant natural resources is well used by the people
especially living in district area, and Cambodian government is striving to promote PHC (primary
Health Care) with holding a traditional medicine policy. However, traditional medicine isn’t
integrated in the public health service system in Cambodia. It is necessary to provide an opportunity
to share accurate information to the people in their community such as authority, medical provider,
educator and experienced traditional healer in order to put traditional medicine or medicinal plants
into primary health care system. In addition, there is a risk that knowledge of medicinal plants that
have been carried in from generation to generation into the community will be lost in such
circumstances. CaTHA, Cambodian Traditional Healers Association, has established botanical
gardens with eighty five types of medicinal plant at public school in the village due to student and
villager are able to learn about using medicinal plants around their village corroborated with National
center of traditional medicine, Ministry of health. A workshop reinforced their network between
traditional healer, medical service provider, educator, parents and student in the village through
sharing information of traditional medicine. Farther more, people in village obtained an experience of
medicinal plant cultivation and selling herbal product for maintain their garden.
28
S4-O-3
Traditional remedies in Northeast Cambodia: a survey in the Bunong community
François Chassagne
PhD Student
Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.)
UMR152, IRD-UPS
35 chemin des maraîchers
Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques,
Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III
31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
francois.chassagne@laposte.net
Tél (Cambodia): +855 (0) 865 83 127
Tél (Laos): +856 (0) 20 760 104 52
Tél (France): +33 (0)7 81 82 04 99
Abstract
Beside its natural diversity, Cambodia possess a high cultural diversity. More than 20 indigenous
minorities live in Cambodia and among them, Bunong people represent the first largest group.
Bunong’s minority live in remote areas in Northeast Cambodia. They don’t have written scripts,
practice slash and burn cultivation, and believe in spiritual forces which are present in the
environment. As a result of this deep relationship with the nature, Bunong people have a strong
knowledge in natural medicine.
In this context, an ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Cambodia, to document the traditional
uses of native substances (plants, animals, and mushrooms) in Bunong communities living in
Mondulkiri Province.
During our survey, we have discovered the newly described plant Solanum sakhanii Hul which is first
recorded as a medicinal plant in Cambodia.
29
S4-O-4
New antiplasmodial alkaloids from Stephania rotunda Lour.
Sothavireak BORY1, Sok Siya BUN2, Béatrice BAGHDIKIAN2, Valérie MAHIOU2,
Nadine AZAS3, Evelyne OLLIVIER2
1
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Health Sciences-Cambodia.
2
Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Aix-Marseille University.
3
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Aix-Marseille University.
Background: Stephania rotunda Lour. (Menispermaceae) is a creeper growing in many countries of
Asia and commonly found in the mountainous areas of Cambodia. As a folk medicine, it has been
mainly used for the treatment of fever and malaria. The pharmacological activity is mostly due to
alkaloids. Thus the aim of this study is to isolate new bioactive alkaloids from Stephania rotunda and
to evaluate their in vitro antiplasmodial activity.
Materials and methods: Alkaloids were isolated and identified from dichloromethane and aqueous
extracts using a combination of flash chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The purified compounds
were tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity on chloroquine-resistant W2 strain of Plasmodium
falciparum.
Results: A new aporphine alkaloid named Vireakine along with two known alkaloids Stephanine and
Pseudopalmatine, described for the first time in Stephania rotunda, and together five known alkaloids
Tetrahydropalmatine , Xylopinine , Roemerine , Cepharanthine and Palmatine were isolated and
identified. The structure of the new alkaloid was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR
experiments and mass spectrometry. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial
and cytotoxic activities. All tested compounds showed significant antiplasmodial activities with IC 50
ranged from 1.2 µM to 52.3 µM with a good selectivity index for Pseudopalmatine with IC 50 of 2.8
µM against W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and IC50 > 25 µM on K562S cells.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence to support the use of Stephania rotunda for the treatment
of malaria and/or fever by the healers. Alkaloids of the tuber exhibited antiplasmodial activity and
particularly Cepharanthine and Pseudopalmatine.
Key-words: Stephania rotunda, alkaloids, antiplasmodial activity, Cambodia medicinal plants.
