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Bell Work 9/11
What are some “rocks” that are
valuable? Why do you think these
“rocks” are so valuable? Explain.
Update your ISN…
p. 14 Chapter 9 cover sheet
p. 15 Learning targets
p. 16-17 Vocabulary
P. 18-19 Ch 9-1 Notes
Rocks and Minerals
oGlue your notes guide on page 18 and 19
oHow would you have described a mineral
and a rock last week?
“Learning Target”……..

“I Can…..”
Identify the
differences
between a
mineral and
a rock.
What is a mineral?
A mineral ……
o Is an Inorganic solid formed in nature
(Inorganic -- not living or ever been living.
It is not formed by plants or animals)
o Has a characteristic-”FIXED”- chemical
composition
o Has distinctive physical properties
o Has a Crystalline structure (-- an orderly
arrangement of atoms)
Crystals
•Minerals with some solid, geometric shape to them are
called crystals. They are produced by a repeating pattern
of atoms that is present throughout the mineral.
•
•
•
•
Crystals can be made from different elements:
(ex: diamonds –are made from carbon)
(salt—is made from the elements sodium and
and chlorine.
Crystals cont’d
• A crystal’s shape is determined by the
arrangement of the atoms within the crystal.
• A crystal’s color is determined by the elements
that are mixed in.
• Crystals are not just what we think of as jewelry.
You actually eat many different types of crystals(
such as salt, sugar, baking soda)
Minerals are more
common than you think….
Currently, about 4,000 minerals have
been identified, and 50 to 100 new
minerals are discovered each year!!
We use them in our everyday
households such as metal pots and pans,
salt shakers, dishware, and even
glassware!!!
How do minerals form?
They form in several ways:
1. From melted rock inside the Earth called
magma
o As it cools the atoms combine in orderly patterns to
form minerals
2. From magma that reaches Earth’s surface, called lava
o As it cools the atoms combine in orderly patterns to form
minerals
3. Evaporation of dissolved minerals
4. From precipitation *water can hold dissolved minerals.
8 Properties of Minerals
include:
• Color
Luster
• Streak
Hardness
• Cleavage & Fracture
• Density
• Specific Gravity
• Special Properties
Color: Not Mineral Specific
It’s the LEAST reliable way to classify a mineral!!
Luster: (shininess)
It’s describes how minerals
reflect light
Metallic Non-metallic
Streak:
Is the mineral in it’s powdered form
of a mineral
NOTE: The color of a mineral’s streak is not
always the same as the color of the mineral sample.
Cleavage & Fracture
Describes how different types of minerals break in
different ways.
Cleavage is the tendency of some minerals to break
along smooth, flat surfaces.
Mica
Biotite Mica
Calcite
• Fracture is the tendency of some
minerals to break unevenly along
curved or irregular surfaces
Hardness: A mineral’s resistance to
being scratched. This is tested using the
Mohs’ Scale of hardness (pg. 272)
The Mohs’ scale was founded by an
Austrian geologist: Fredrich Mohs.
Ooohhh!! Diamonds!
• Diamonds are the hardest known mineral (10 on
Mohs’ Hardness Scale)
• They are formed very deep in the Earth and at great
pressure
• It takes 250 tons of Earth to obtain a 1.00 Ct Diamond!
• It takes 1405 degrees of heat to burn a Diamond!
• Only Diamonds can Scratch or Polish another Diamond!
• Diamonds come in wonderful fancy colors like, Pink,
Blue, Green, Champagne, Black, Chocolate,
Yellow, Red, Gray, and even Purples! (such as the famous
HOPE diamond, which is blue!!)
Did You Know?
• The largest diamond in the world is the Cullinan
diamond weighing 3,106 carats! It was cut into 105
separate diamonds.
Trivia Question:
If Diamonds are the hardest mineral, what is the
second hardest mineral?
Corundum!!!! Which is the mineral
name for ruby and sapphire.
Density and Specific Gravity
• Density is the measure of how much matter is in a
given amount of space.
• Density is a ratio of an object’s mass to its volume.
(D= m/v)
• Different minerals have different densities.
• A mineral’s Specific Gravity compares the
weight of a mineral with the weight of an equal
volume of water.
Special Properties
• Some properties are particular to only a
few types of minerals.
- The properties shown on the next slide
can help you quickly identify some
minerals.
Special Properties
Gems
• are rare minerals that can be cut and polished, giving
them a beautiful appearance
• Ideal for jewelry
• Are rare and are therefore valuable
• Must be made under tremendous amounts of heat
and pressure, deep in the Earth’s mantle
• It takes a certain kind of volcanic eruption to bring
diamonds close to the surface
Ores
• A mineral is called an ore if it contains enough of a
useful substance that it can be sold for a profit
• Metals that people use, such as:
• Iron used to make steel comes from hematite
• Lead for batteries comes from galena
• Magnesium in vitamins comes from dolamite
• In order to obtain these ores, they must be mined
“Learning Target”……..

