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Mrs. Poochigian’s Fall Semester 2016 Study Guide
 Psychology Semester 1 Study Guide for Semester 1 Exam
 Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6
 100 Multiple Choice and 2 FRQ
 Multiple Choice Questions to come from past quizzes
 Binder paper will be needed for the essay portion.
Chapter 1 History and Approaches
 Psychology Perspectives and major beliefs associated with each: Behaviorism, Cognitive,
Social-Cultural, Biological, Humanistic, Psychoanalytic
 Perspectives Main Contributors/Contributions: James, Wundt, Tichener, Watson,
Pavlov, Skinner, Maslow
Chapter 2 Research Methods
 Types of research methods: naturalistic, case study, survey, correlational, experiment
 Downfalls and Benefits of each type of method
 Components of an experiment: independent, dependent, confounding variables
 Measures of Central tendency: Mean, median, mode
 Measures of variation: standard deviation
 Validity vs. Reliability
 Bell Curve: positive vs. negatively skewed
 Random Assignment
 Statistical Significance
 Placebo: Why do we use it? What are the benefits?
 Understand ethical principles of the APA when using research and experiments.
Chapter 3: Biological Bases of Behavior
 Action potential and neural transmission
 Absolute refractory period
 Neuron: purpose and function of; dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, terminal buttons,
synaptic gap
 Purpose of mirror neurons
 Limbic System: Hippocampus, Amygdala, Hypothalamus
 Neurotransmitters and Functions: Serotonin, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Excitatory and
 Divisions of the peripheral nervous system: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
 Endocrine System and Glands: Pancreas, Thyroid, Adrenal, Pituitary
o Hormones associated with endocrine system
 Tools to Discover the Brain: EEG, MRI, PET, CAT
 Hemispheric Specialization: right brain vs. left brain functions
 Agonist vs Antagonist
 Parts of the brain and function: medulla, cerebellum, brain stem, etc.
 Lobes and cortex’ of the brain: parietal, temporal, occipital, frontal, motor cortex, visual
Feature Detectors
Brain Plasiticity
Broca’s Area vs. Wernicke’s Area
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
 Absolute threshold
 Definition of sensory adaptation
 Visual acuity, ie. Fovea
 Anatomical structure of the eye: Parts and Functions
 Visual receptors: rods, cones, bipolar, and ganglion cells
 Anatomical structure of the ear and functions
 Theories of color: Opponent Process vs. Trichromatic
 Gate Control Theory of Pain
 Binocular and monocular depth cues
 Gestalt Principles of Organization: figure-ground, closure, proximity, similarity,
continuity, connectedness
 Perceptual Constancy: size, shape, color
Chapter 5: States of Consciousness
 Sleep disorders and treatments: narcolepsy, sleep apnea, insomnia
 Biological clock: circadian rhythm
 Psychoactive Drugs Categories and affects: depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens
 Psychoactive Drugs: drugs that fall into each category
 Stages of sleep
 Tolerance
 Withdrawal
Chapter 6: Learning
 Classical Conditioning components: US, UR, CS, CR
 Generalization, Discrimination, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery
 Latent Learning
 Operant Conditioning and Components: positive vs. negative reinforcement; positive vs.
negative punishment
 Primary vs. Secondary reinforcers
 Successive Approximations (shaping)
 Continuous vs. Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedules: Ratio vs. Interval, Fixed
vs. Variable
 Social Learning Theory: Observational Learning; Bandura’s Bobo doll Experiment
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