30
S5-O-1
Trophic Web of the Tonle Sap
Vittoria Elliot
Conservation International, Cambodia
31
S5-O-2
Genetic diversity of fish and health
Filip Volkaert
32
S5-O-3
Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants in fish of
Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia
Chanleakhena Phoeung1, Aung Naing Myo2, Stéphane Bayen2, Boon Huan Tan3, Nicolas
Steenkeste4, Khov Meas5, Puy Lim5, Monidarin Chou1, Barry Kelly2
1
Rodolphe Mérieux Laboratory, University of Health Sciences, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of
Singapore (NUS),
3
DSO National Laboratories, Singapore,
4
Fondation Mérieux, Phnom Penh Cambodia,
5
Tonle Sap Authorities, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
2
Abstract
Few studies have investigated the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in
fresh water fish of Tonle Sap Lake. In 2011, the bioavailability of POPs was studied in fish muscle
collected from 4 regions around Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia. The persistent organohalogen
compounds including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined. The analytical procedure involved the
application of organic solvents extraction followed by Florisil clean-up and gas chromatography with
mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) for identification and quantification. The preliminary result
showed amounts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish muscle with predominance of pp’DDT, PCBs and BCPS. The total concentrations are ranged from 0.00 to 3.70 ng/g weight of the
extracted sample for pp’-DDT, from 0.00 to 9.99 ng/g for PCBs and from 0.00 to 0.86 ng/g for BCPS.
The mean concentrations of the detected compounds were below the permissible levels proposed by
the FAO. Therefore, the present data suggests and motivates further chemical and biomonitoring
studies in freshwater ecosystems of Cambodia Tonle Sap Lake.
33
S5-O-4
Immune deficits in the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in herbicide utilized
agricultural area at Nan Province, northern part of Thailand
Khattapan Jantawongsri1, Panupong Thammachoti1, Jirarach Kitana1,2,4, Wichase Khonsue1,2,4, Pakorn
Varanusupakul3, and Noppadon Kitana1,2,4
1
Department of Biology Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Center of
Excellence in Biodiversity, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand;3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,
Thailand; 4Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Bangkok, Thailand,
email: noppadon.k@chula.ac.th
Abstract
Previous study suggested that intensive herbicide (atrazine, glyphosate, paraquat) utilization in Nan
province, northern part of Thailand could lead to environmental contamination and adverse effect on
health and morphology of the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in the area. Since contamination
of herbicide may influence disease emergence by influencing immune system, the current study aims
to investigate potential influence of herbicide utilization on immune responses of the rice frog living
in agricultural environments. Frogs were caught from an agricultural area with no history of herbicide
utilization (reference site) and an agricultural area with intensive herbicide utilization (contaminated
site) in 2013. After acclimatization, frogs were subjected to non-specific immune response
(corticosterone level and differential leukocyte count) and specific immune response (delayed-type
hypersensitivity: DTH) studies. It was found that although plasma corticosterone levels were similar
among animals from both sites, neutrophil/lymphocyte (N:L) ratio was markedly reduced in the
contaminated site frog in early dry season when agricultural activity was present only at the
contaminated site. DTH responses of the rice frog showed wide array of responses with the common
trend of relatively lower response in frogs from the contaminated site compared to those of the
reference site. Overall results suggest that herbicide utilization could affect health and possibly
suppress immune function of frogs in agricultural areas. Observations on amphibian’s immune
response could further implicate the impacts of herbicide utilization on other vertebrates including
human.
Keywords: atrazine; glyphosate; paraquat; corticosterone; differential leukocyte count; delayed-type
34
S5-O-5
Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia
John-James Wilson
University of Malaya, Malaysia
35
S5-O-6
Fish diversity and conservation as a protein sources security for hill tribe people in Northern
Thailand
Apinun Suvarnaraksha
36
S6-O-1
One Health and Culling
Zohar Lederman
Center for Biomedical Ethic, National University of Singapore
Abstract
One of most pertinent and acute risks that Asia and the rest of the world is now facing is emerging or
re-emerging zoonotic diseases. This paper focuses on culling as a measure for zoonotic disease
control, specifically the culling of 11,000 badgers as part of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial
(RBCT) in the UK and the culling exercises in Singapore. The independent expert panel that devised
the UK study concluded that reactive culling was ineffective in reducing the cases of Bovine
Tuberculosis in cattle. The panel also concluded that proactive culling was not cost-effective. Behind
the scarcity of empirical evidence to support culling, the resultant reduction in biodiversity can
actually harm both animals and humans.
Public Health policies should be evidence-based, culturally adaptable, and ethically justified; A novel
biomedical and public health approach, named One Health, plausibly provides a reasonable ethical
framework as well as research and interventional methods that square with that framework.