“I Can…..”
Use a table of
physical
properties to
classify
minerals.
Bellwork
9-2-15
A mineral MUST…..
S ----N ----I -----F -----“Fixed” _______ ______
C ------
What is a Mineral?
What is a mineral?
A mineral is a naturally formed,
inorganic solid, with a fixed
chemical composition , that
has a definite crystalline
structure.
What is a mineral?

Solid


Cannot be a liquid or a gas
Naturally Occurring

Found in nature, not man-made
I
 norganic
 Is not living nor has ever been living

Fixed chemical composition


Has a definite chemical formula, most are formed from two
or more elements, but some minerals consist of one element
ex. Au
Crystalline structure

A definite structure in which atoms are arranged in a
geometric pattern
Questions to ask yourself when determining if
an item is a mineral or not:
Is it non-living material?
 Is it a solid?
 Is it formed in nature?
 Does it have a crystalline structure?

Gold
Fossil
Topaz
Bones
Granite
Quartz
Pearls
Talc
Icebergs
Diamond
Coal
Rock Salt
And the answers are…

Minerals
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Gold
Topaz
Quartz
Talc
Iceberg*
Diamonds
Non-Minerals
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
Wood - once living
Fossils – once living
Bone - living material
Granite - intrusive igneous rock
Pearls – made by oysters
Coal - Sedimentary rock
Rock Salt – Sedimentary rock
*FYI: According to the MA (International Mineral
Association) ice is listed as a mineral!
Quick Check…..
Can
you
name all
eight
physical
properties of
minerals?
Color
 Luster
 Streak
 Hardness
 Cleavage &
Fracture
 Density
 Specific Gravity
 Special Properties

Update your ISN…
p. 36:
“Practice: Identifying
Minerals”
Objective: I can use a
chart to identify minerals.
Bellwork Sept 16, 2014
Paste the half-slip review sheet FLAT
onto page p. 36 (“Treasures in
Earth” will glue over later).
*Complete sheet
*Get out “Treasures in Earth” sheet
and
begin working on it
Update your ISN…
p. 37:
“Quiz: Minerals”
*Add today’s date
*Add to T.O.C.
Bell Work 9/17
B
Update your ISN…
1. p. 38:
“Mineral Lab Wrap Up”
Objective: I can use a table of
physical properties to identify
minerals.
2. p. 39:
“Mineral I.D. Lab”
*Add to T.O.C.
*Add today’s date
“Learning Target”……..

