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Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Cell Division/Meiosis
Sexual
Variation
Recombination
Gametes
Offspring
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Cell Division/Meiosis
Meiosis produces haploid gametes for Sexual Reproduction
4 genetically unique haploid cells!
Chromosomes undergo CrossingOver = Different Gene Combos!!
4 genetically unique haploid cells!
Get different chromosomes =
Independent Assortment
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Chromosomal Defects
There Should be two copies of every chromosome (i.e., 23 pairs for
Humans) in every cell due to Sexual Reproduction.
But, chromosomes stick together during
Crossing-Over and can accidentally stay
attached.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Punnett Squares
Parents are Purple
because:
However, they are
Heterozygous - So:
Offspring show
Variation because:
Random because:
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Genetics/Inheritance
Their Offspring
receive:
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Genetics/Inheritance
Complete Dominance!
Heterozygous for Red Fruits
Red is dominant to yellow
Rr
R
r
x
Rr
R
r
RR
Rr
Rr
rr
What if it was
Incomplete
Dominance?
Examples such as
Snapdragon or Fouro’Clock Flowers?
What if it was
Codominance?
Examples such as
Sickle-Cell Anemia or
Roan Cows?
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Genetics/Inheritance
Blood Types
Not all Traits have just the two allele
choices.
Three Alleles.
IA, IB, and i.
ABO Blood Types are controlled by
one gene, but have three options.
Heterozygous Type A Parent = IAi
Type O Parent = ii
i
i
IA
IAi
IAi
i
ii
ii
What is the first parent was AB?
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Genetics/Inheritance
Not all Traits have just the one controlling Gene.
Polygenic Traits show great Variation due to the options.
Three identical Genes with two
possible alleles showing Incomplete
Dominance!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Human Genetics
You supposed to know about Human examples of each type of
Inheritance and possible Mutational Mistakes.
Huntington’s Disease and the
Brain – Dominant!!
Cystic fibrosis - recessive!!
PKU – defective
enzyme = diet
can be adjusted!!
Sickle-Cell Anemia codominant!!
Hemophilia – X-linked!!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Pedigree
For this Pedigree
If the Trait is
recessive – who
is affected?
Who is a
Carrier?
?
For this Pedigree
If the Trait is
Dominant – who
is affected?
Who is a
Carrier?
Why is this NOT a Sex-Linked Trait?
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Recombinant DNA
Since DNA is “Universal”, it can be cut and transferred from species to
species. You need to understand the basic process.
Restriction Enzyme to “cut”, Plasmid = Vector to transport Gene, as
Recombinant DNA, and Transgenic Organism that Expresses foreign
DNA
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Cloning
Transgenic Organisms can be difficult to form. Cloning will produce
Identical “Offspring” that also express the new Genes.
Dolly (right) is a clone,
Polly (left) is a clone that carries a human
gene for Factor IX that is a treatment for
Hemophilia B.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – DNA Fingerprint
Why is it clear that D2 and S2 are NOT children
of these parents?
What is interesting about D2?
Who Did It?!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Pasteur Experiment
Remember!
The Cell Theory
states:
1) The Cell is the
Basic Unit of
Life.
2) All living
things are
Cells or made
of Cells.
3) Cells come
from Preexisting Cells.
Pasteur showed
BioGenesis!!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Miller/Urey Exp.
Miller/Urey
demonstrated that
Organic Molecules
could form in
conditions similar to
the early Earth.
Organic Molecules are
the Building Blocks of
Life!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Endosymbiosis
Prokaryotes are the simplest and oldest living things on Earth.
Eukaryotes appear later as Team Players = Endosymbiosis!
Mitochondria 1st!
Chloroplasts 2nd!
Aerobic Respiration!
Photosynthesis in Algae!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Evolution
Evolution refers to the fact that organisms Change through Time.
Horse
evolution is
well
documented in
the Fossil
Record.
They change
from smaller,
four-toed
swamp
dwellers into
huge grasseating, singletoed
grasslands
specialists!
Individual
organisms DO
NOT evolve!
They already
have their
DNA that
codes for their
traits!!
Populations
evolve as they
sort out the
possible genes /
alleles that
support their
survival and
Fitness!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – The Fossil Record
The Fossil Record shows real organisms from the past. Allows
comparison to modern groups to evaluate how they have changed.
Newest
Advanced
Cenozoic
Age of Mammals!
Mesozoic
All comparisons of Shape and Structure
= MORPHOLOGY!!
Age of Dinosaurs, 1st
Angiosperms/Insects!
Paleozoic
w/first vertebrates,
trilobites, early
plants and animals!
Oldest
Primitive
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Natural Selection
Evolution occurs to make organisms “Adapted” to their Niches. Occurs
through Competition that modifies the Survivors.
Adaptations:
Competition:
Any structure, process, or behaviors
that allows an organism to survive in its
Niche.