One Health (OH) recognizes that non-human animals and humans are interlinked in both sickness and
health, since we all share the same ecosystem. OH could potentially replace standard public health
strategies, as it provides alternative evidence-based methods for biomedical research and adds a nonanthropocentric component to an ethical decision-making process.
37
S6-O-2
The multiscale approach of law and ethics regarding health and biodiversity:
a complex landscape
Claire Lajaunie
INSERM, Aix-Marseille University, France
Abstract
There is a constant interaction between ethics and law in a supranational context: global governance
co-exists with national laws expressing the social, cultural, economical values of a society.
International law in this respect constitutes a bridge favouring the dialog between ethics, law and
science. This is particularly significant in the areas of health and biodiversity : there is a multiscale
approach of law and ethical norms from international agreements (CBD, IHR) to the implementation
of norms deriving from these agreements at the regional, national or local level.
To reflect the complexity of interventions, the variety of actors now involved into the decision
process in environmental law or regarding health regulation and the diversity of approaches, jurists
use the concept of regime complexes that can apply both to biodiversity and global health
governance.
There is an intricate judicial landscape formed by different clusters in both regime complexes: for
example in the health sector one can consider food security, infectious diseases, ecosystem services,
biosecurity, protection of personal data and those different areas can be conflicting or interacting in a
problematic manner. The difficulty of interaction, the fragmentation of the decision-making call for a
more integrated approach among sectors at all decisional levels.
That complexity should be addressed with an appropriate dialogue between political sectors and with
scientists: this is attempted with the One Health approach already incorparated into international legal
norms. The effective way to implement them remains to be found.
38
S6-O-3
One Health in practice: pathways toward cross sectoral land management
Aurelie Binot1,2, Paul Belchi4, Waraphon Phimpraphai2, Pauline Della Rossa1, Rachanee Pothitan2,
Suwicha Kasemsuwan2, Saipin Suputtamongkol3, Damrong Pipatwattanakul2, Serge Morand1,5
1 CIRAD-AGIRs
2 Kasetsart University
3 Thammasat University
4 AFD Cambodia
5 CNRS-ISEM
Abstract
This communication addresses the issue of necessary cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary
collaboration in the framework of One Health actions implementation, highlighting rather
socioeconomic factors than biomedical ones to improve public health. We acknowledge the
importance of an ecosystem approach of human health on the basis of a Northern Thailand’s case
study. Analyzing the drivers of farming systems differentiation, we analyses the main factors to risks
exposure (health, environmental, social and economic) for the farmers. The case study allowed us to
identify causal links between the drivers of natural resource management and health risks, and to go
deeper in the understanding of social issues (e.g. land tenure, livelihood strategies, heterogeneity of at
risk population and groups, local perceptions etc.) that are significant for the implementation of a One
Health approach at local level. On the basis of such research results, we claim for an improved
coordination between policies of different sectors such as forestry, health and agriculture.
Key-words: ecosystem approach, one health, risk, farming systems, cross-sectoral, Thailand.
39
S6-O-4
Disease Surveillance at the Wildlife-Domestic Animal-Human Interface in Cambodia
Lucy Keatts1, Sokha Chea1, Amanda Fine1, Davun Holl2 and Sorn San2, Veasna Duong3
1. Wildlife Conservation Society
2. National Veterinary Research Institute
3. Institut Pasteur du Cambodge
Abstract
Wildlife-domestic animal-human interfaces are increasing with human population growth and
associated development, and are recognized as a potential avenue for zoonotic pathogens to spread
from wildlife to humans. Cambodia is characterized by an important harvest, trade, and
consumption of wildlife. The country provides, therefore, ideal opportunities to organize the
surveillance of zoonotic diseases at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, and advance our
understanding of the drivers of zoonotic pathogen emergence.
Through extensive preliminary field work and site visits in Cambodia, potential high-risk interfaces
for zoonotic disease spillover from wildlife were identified, such as rural markets or restaurants
trading wildlife for food or medicine, bat guano farms, touristic sites, and wildlife rescue centers.
Samples were opportunistically collected from wild animals at these interfaces, focusing on animal
groups of greater significance for zoonotic diseases, such as bats, rodents and non-human primates. A
study of human-wildlife interactions was also conducted in three provinces in Cambodia to identify
high-risk behaviors.