“I Can…..”
Use a table of
physical
properties to
classify
minerals.
Assignment………
 Use
your table #
to complete the
“Minerals
Identification”
lab.
 When you finish,
glue to p. 39
Hint: The Minerals can only be one
of the following:
 Fluorite
 Calcite
 Galena
Halite
Quartz
Mica
Gypsum
Feldspar
Talc
Bellwork 9/18/14
Look at the different mineral samples provided. Then,
list GOOD, reliable properties that could be used to
distinguish between the two minerals. What property
would be the least reliable way to identify them and
why? Apply what you have learned about minerals!! 
Sample 1
54
Sample 2
54
“Learning Target”……..
ISN p.40:

Objective:

I can
distinguish
between the
three different
types of rocks.
ROCKS
and the
Rock
Cycle!!!
So What Exactly is a Rock??
A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of
one or more minerals and “organic” matter.
-Rocks go through a “cycle”, meaning they are
always changing into different forms. They
are continually being “recycled” through a
process called the “Rock Cycle”.
-Can you think of another “cycle” that you
have learned about in Science?
All change!
So how do rocks change??
Rocks may last a long time but they do change.
Even tough igneous rocks may be broken down
to smaller particles. We call this process
weathering.
Small particles may be moved to new areas. We
call this transportation.
The two processes together (weathering and
transportation) are called erosion.
Classifying Rocks
• Each class of rock can be divided further and
classified based on the different ways rocks form.
• Igneous rock can be divided again based on whether
the magma from which it forms cools on the
Earth’s surface or below ground.
• Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also
divided into smaller groups.
• Scientists study rocks in detail using two important
criteria: composition and texture.
What determines a rock’s
composition?
• The minerals a rock contains determines the
Composition, or chemical makeup, of a rock.
• (ex: a rock made mostly of quartz will have a composition similar to
•
•
quartz.But a rock made of 50% quartz and 50% feldspar will look
different than that of quartz)
•
quartz
Quartz
&
feldspar
Rocks have Quality!!!
•Texture is the size, shape, and position of the
rock’s grains. It’s what determines the “quality” of
a rock.
•Texture provides clues as to “how” and “where”
the rock actually formed and reveals the process
that formed it.
Siltstone
Fine grained
Sandstone
Medium grained
Conglomerate
Coarse-grained
3 Major Types of Rocks
Igneous Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
Look at these pictures of rocks.
•How are they different?
•How are they the same?
Igneous Rocks “fire rocks”
The word “ignis” means
“fire”
Igneous rocks are made either
underground or above ground.
Igneous Rocks – ‘fire rocks’

Underground: melted
rock, called magma, cools
slowly and solidifies to
become igneous rocks.
Igneous Rocks – ‘fire rocks’

Above ground:
volcanoes erupt,
bringing the
magma to the
earth's surface,
it is called lava.
The lava cools
and becomes
igneous rocks.
The way IGNEOUS ROCK
forms often depends on:


A) How fast the rock
cooled
B) what the rock is
made of


The longer it takes for
magma to cool the
more time mineral
crystals have to grow.
The more time the
crystals have to grow,
the larger they will be
!! The rock will also
be more coarse.
In other words:




If magma (lava) cools
fast the result is …..
Smaller, finer crystals
Or no crystals at all
Fine-grained rock!!



If magma (lava) cools
slow the result is …..
Larger crystals
Coarse-grained rock!!
Something to think about???

Do you think rocks that cooled and
solidified from LAVA on Earth’s surface
would look different from those that cooled
and solidified from MAGMA inside the
Earth?

WHY?
Igneous Rocks
What are They?
Igneous rock can form in different places.
 If they cool inside the Earth, they are called
large
__________
igneous rocks and have _______
intrusive
crystals.
 If they cool on the surface, they are called
extrusive
small
__________
igneous rocks and have _______
crystals. This usually forms around volcanoes.

Igneous Rocks – ‘fire rocks’
Granite
Pumice
Basalt
Obsidian
Bell
Work
9/22
1
G
2
B
Update your agenda…
Tue 9/23: Mini Quiz #1
Thur 9/25: Mini Quiz #2
Fri 9/26: Mini Quiz #3
Mon 9/29: Mini Quiz #4
Tue 9/30: Foldable Due
Time for a Refresher!!