Direct interactions for the same
Resources. There can be Only One
per Niche.
Peppered Moths of Europe
Saw-whet Owl and Kestrel are both small
predators. Coexist because?
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Selection, Evolution
Evolution leads to differences in Populations that were once all similar.
Experiment by Diane Dodd – 1989.
1. Original
Population / Species.
2. Separated into
two groups using
different Food
Sources.
3. Generations =
Sex/Meiosis/Mutations
that form new alleles =
Difference!.
4. Stay
Separate! New
Species of Flies!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Variation in Evolution
If all organisms of a species were THE SAME, they could not be
differentiated through Competition. They would be Evenly Matched!
A “King” Cheetah importantly
represents?
Lions in a Pride all look very similar –
WHY?!
How do Lion Prides make sure there is
some Genetic Variation?
Cheetahs are in REAL trouble due
to Inbreeding. Why is this picture
so Rare?
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Variation in Evolution
Variation in Populations is essential to Evolution = Choices!
Variation in Ladybugs.
All different patterns of Garter Snakes.
This Variation is in color banding
patterns, but could also be in any other
trait since they all change randomly and
could be important features.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Variation in Evolution
Species always start highly as small inbred populations, but develop
Variation over time through what processes?
Khoisan “Bushmen” of S.
Africa are most ancient
recognized “race” of H.
sapiens.
Hawaiian Happy-Face Spider
Mutation forms New Alleles / Options!
Meiosis allows for Random Spread of all
of those differing traits.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Speciation
Members of the SAME Species should:
Look Alike = Same Adaptations = Morphological Species Concept,
Interbreed Only with “Their” Species = Biological Species Concept.
Bald Eagles and Golden Eagles are
obviously related! Once the Same!
Interbreeding!!
Now! Sexual Selection and Reproductive
Isolation Keep them Separate from other
species. Do Not Interbreed and they are
Different SPECIES!!
They were split up as they were
separated into small discrete
populations = Geographic
Isolation!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Fitness
Survival of the Fittest is based on the ability to survive and have
Offspring. Offspring then pass on the Genes that provide for the
successful Adaptations of Evolution.
Pallidus Octopus
guarding its eggs.
And
Newly hatched
Octopus.
Three Striped Poison Dart Frog
carrying its eggs on its back until
they hatch.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Evolution/Adaptation
PRO!
EU!
Life on Earth is all related!
But the broad diversity stems from
Evolution of new and different
Traits for new and different Niches.
Endosymbiosis!
Multicellular!
Prokaryotes 1st
Eukaryotes 2nd
Multicellular Kingdoms Next
And so on!
Different Niches = Different
Adaptations.
All from the same original
Organism!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Evolutionary Traits
All have same basic structure indicating that they
are related = Tetrapod Vertebrates!!
HOMOLOGOUS!!
Divergent Evolution.
But,
These are
Wings!
ANALOGOUS!!
Convergent Evolution.
BUT – Both are adapted for Flight via different successful
structure. Wings Fly and LOOK similar, but Different!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Adaptive Radiations
Organisms have to come from somewhere! Pre-existing species
CHANGE as they adapt to new environments. Divergent Evolution.
In some spectacular cases, major groups start with a single species that
separates into many species = Divergence.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Convergent Evolution
Organisms that live in similar Niches tend to possess similar adaptations.
This is called “Convergent” because different groups become alike.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Names and Groups
Naming Organisms is important to separate and recognize them.
Binomial Nomenclature provides very
specific names for organisms that
cannot be confused with other
organisms,
Genus species are two words!
Linnaeus’s Seven Levels.
Panthera pardus
K-P-C-O-F-G-s!
White-Yellow animal, panther
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Virus
Viruses are NON-LIVING Particles that use Host Cells!
This is HIV.
Retrovirus with
RNA.
Lysogenic Virus!
Infects T Cells of
the Immune
System which
compromises the
ability to fight off
Infection and
Cancer.
Also similar to Influenza which
causes Flu!
Viruses can only be defeated by YOUR Immune System! Smallpox has a
30% death Rate depending on your Immune System.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Vaccines / Immunity
Viruses are difficult to treat because they use Host Cells. But they can be
prevented by helping your Immune System Target Them!
T Cells activate
your Immune
System IF THEY
CAN IDENTIFY
the Invader =
ANTIGEN!
They then
Activate the B
Cells and attack
Cell Targets like
Tumors and Viral
Infected Cells!
B Cells make
ANTIBODIES!
These Bind to and
Target the
Antigens for
Destruction!!
Antibodies spread
throughout the
body to “Mark”
the Antigens.
Since Vaccines expose your body to Antigens safely, your Immune
System Can Now Make Antibodies for Survival!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Bacteria
First and simplest Cells. Characterized by lack of a Nucleus and other
Membrane-Bound Organelles.