Using a novel approach of PCR screening, samples were tested for 16 viral families. A total of 8,150
samples were collected from 3,885 animals of 7 taxa throughout Cambodia. 54 viruses, including 21
known viruses and 33 new viruses, were detected in 170 (5.3%) animals. The behavior study
demonstrated that many families hunt wildlife for consumption. These animals are considered “high
risk” taxa for disease spillover from wildlife to people. There is some perception that consumption of
certain species can lead to illness.
An improved understanding of pathogens in wild animals and their risk to humans is essential to
allow wildlife, livestock, and public health institutions to be more effective in managing
wildlife/human interfaces, as well as detecting and containing diseases when they emerge. Reduction
of wildlife consumption and trade through policy and behavior change can reduce this risk of disease
emergence and protect wild populations, thus representing a “win-win” situation for human health
and conservation.
Key Words: Zoonotic disease surveillance, wildlife-human interface, pathogen emergence
40
S6-O-5
Ethical regulation in Cambodia
Dr Chap Seek Chhay
National Institute of Public Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
41
Abstract for Poster
S1-Po-1
Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes among Streptococcus suis Serotype 2
isolates from pig-derived products
Huynh NH, Tran TBC, Nguyen TNT, Ngo TH
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Oversea Program, Ho Chi Minh
City, Vietnam
Objectives: S. suis is a major cause of bacterial meningitis in Vietnam and other Asian and southeast
Asian countries. We aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence-associated genes
and the genetic characteristics of Streptococcus suis (S. suis) serotype 2 isolates from pig-derived
products sampled from slaughterhouses and retail markets in southern Vietnam.
Methods: the genetic diversity of 65 S. suis serotype 2 isolates was studied by pulse field gel
electrophoresis (PFGE) following digestion with SmaI. The resistance to 24 antibiotics was evaluated
by disc diffusion. The presence of resistance genes and genes encoding putative virulence associated
factors of S. suis were investigated by PCR.
Results: Over 77% strains were resistant to each of the following antimicrobials: tetracycline,
azithromycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin and amikacin and 92% were multi-drug
resistant (i.e. resistant against three or more classes of antimicrobial). All isolates were fully
susceptible to ceftriazone and penicillin. The tet genes were found in 60/65 tetracycline-resistant
strains and 9/59 erythromycin-resistant strains possessed resistant determinant. The amplified
fragments of ssnA, sspA and ofs genes were found in 100% testing strains while only 3 isolates shown
positive results with hp0197- and hp0272- screening PCR. Those three also ones possessed the
genotype of epf+/sly+/1148bp-mrp+, which was significantly associated with the meningitis
categories.
Of the 65 serotype 2 strains, PFGE analyses identified 14 pulsotypes. All are new pulsotypes which
have not been reported so far. Although the great genetic heterogeneity was shown, some strains of S.
suis were proved to be more frequently isolated than others.
Conclusions: Strains isolated from pigs products sampled at slaughterhouses and retail markets were
great diverse and multi drug resistant. The presence of >= 3 virulence factors in each strain indicating
for some extent of virulence in human infection.
Topic: antibiotic resistance and other drug resistance
Presentation: Poster
42
S1-Po-2
Diversity of colistin-resistant bacteria in the human gut and mechanisms mediating
acquired colistin resistance.
Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan1, Serge Morand2 and Jean-marc Rolain1
1
Unité de recherche sur les maladies infectieuses et tropicales émergentes (URMITE) CNRS-IRD
UMR 6236, Méditerranée Infection, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Aix-Marseille-Université,
Marseille, France.
2
Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution, CNRS-IRD-UM2, CC065, Université Montpellier 2, 34095
Montpellier cedex 05, France.
Abstract
Introduction: Colistin, an old antibiotic but recently reintroduced in clinical practice, is a
polycationic antimicrobial peptide that is presently a key drug for treating multidrug-resistant, Gramnegative bacterial infections. Its reintroduction has been followed by an increase in reports of both
acquired and intrinsic colistin resistance bacterial pathogens. Owing to such increase, we therefore set
out to investigate the microbial diversity of colistin-resistant bacteria in the human guts from several
countries and to decipher the molecular mechanism mediating colistin resistance in some selected
bacterial genera.
Materials and methods: A total of 869 stool samples from four countries (Laos, Thailand, France
and Nigeria) were screened for colistin-resistant bacteria by culture; PCR and sequencing were
employed to analyze genes known to mediate colistin resistance.