Study the picture of
the rock to the right.
What can you infer
about the composition
and the texture of the
rock?
What does this tell us
about the formation of
this rock?
Intrusive Igneous
Rock
--Coarse Grained
--Can see Crystals
Sedimentary Rocks
“sandwich rocks”

For millions of years,
little pieces of our
earth (called particles)
have been broken
down by wind and
water.
Sedimentary Rock
“sandwich rocks”

These little bits of
our earth are
washed to the
bottom of the rivers,
lakes, and oceans
where they settle
and are compressed
together over time.
Sedimentary Rock “sandwich rocks”

Many layers of small pieces of earth collect on top
of each other in layers. These layers are pressed
down more and more until the bottom layers slowly
turn into hard rock.
4 Steps in which Sedimentary
Rocks are Formed




Wind and water break down the earth
Bits of earth settle in lakes and rivers
Layers are formed and build up
Pressure and time turn the layers to rock
Sedimentary Rock – ‘sandwich rocks’
Limestone
Coal
Sandstone
Sedimentary rock takes thousands to millions
of years to form.
Erosion of solid rock over time has produced
sediments and shaped our earth!!!
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Sandstone
Limestone
Shale
Conglomerate
The most common form of sedimentary rock
on Earth is “Shale”. It covers about threefourth’s of the land’s surface.
1
F
Bell
Work
9/23
2
G
Metamorphic Rock – ‘changing rocks’
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have "morphed"
or changed into another kind of rock. The word
metamorphic means “changed form”. These rocks
were once igneous or sedimentary rocks.
Metamorphic Rock – ‘changing rock’

Millions of tons of heat and pressure
have made these rocks change.
Metamorphic Rock – ‘changing rock’

Most rocks will melt at a temperature of
__________.
Two types of texture in
Metamorphic Rock:
Foliated
 Arranged in
layers or bands
 Ex:
Slate
Nonfoliated
 Are made of only a
few minerals:
 Do not have layers or
bands
Under pressure and
Feeling the Heat!!!
(Horseshoe shaped)
Metamorphic rock is like
plastic!!

When rocks metamorphose under
high temperature and pressure,
they become plastic and can be
easily deformed.

The largest range of
exposed metamorphic rock
in the world is the Canadian
Shield. It is the source of
more than 70% of the
minerals mined in Canada.
Types of
Metamorphic Rocks
Schist
Gneiss
Metamorphic Rock “changing rock”
Marble
Slate
Quartzite
1
Bell
Work
9/24
F
2
D
Update your ISN…
p. 42 Types of Rocks: Graphic
Organizer
*Add today’s objective
p.43 Mini Quizzes: Rocks
Tee hee!
I’m so
pun-y!
*Now-clear your desk
except for a dry erase
marker if you have one…
if not,
I’ll
share.

