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The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments reflected the growing 19th century American trend
of
recognizing the basic civil liberties of all races.
The Election of 1864 was
the South's last hope to gain independence from the North.
The majority of Civil War deaths came as a result of
disease and infection.
President Andrew Johnson's leniency with former Confederate officials and his veto of legislation designed
to provide civil rights and financial aid to former slaves angered
the Radical Republicans.
The purpose of the Freedman’s Bureau was to
provide work, education, and relief for former slaves.
The MAIN purpose of the Freedmen's Bureau was to
help slaves adjust to their newfound freedom.
"Our present position has been achieved in a manner unprecedented in the history of nations. It
illustrates the American idea that government rests upon the consent of the governed, and that it is the
right of the people to alter or abolish a government whenever it becomes destructive of the ends for
which it was established. The declared purposes of the compact of Union from which we have withdrawn
were to establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, to provide for the common defence, to promote
the general welfare, and to secure the blessings of liberty for ourselves and our posterity; and when in
the judgment of the sovereign States now comprising this Confederacy it had been perverted from the
purposes for which it was ordained, and had ceased to answer the ends for which it was established, an
appeal to the ballot box declared that so far as they were concerned the government created by that
compact should cease to exist"
--Jefferson Davis, Inaugural Address, 1861.
Jefferson Davis would likely point to __________________ as justification for the Confederacy's secession
from the Union.
the American Revolution
Race of Delegates to
1867 State Constitutional Conventions
State
White
Black
% White
Statewide
White
Population
(%)
Virginia
80
25
76%
58
North Carolina
107
13
89%
63
South Carolina
48
76
39%
41
Georgia
133
33
80%
54
Florida
28
18
61%
51
Alabama
92
16
85%
52
Mississippi
68
17
80%
46
Which statement BEST describes the essence of this chart?
Despite the many gains since the Civil War, blacks in the Reconstruction Era still
struggled to find political participation.
In February of 1861, the seven seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama, to
found the Confederate States of America.
.
W.E.B. DuBois was an early leader in the
Civil Rights Movement.
Which civil rights leader is best known for his role in promoting the "Back to Africa" movement that swept
the nation in the early 1920s?
Marcus Garvey
Following the Civil War, the South's industrialization lagged behind that of the North's because
the South lacked capital and an educated labor force.
Ft. Sumter is MOST significant for being
where the first shots of the Civil War were fired.
The event MOST LIKELY occurring due to the 1860 presidential election of Lincoln was
the secession of South Carolina from the Union.
Which of these is the MOST SIGNIFICANT difference between the nationalistic and the states' rights views
of federalism?
the ways in which social and economic problems are solved
Which of these describes a significant advantage possessed by the Union at the beginning of the Civil
War?
a larger free population
Which of these was a task of the Freedmen's Bureau?
It established schools for newly-freed slaves.
Which of these BEST describes the differences between W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington?
Washington was an accommodationist and DuBois believed that blacks should have the
same rights as whites.
The ‘Compromise of 1877’ regarding the election dispute between Hayes and Tilden is BEST characterized
by which of the following?
Southern Democrats wanted federal troops withdrawn from the South and voting rights
of the freedmen decided by state governments.
Which of the following was a characteristic of the South that contributed to its military strength in the
early part of the Civil War?
capable military leadership
John Brown, The Martyr, Currier and Ives, 1870.
How is the concept of "sectionalism" conveyed in this image?
The image conveys support for Northern abolitionists.
Booker T. Washington was most known for being
the founder of Tuskegee Institute.
What agency was created by the United States Congress in 1865 to set up schools and churches, supply
food and clothing, and solve employment issues for the former slaves?
the Freedmen's Bureau
School Totals for South Carolina
1876
Black Students: 123,085
Black Teachers: 1,087
1878
Black Students: 20,000
Black Teachers: 989
What is the BEST explanation for the figures represented in this information?
the Federal program of Reconstruction ended
The Dred Scott decision
encouraged slaveholder's resistance to abolitionist activists.
Unlike W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey
was associated with a "back to Africa" movement for African Americans.
Which American event played the GREATEST role in establishing the supremacy of the federal government
over the states?
the Civil War
Which statement regarding the era of Reconstruction is FALSE?
state laws and customs upheld the constitutional amendments
"This sophism derives much, perhaps the whole, of its currency from the assumption that there is some
omnipotent and sacred supremacy pertaining to a state -- to each state of our Federal Union. Our states
have neither more nor less power than that reserved to them in the Union by the Constitution, no one of
them ever having been a state out of the Union. The original ones passed into the Union even before
they cast off their British colonial dependence, and the new ones each came into the Union directly from
a condition of dependence, excepting Texas; and even Texas, in its temporary independence, was never
designated a state. The new ones only took the designation of states on coming into the Union, while
that name was first adopted for the old ones in and by the Declaration of Independence.
--Abraham Lincoln, 1861
This quote from Lincoln's speech to Congress following the Battle of Ft. Sumter indicates that a primary
objective of the Union war effort was to
preserve the Union of states under control of the federal government.
The Amendment which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude was the
13th Amendment.
How did John Brown contribute to the abolitionist movement?
John Brown participated in raids against slavery in Harpers Ferry and Kansas.
Which of these would have been a goal of the Ku Klux Klan in the south during Reconstruction?
restoring southern Democrats to political power
Which of these statements accurately describes the terms offered to Lee at Appomattox Court House?
Southern troops were allowed to return to their homes with mules and horses for the
spring planting, as long as they promised loyalty to the Union.
The 14th Amendment to the Constitution includes all of the following provisions EXCEPT
the guaranteed right to vote for adults, regardless of gender, race or age.