Results: A total of 103 (11.9%) intrinsically-resistant bacteria from seven genera and 54 (6.2%)
acquired-resistant bacteria from five genera were isolated. Proteus spp. (49; 5.6%) and Klebsiella spp.
(34; 3.9%) were the most prevalent bacteria for intrinsic and acquired resistance, respectively.
Disruption (by insertional inactivation, missense or nonsense mutations) of the mgrB gene, a negative
feedback regulator of phoP/phoQ two-component system (TCS), was the main cause leading to
resistance in Klebsiella spp., while mutations in pmrA/pmrB and phoP/phoQ TCSs were the main
cause of resistance in E. coli.
Conclusion: There is high diversity and prevalence of colistin-resistant (both natural and acquired)
bacteria in the human gut; this occurrence could be markedly contributing to the selection of already
resistant bacteria in human under colistin therapy as currently experienced. Furthermore, mutations in
either the TCS regulator or in the two TCSs themselves account for most of the acquired resistance to
colistin.
43
S2-Po-1
Detection of coronaviruses in bats in Cambodia and Laos
Audrey Lacroix
Pasteur Institute Cambodia, Cambodia
44
S2-Po-2
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection in newly-vaccinated meat duck flocks
in the Mekong delta of Vietnam
1,3
1
VNT Truc , NV Cuong , NT Nhung1, NT Hoa1,2, Thanh TT1, Hieu TQ4, Mai HH4, Maciej FB1,2, J
Carrique-Mas1,2
1
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 2Centre for Tropical
Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, United Kingdom; 3University
of Science, HCMC, Viet Nam; 4Sub-Department of Animal Health, Tien Giang Province, Viet Nam.
Abstract
Avian influenza A/H5N1 remains a credible threat for pandemic emergence in Vietnam and
other Southeast Asian countries. In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, influenza A/H5N1 viruses are
endemic in duck populations, and clinical outbreaks are often associated with incursion of new clades.
We investigated 14 episodes of H5N1 avian influenza like illness among 14 meat flocks in two
districts in Tien Giang (Mekong Delta) shortly after vaccination with Re5 (an vaccine containing an
inactivated clade 2.3.4 strain). A total of 135 samples including including duck spleen, lung, cloacal
swabs and feathers (N=53), as well as environmental samples (N=82) were investigated by RT-PCR
in these farms. In total samples from 8/14 (57%) farms tested positive for H5N1. The per sample
H5N1-positive prevalence was 92.5% and 7.3% for duck and environmental samples, respectively.
The HA gene sequence of indicated that they were all identical clade 2.3.2.1c viruses. Their
hemagglutinin (HA) amino acid sequence showed that they contain important mutations associated
with the virulence in host, especially the ability of binding to the human 2-6-sialic acid receptor. The
observed high levels of pathogenicity in flocks strongly suggests recent incursion of 2.3.2.1c into the
area with potential zoonotic implications. These results suggest that current vaccination efforts may
not be adequate to control infection in meat duck flocks, given their short lifespan and limited crossprotection of vaccine and field strains. Furthermore, it is also possible that spread of H5N1 may have
been facilitated by vaccination teams.
45
S2-Po-3
Bartonella spp. in rats from the Mekong Delta and Central Highlands, Vietnam
N.V. Cuong1, H.K. Loan2, P.H. Anh1, V.K. Chuyen3, N.C. Tu4, V.B. Hien5, R. Takhampunya6, J.
Carrique-Mas1
1
Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City,
Vietnam; 2Institute Pasteur, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 5Sub-Department of Animal Health, DakLak
Province ,Vietnam, 4Regional Animal Health Office No. VI, DakLak, Vietnam; 5Sub-Department of
Animal Health, Dong Thap Province, Vietnam; 5AFRIMS, Bangkok, Thailand.
Abstract
The genus Bartonella are intracellular Gram-negative bacteria considered to be opportunistic human
pathogens. In addition, some species are capable of causing disease among healthy individuals.