DECOMPOSERS!!
DISEASE Causing!!
Critical Recyclers
that finish breaking
down/Recycling
matter back to the
Producers!
Can use living
tissues to survive!
Different species can
Metabolize anything
if they have the
correct Enzymes!
Remember NITROGEN-FIXING
Bacteria in Legume Root Nodules
that produce Nitrates.
Consume flesh or
release toxic
molecules that
damage the
organism!
ANTIBIOTIC
TREATMENTS can
Kill them!
Should Know about
Streptococcus as a
Disease example.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Natural Selection,
Conjugation, and Homeostasis
Green is more adapted than
Brown – Unless?!
All about overcoming Antibiotics!
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Protista
Unicellular Eukaryotic Organisms. You need to know Four (4)!
Paramecium with Cilia
and Contractile
Vacuoles
Euglena with Chloroplasts
and Flagella
Plasmodium showing “spores”
erupting from red blood cells
and their “Vector” mosquito
Amoeba showing
Pseudopodia and Food
Vacuoles
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Fungi
Multicellular Terrestrial Decomposers. Niche involves break-down of
tough food sources such as Cellulose.
Extracellular Digestion. Drill, Digest,
and Drink!
Many Fungi compete with bacteria and produce
various Antibiotics.
Yeast are Fungi and are
important in food
production of bread and
alcohol.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Plant Adaptations
Bryophytes = Mosses
First – small, nonvascular, spores,
swimming gametes.
Ferns = Vascular Plants
Second – Vascular and
Large, but spores and
swimming gametes?
Seedless.
Gymnosperms = Conifers
Third – Large and Vascular,
Pollen, Cones with Seeds.
Angiosperms = Flowering Plants
Fourth – Flowers and Pollination.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Plant Diversity
Multicellular Autotrophs! Know the basic forms of plants to recognize
Names and Traits.
Seed Plants make Pollen which can
Spread through the Air!
Fully Terrestrial!!
Gymnosperms possess Cones
to protect their Seeds.
Angiosperms produce Flowers and
often Fruits to facilitate Sexual
Reproduction with Insects.
Monocots and Dicots.
Two main groups of Angiosperms.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Animal Kingdom
Multicellular Heterotrophs that ingest and consume their Prey.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Annelids
Annelids are the Segmented Worms. Highly advanced and specialized.
Semented with different
specialized portions of the body.
Coelom separating the internal
organs from the body wall.
Closed Circulatory System with
multiple “Hearts”.
Cutaneous Respiration – through
the skin - no lungs or gills!
Hermaphrodites that make both
sperm and egg cells.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Insecta
Insects possess Exoskeletons and have highly specialized body parts.
Weaver Ant
Can See the Tracheal Tubes that Insects Breath
through via Spiracles in each Segment.
But no Blood Vessels = Open Circulatory System.
Metamorphosis with different
stages in Development.
Internal Fertilization in
Terrestrial Environments.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Amphibians
Amphibians require Water to Reproduce.
Amazon
Horned Frog
Cutaneous Respiration with a
three-chambered Heart.
External Fertilization in Water.
Gelatinous Eggs that hatch as
Tadpole Larvae.
Metamorphosis into adult stage
Frogs and Salamanders.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Placental Mammals
Advanced Mammals that carry Offspring internally until they are well
developed at Birth. Then fed with Milk from Mammary Glands.
Complex animals that require Parental
Care during extensive development.
Four-Chambered Heart with Closed
Circulation (high pressure = Active!).
Large Lungs = Aerobic!
Placental embryo showing the
placenta with its connecting
circulation to the Uterus.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Immunity
Breast Feeding is Important because it provides the baby antibodies
from the Mother.
Bottle
Won’t
Help!!
Active Immunity.
When the Immune System activates
and responds to infection by
producing Antibodies that target the
Pathogen.
Long Term – Vaccines provide this
Protection!!
Passive Immunity.
When Antibodies are donated to the
person. Either injection or breast
feeding in infants.
Short-term protection from another
source.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Innate Behavior
Innate Behaviors are Genetically Determined and “Inborn”. Instincts
and Reflexes!
S
u
c
k
l
i
n
g
Migration
So Instinctive that Whooping
Crane Chicks will follow an
Ultralight Aircraft.
Hibernation, Dormancy, Estivation.
Imprinting
on Mother.
Second Semester Exam Review Topics – Learned Behavior
Learned Behaviors are acquired during the lifetime of the organism.
Allows organisms to adjust to their Environment.
Habituation
Classical Conditioning with
Pavlov’s Dogs!
They have been trained to
respond to a Bell = Food!
They are Instinctively
Opposites, but are so
used to each other that
they can reject their
natural tendencies.
Trial and Error
Learning
Not born with these
behaviors, but through
persistent “Practice”
they can increase their
abilities.
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