Okay, let’s review!!!
Take the challenge on the following slides
about the 3 types of rocks and see how
much you actually know!!!
Quick Review:
Rock types
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
Sedimentary
Sedimentary rocks
Often look like flat plates stuck together.
Grains often visible, these can crumble apart.
Fossils can be present.
Rocks come from flat beds.
Often porous (let water pass through easily).
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
Igneous rocks
Igneous rocks
Tough rocks with no plates visible.
The crystals (if you can see them) often interlock
and run in different directions.
No fossils present – EVER!
Rocks do not form in flat beds.
Non-porous (will not let water through)
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
Metamorphic rock
Metamorphic rocks
Often ‘sugary’ with particles that can be arranged in
sheets or randomly.
Remains of fossils sometimes present – but not often.
Beds often have wavy bands.
Often less porous than sedimentary rocks – but
metamorphic rocks show a wide range of porosity.
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
Ready?!
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
Your first specimen...
?
Clues:
Crystals visible
Very tough rock
Water cannot pass through (not porous)
Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?
Igneous!
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
How about this one...
?
Clues:
Fossils present
Very porous
Layers visible
Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?
Sedimentary!
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
And this one...
?
Clues:
Grains very small
Clear layers
Not porous
No fossils
Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?
Metamorphic!
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
Last chance...
?
Clues:
Grains very small
No layers
Not porous
No fossils
Is it sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic?
Metamorphic!
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
True or false?
True or false?
1. Igneous rocks form from cooling magma
produced by volcanoes.
TRUE
2. Sedimentary rocks never contain fossils.
FALSE
3. Igneous rocks are usually very porous.
FALSE
4. Sedimentary rocks often have layers.
TRUE
5. Granite is a metamorphic rock.
FALSE
© OUP: To be used solely in purchaser’s school or college
1
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Bell
Work
9/25…
there is
one
more
on the
next
slide 
Bell
Work
9/25
2
J
Update your ISN…
p. 43 “Mini Quizzes: Rocks &
Rock Cycle”
p. 44… leave blank for now
p. 45 9.3 Notes Guide
Bell Work 9/26
1. Explain how the 3 types of
rocks are different from each
other. List at least 4 ways they
differ.
Rocks and the Rock Cycle…
Remember rocks go through a “cycle”,
meaning they are always changing. New
rocks continually form from old rocks and
old rocks get recycled. We call this process
process the “Rock Cycle”. This process is
similar to other cycles we know of such as
the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen
cycle.
The Value of Rock
• Rock has been an important natural resource
for as long as humans have existed.
• Ancient and modern civilizations have used
granite, limestone, marble sandstone, slate and
other rocks as construction materials.
• Rock is also an important ingredient in
concrete and plaster, both of which are
commonly used in construction.
Processes That Shape the Earth
•
Certain geological processes make
and destroy rock.
• These processes shape the features of
our planet.
• These processes also influence the
type of rock that is found in certain
areas.
•
Processes That Shape the Earth
include:
•Weathering
•Erosion
•Deposition
•Lithification
•.
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
•The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break
down rock is called weathering.
• Weathering is important because it breaks down rock
into fragments from which sedimentary rock is made.
• Wind, water, ice, and gravity then transports soil
and sediment from one location to another through a
process called erosion.
• As the process continues sediments are later moved
by erosion and eventually dropped and comes to rest in
a process called deposition.
Processes That Shape the Earth, continued
As rock particles and organic matter are moved to
a place of deposition and are covered by additional
particles, eventually the weight from above will start
a process called lithification.
Lithification involves two steps:
A) compaction --squeezes out the fluids and
space that exist between the particles.
B) cementation--- results when the fluids that are
squeezed out are replaced with minerals that
were in the fluids.
**Once cementation occurs, the new sedimentary
rock has been formed
From Sedimentary Rock to Metamorphic
• Temperature and pressure are important:
•If the heat and pressure are high enough, the rock
can change into metamorphic rock.
• If the rock gets hot enough to melt, this creates
the magma that eventually cools to form igneous
rock.
How the Cycle continues:
• Rock that is buried beneath the earth’s crust is
eventually pushed up (uplifted) to the surface
thanks to movements within the Earth . This
process is called “uplifting”.
•As Erosion continues to chip away at the
Earth’s surface , the rock that has been uplifted
will eventually be exposed to the Earth’s surface.
When uplifted rock reaches the Earth’s surface,
weathering, erosion, and deposition begin to help
the cycle begin all over again.
What happens to older rock?????
•As new rock is pushed
up towards the surface,
older rock is pushed
down!!.
The Rock Cycle in Action:
Let’s review:
Illustration of the Rock Cycle
Rock formation does not have to
go through a direct pattern.
•Understand that sedimentary rock can become
igneous rock just as metamorphic rock can become
sedimentary rock!!
•Remember:
•The rock cycle is not an overnight process. It may
take millions to tens of millions of years for each
process in the rock cycle to occur!!!.
Bell
Work
9/29
1
B
2
C
Good News!!!
Only one mini quiz today! 
Mini Quiz #4 on Rock Processes
Not So Great News…
Mini Quiz #5 on Rock Cycle
tomorrow…
You’ll do great though!!
Update your ISN…
p. 44 Types of Rock Foldable
(will not glue in until after I have graded it)
p. 45 9.3 Notes Guide
p. 46 Ch. 9 Study Guide
p.47 Ch. 9 Test
p. 48 Ch. 10 Pre-test
p. 49 Ch. 10 Title Page & Learning Targets
Bell
Work
9/30
1
J
Explain how
Bell
“melting & cooling” Work
10/1
more accurately
describes the
formation of
igneous rocks than
“heat & pressure.”
Okay let’s review again!!!
Take the challenge on the following slides
about the Rock Cycle and see how much
you actually know!!!
The rock cycle
The rock cycle
Rock cycle quiz
1. Metamorphic rocks are made by…
a) heat and pressure acting on other rocks
b) particles dropping out of suspension in streams and
rivers
c) a small factory outside Manchester.
2. Which of these would you NOT find in sedimentary rocks…
a) fossils
b) layered structure
c) interlocking crystals of minerals.
Rock cycle quiz
3. The rock cycle is…
a) a way to explain how types of rocks are converted to other
forms
b) an explanation of how heating and cooling can break down
rocks
c) a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber.
Rock cycle quiz
4. Slow cooling of magma produces rocks with…
a) large crystals
b) small crystals
c) no crystals.
BrainPop! “Rock Cycle”
Click here!
Create a test question. Bell
• It can be one that
Work
you want answered 10/2
before the test
~OR~
• It can be a
challenging one that
I should ask
Question #1