Depending on the Bartonella spp. and type of host species, the life cycle may involve transmission
through arthropod vectors such as ticks, fleas, sand flies and lice. We investigated the prevalence of
Bartonella spp. among 375 rats purchased from food markets (N=150) (Mekong Delta), and trapped
in different ecosystems (urban settings, slaughterhouses, rice fields, forests and animal farms)
(N=225) (Mekong Delta and Central Highlands). The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by
PCR in blood was 15.7%, the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (45%), followed by Rattus
norvegicus (27.5%), Rattus nitidus (10%), Rattus exulans (7.9%), Bandicota indica (3.1%) and Rattus
argentiventer (2.9%). Six different Bartonella spp. were identified, four of which (B. elizabethae, B.
rattimassiliensis, B. rochalimae and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among Mekong
Delta rats, chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites) were abundant on rats’ ears, whereas no chiggers
were found on rats from the Central Highlands. In contrast, fleas were abundant among rats from the
Central Highlands. Among Mekong Delta rats, we found an association between certain chigger
species and Bartonella positivity. Studies on Bartonella spp. in fleas from rats trapped in the Central
Highland are ongoing. These data suggest different routes of transmission of Bartonella spp. on rats,
depending on vector distribution, and has potential implications for the design of adequate prevention
strategies.
46
S3-Po-1
Preliminary Survey of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Ranging Primates In Bako
National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia
Madinah A.1, Nur Hidayah Ahmad Khairi1 & M. T. Abdullah2
1
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
2
Centre for Kenyir Ecosystems, Kenyir Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030
Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
Abstract
A total of 95 faecal samples were collected from three species of selected free-ranging
primates namely, Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), Silvered-leaf monkey (Trachypithecus
cristatus), and Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Bako National Park (BNP), Sarawak.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and species of major gastrointestinal parasites
of public health importance in non human primates in BNP. Of these hosts, 15 species of
gastrointestinal parasites were extracted. Ten species of nematodes, three species of cestodes and two
species of trematodes were identified. Among gastrointestinal species recorded, 11 species of the
gastrointestinal parasites recovered are of known public health importance, namely, Ancylostoma
duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides
stercoralis, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris trichiura, Trichuris sp., Trichostrongylus sp. (nematodes),
Diphyllobotrium latum and Hymenolepis nana (cestodes) and Schistosoma sp. (trematode). These
parasites have been found infecting human and are important human parasite. This is the first survey
on fauna of gastrointestinal parasites of non human primates in BNP and provides baseline
information for future work regarding parasite-host ecology primates of BNP.
Keywords: faecal, free-ranging primate, gastrointestinal parasites, public health importance
47
S3-Po-2
Interaction of Ectoparasites-Small Mammals in Tropical Rainforest of Malaysia
A. Madinah1, F. Abang1, A. Mariana2, M.T. Abdullah1,3 and J. Mohd-Azlan1
1
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
2
Unit of Acarology, Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan
Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Centre for Kenyir Ecosystems, Kenyir Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030
Kuala Trengganu
Abstract
The literature regarding the diversity of ectoparasites and their interaction with their hosts
remains largely inadequate in Malaysian tropical rainforest. We investigate the interaction patterns
and specialization of ectoparasites infesting terrestrial small mammals (rodents and scandents) in
Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo from samples made in 16 localities between 2008 and 2010. A total
of 3,235 individuals of ectoparasites were collected during field surveys, resulting in an interaction
network involving 47 ectoparasites that were distributed on 23 species of small mammals. The overall
specialization index H2’ of all ectoparasites and host species was 0.67 which was considered
moderate. Ticks appeared to be generalist with specialization index (H2’ = 0.35) while lice showed
higher specialization (H2’ = 1) in selecting host species. The most diverse parasite assemblage was
found on S. muelleri (Hs_w = 1.96). Specialization indices among ectoparasite species (dp) ranged from
0.03 to 1 while the indices among host species (dh) ranged from 0.20 to 1. Incomplete field data may
have contributed to the high specialization indices. This study is significant as it can enhance our
understanding the emergence and management of potential zoonotic diseases in Malaysia
Keywords: Host-ectoparasite, Rodents, Scandents, Specialization index, Zoonotic disease.
48
S4-Po-1
Proposition of monograph of Terminalia nigrovenulosa Pierre ex.
Channeth Meng1 , Sothea-Kim1-2, Philippe-Bessioud2-3, Davy Theng , Chhomonica Pech2,
Mathieu Leti2-3, Bernard Fabre2-3.
1
University of Health Sciences, 73 Boulevard Monivong Phnom Penh
Joint Laboratory of Phytochemistry IRPF-UHS, University of Health Sciences, 73 Boulevard
Monivong Phnom Penh
3
Laboratoire des Produits Végétaux, CRDPF, 3 avenue Hubert Curien, 31 035 Toulouse Cedex 1
2
Abstract
Terminalia nigrovenulosa is the popular medicinal plant using in treatment of diarrhoea and
dysentery in Southeast Asian countries. In Cambodia, stem bark of Terminalia nigrovenulosa is used
to treat dysentery and diarrhoea (Kham, 2004). Tannin is the chemical component that contain in
Terminalia nigrovenulosa’s stem bark and it is considered as a principal component that responsible
for activity anti-diarrhoea and dysentery. The chemical components that mostly found in tannin are
gallic acid and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (Dang-Minh, et al, 2013).
The quality control of Terminalia nigrovenulosa hasn’t been created until the present. Thus, the
objective of our study is to propose the monograph of Terminalia nigrovenulosa in Cambodian
pharmacopeia. The identification and quantification controls’ methods are Macro and Microscopic
studies, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), coloured reaction and UV/Visible spectrophotometry.
As the result, TLC condition (water: formic acid: ethyl acetate) was used to identify the Terminalia
nigrovenulosa’s stem bark with different types of extract solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol,
ethyl acetate and acetone. The different types of tannins such as tannin catechic and tannin gallic were
identified in Terminalia nigrovenulosa’s stem bark extract. Total polyphenol in Terminalia
nigrovenulosa’s stem bark extracts was found between12.38% to16.48%.
In conclusion, the simple quality controls’ methods of Terminalia nigrovenulosa are developed and
proposed.
Keywords: Terminalia nigrovenulosa, Monograph, Anti-diarrhoea, Anti-dysenteric, Total Polyphenol
49
S5-Po-1
Impact of deteriorated environment on the occurrence of external parasites in cultured Tilapia,
Noetheast of Thailand
Kanjana Payooha, Buakaew Vongamnat and Achara Jutagate
Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand
50
S5-Po-2
Breeding performances of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos populations in relation to
prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini in Northeastern region of Thailand
Thanathip Lamkoma, Dechnarong Phosri
51
S5-Po-3
Water quality in lower Mekong basin (LMB)
Chea Ratha & Sovan Lek
Université de Toulouse, France
52
S5-Po-4
Herbicide residues in the edible rice field crab Esanthelphusa nani living in paddy fields
at Nan Province, northern part of Thailand
Rachata Maneein1, Wichase Khonsue1,2,4, Pakorn Varanusupakul 3 and Noppadon Kitana 1,2,4
1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Center
of Excellence in Biodiversity, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand;
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand;
4
Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management, Bangkok, Thailand, e-mail:
noppadon.k@chula.ac.th
Abstract
Herbicides have been used intensively in many agricultural area of Southeast Asia including
northern part of Thailand. Herbicide utilization could lead to contamination as well as adverse effects
on vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Therefore it is crucial to monitor herbicide contamination in
physical and biological environments of the agricultural area. At Nan Province, northern part of
Thailand, soil and water were collected from 1) a reference paddy field where no herbicide was used
and 2) a contaminated paddy field where herbicides have been used routinely. Results of GC-MS
(atrazine) and HPLC (glyphosate and paraquat) analyses showed that detectable level of atrazine
(0.15 mg/L) was found only in water of the contaminated site. To monitor the extent of herbicide
contamination in biological sample, a rice field crab Esanthelphusa nani has been used as a sentinel
species as it lives primarily in paddy fields with direct exposure to herbicide contaminated soil and
water. Crabs were field collected from the two study sites and subjected to herbicide residue analysis
by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that detectable levels of
atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat were found in crab from both sites. Interestingly, significantly
higher level of atrazine residue was found in tissue of crabs from the contaminated site. Moreover, the
level of paraquat residue in crabs from both sites was much higher than the maximum residue limit in
food. Since the rice field crab has been used as food for local farmers, this level of paraquat
contamination could pose some serious risk for human consumption. Overall results indicated that a
prolonged and intensive herbicide utilization could lead to contamination in environment as well as in
the crab or the non-target organism living in the agricultural environment.
Keywords: atrazine, glyphosate, paraquat, GC-MS, HPLC, ELISA, crustaceans
53
S6-Po-1
Rodent consumption in khon kaen province, thailand
Kanokwan Suwannarong1,2 and Robert SChapman2
1
FHI 360, Asia-Pacific Regional Office (APRO), 2 College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn
University, Bangkok; Thailand
Correspondence: Kanokwan Suwannarong, FHI 360, 130-132 19thFloor, Tower 3, Sindhorn
Building, Lumpini, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330
Tel: +66-81-717-5572
E-mail:ksuwannarong@fhi360.org; kanokwan27@yahoo.com
Abstract
Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne infections worldwide, including Southeast Asia and
northeastern Thailand (Isaan), where rodent consumption maybe a source of rodent-borne diseases.