A. GRANITE
Mount Rushmore is one of
the world's greatest
mountain carvings. The
faces of four great
American presidents are
carved in the side of the
Black Hills of South
Dakota.
Mount Rushmore is what
type of rock?
A. granite B.sandstone
C. limestone
D. basalt
Question #2



What rock was an
important landmark for
the pioneers traveling to
Oregon, California, and
Utah? Many of the
travelers carved their
names on this rock or
painted their name on it in
axle grease. What is the
name of this rock?
A. Rock of Gibraltar
B. Plymouth Rock C.
Independence Rock
D. Stonehenge
C. Independence Rock!!!
Question #3





Basalt
Mount St. Helens has
layers of this type of
rock as well as andesite
through which several
domes of dacite lava
have erupted. What is
the name of this rock?
A. Granite
B. Limestone
C. Quartz
D. Basalt
Question #4





layers of this type of
rock can be found at
the Grand Canyon.
What is the name of
this rock?
A. Sandstone
B. Limestone
C. Shale
D. All of these
All of These!!!
Question #5

This famous rock is the
largest stone found of
this type. What is the
name of this mineral?

A. Ruby
B. Sapphire
C. Diamond
D. Emerald



The Hope
Diamond!!!
Question #6





B. Marble
The Taj Mahal in
India was built in 1654
and was constructed
entirely of a
metamorphic rock.
What is the name of
this rock?
A. Gneiss
B. Marble
C. Slate
D. Schist
Question #7



The world's largest mass
of exposed granite is
located in Georgia. This
mass is sometimes called
"the eighth wonder of
the world". What is the
name of this famous
rock formation?
A. Stonehenge
B. Stone Mountain C.
Half Dome
D. Siccar Point
Stone Mountain
Question #8



Rock of Gibraltar

This famous rock
formation is a huge
limestone mass located
on the southern coast of
Spain, near the entrance
to the Mediterranean
Sea. What is the name of
this famous rock
formation?
A. Stonehenge
B. Half Dome C. Rock
of Gibraltar
D. Siccar Point
Question #9
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Pike’s Peak

This famous rock
formation is a region of
huge red and white
sandstone rock masses that
rise in strange shapes. This
rock formation is located
near Colorado Springs,
Colorado. What is the
name of this famous rock
formation?
A. Stonehenge
B. Half Dome C. Pike's
Peak
D. Garden of the Gods
Question# 10
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The Giant's Causeway is
an unusual formation of
rock columns along the
north coast of Northern
Ireland. This natural
wonder gets its name from
an old legend. What type of
igneous rock is found in
this formation?
A. Basalt
B. Granite
C. Obsidian
D. Gabbro
Basalt!!!
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