The behavior of consuming rodents is related to a population’s traditions, knowledge, cultural, and
household contexts, among other factors. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Khon Kaen
Province, Thailand during November-December 2011. It aimed to elicit information about rodent
consumption among residents of this province, and to identify factors associated with rodent
consumption there. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender, large family size,
and use of rainwater as the main source of drinking water were positively associated with reported
rodent consumption in this province, while having proper knowledge/attitudes towards animal-borne
disease was negatively associated. These results provide an evidence-base information for further
studies, such as participatory action research to further explore how people interact with rodents in
different contexts. Further research is also needed to characterize risk of zoonotic disease in relation
to rodent consumption.
Keywords: Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC), Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program,
Khon Kaen, rodent-borne disease, PREVENT Project, rodent consumption, Thailand
54
S6-Po-2
“Local Government Organization and the Promotion of Sustainable Agriculture:
Reflection on Agrochemical Impacts in Nan Province”
Ms. Thamonwan Jitsong
Master Student in Natural Resources and Environmental Law
Faculty of Law, Thammasat University,
Summary for Biodiversity and Health Symposium in Phnom Penh
Abstract
Reflecting on the case of Nan, a province situated in Northern Thailand, the people have long been
relying on agriculture. Despite limited plantation areas, influences from national policies and market
demand of certain commercial crops have been motivated drastic increase of cultivation areas, which
followed by immense uses of agrochemicals for the purpose of the most harvests. Impacts of
agrochemical use not only shown in ruining farmers and the people’s health but residues also found in
animals and in the environment as well as danger from unsafe waste management. With awareness of
the link between local agricultural practice and health, this Study aim to eliminate legal barriers and
suggest possible legal adjustments to empower Local Government Organization in implementing The
Promotion of Sustainable Agriculture for the purpose of the most effective and sustainable local
agricultural problem solving.
55
S6-Po-3
ComAcross & LACANET projects, working in partnership at the animal-environmenthuman interface in Southeast Asia: One Health actions in Southeast Asia under the
INNOVATE EU program
Authors: A. Binot*1,5, P. Horwood2, A. Fine3, P. Newton4, F. Goutard1,5, J. Cappelle1,2, M.
Pruvot3, S. Kasemsuwan5, R. Sayaphet4, Soubanh Silithammavong3, W. Theppangna6, S. San7, V.
Putthana8, A. Tarantola2.
1 CIRAD-AGIRs (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le
Développement) ; 2 Pasteur Institute of Cambodia; 3 Wildlife Conservation Society; 4 The University
of Oxford-LOMWRU; 5 Kasetsart University; 6 National Animal Health Laboratory; 7 National
Veterinary Research Institute; 8 National University of Laos
Abstract
Southeast Asia (SEA) is threatened by rapid environmental changes and land use changes,
biodiversity erosion and modifications in animal husbandry which impact on zoonotic diseases’
emergence and vector-borne diseases transmission. The management of such diseases calls for the
implementation of a One Health approach.
Within the framework of the INNOVATE European Union program (“One Health in Asia”), the
ComAcross and LACANET projects are combining resources and expertise to implement One Health
actions at the forefront of research and capacity building in SEA.
Understanding environmental (pathogens, hosts and environment interactions) and social processes
(risk perception, local practices, surveillance and control measures’ acceptability) is key to
sustainably address zoonotic diseases. Our aim is to develop intense research networking and
combine it into a “case study”-based approach in SEA to promote knowledge sharing and crosssectoral collaboration. Elaborating on pre-existing initiatives conducted in SEA, the regional partners
will improve their capacity in surveillance and risk analysis, socioeconomic and land use change
assessment, wildlife monitoring, laboratory diagnosis, risk communication and networking, as well as
zoonotic diseases management. Throughout this “learning by doing” process combined to One Health
Education programs and “a la carte” trainings, they will enhance their knowledge and competences to
analyze and manage zoonotic diseases within a cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary framework.
Key words: Zoonotic diseases, One Health, multidisciplinary research, capacity building, Southeast
Asia
56
Supported by
57
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