Northerners who relocated to the South after the Civil War were called
Carpetbaggers.
After the passage of the "Tariff of Abominations" in 1828, which South Carolina politician advocated
"nullification" and stated that the South should ignore any law that favored the North?
John C. Calhoun
Which group was founded in 1909 under the leadership of W.E.B. Dubois in an effort to combat racial
discrimination, racial violence, and segregation in the United States?
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
The actions of the Republican Party after the Civil War were more favorable to
Northern industrial interests.
The purpose of Jim Crow laws was to
create as much division between the races as possible.
Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service, and in the professions. And in
this connection it is well to bear in mind that whatever other sins the South may be called to bear, when
it comes to business, pure and simple, it is in the South that the Negro is given a man's chance in the
commercial world, and in nothing is this Exposition more eloquent than in emphasizing this chance. Our
greatest danger is that in the great leap from slavery to freedom we may overlook the fact that the
masses of us are to live by the productions of our hands, and fail to keep in mind that we shall prosper
in proportion as we learn to dignify and glorify common labour, and put brains and skill into the
common occupations of life; shall prosper in proportion as we learn to draw the line between the
superficial and the substantial, the ornamental gewgaws of life and the useful. No race can prosper till it
learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we
must begin, and not at the top. Nor should we permit our grievances to overshadow our opportunities.
--Booker T. Washington, The Atlanta Compromise Speech, 1895.
Which prominent Civil Rights leader would have disagreed MOST with Washington's approach to solving
the problem of racial inequality in the south?
W. E. B. DuBois
Which of statement BEST describes the impact of the Freedmen\'s Bureau?
It was unsuccessful in bringing about unity and understanding of the races after the Civil
War.
Which Supreme Court case would have had the BIGGEST impact on slaves in the United States?
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Which statement MOST ACCURATELY describes the political situation of African Americans in the period of
Reconstruction?
African Americans won Congressional and state legislative representation from
Southern states.
In 1909 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was founded by African-American
activist W.E.B. Dubois and a group of Jewish Americans. Why did Jewish Americans historically ally
themselves politically with African Americans?
They felt they both had had similar experiences with prejudice.
Which of these would have been MOST likely to have been a Scalawag during the Reconstruction Era?
a native Georgian who supported the Republican Party
Union General Winfield Scott's plan to defeat the Confederacy included a naval blockade of southern
ports, gaining naval control of the Mississippi River, and invading the rebellious southern states.
By what name was General Scott's strategy known?
the Anaconda Plan
Sherman believed that the Civil War would end only if the Confederacy's strategic, economic, and
psychological capacity for warfare were decisively broken. Sherman therefore applied the principles of
scorched earth: he ordered his troops to burn crops, kill livestock, consume supplies, and destroy
civilian infrastructure along their path.
What offers the BEST reasoning behind William Tecumseh Sherman's strategy of using "total war" to
defeat the South?
The destruction in Georgia would be so complete that it would break the Confederacy's
will to continue fighting.
Booker T. Washington arrived in Alabama in 1881 to serve as the first superintendent of a "normal school
for the education of colored teachers." The school was named
Tuskegee Institute.
"The Legislation of the Republic is in the hands of this handful of Slaveholders. The body which gives the
supreme law of the land, has just acceded to their demands, and dared to declare that under the
charter of the Nation, men of African descent are not citizens of the United States and can not be — that
the Ordinance of 1787 was void — that the American Congress has no power to prevent the
enslavement of men in the National Territories — that the inhabitants themselves of the Territories have
no power to exclude human bondage from their midst — and that men of color can not be suitors for
justice in the Courts of the United States!"
--The Albany (New York) Evening Journal, 1857
The author in this editorial is reacting to the Supreme Court decision in
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Following the end of the Reconstruction era, African Americans in the South were
often forced to prove their literacy before exercising their voting rights.
The Constitutional amendment that prohibited denying voting rights to people based on race or color is
the
Fifteenth Amendment.
"No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem."
Based on the statement from 1912, what Civil Rights activist would have MOST likely stated this?
Booker T. Washington
"Negroes, whether slaves or free, that is, men of the African race, are not citizens of the United States
by the Constitution.
The legal condition of a slave in the State of Missouri is not affected by the temporary sojourn of such
slave in any other Sate, but on his return his condition still depends on the laws of Missouri.
As the plaintiff was not a citizen of Missouri, he, therefore, could not sue in the Courts of the United
States. The suit must be dismissed for want of jurisdiction."
Which landmark Supreme Court case is this excerpt from?
Dred Scott v. Sandford
William Simmons capitalized on the rampant anti-Semitism, anti-Catholicism, and nativism of the 1920s to
revive which group that terrorized its victims through a combination of pageantry, costumes, and
violence?
the Ku Klux Klan
Which statement about the effects of the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford is TRUE?
The decision can be considered a victory for southern pro-slavery factions.
Which group was created in late 1865 to resist Reconstruction efforts in the South?
the Ku Klux Klan
In 1860, the area in red would have been LEAST likely to
vote for Abraham Lincoln for President of the United States.
"A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of the unfortunate
vessel was seen a signal, “Water, water; we die of thirst!” The answer from the friendly vessel at once
came back, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A second time the signal, “Water, water; send us
water!” ran up from the distressed vessel, and was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.”
And a third and fourth signal for water was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” The
captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction, cast down his bucket, and it came up full
of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River. To those of my race who depend on
bettering their condition in a foreign land or who underestimate the importance of cultivating friendly
relations with the Southern white man, who is their next-door neighbor, I would say: “Cast down your
bucket where you are”— cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by
whom we are surrounded."
Booker T. Washington, 1895
In this passage, Washington is urging African Americans to
work more closely with whites in the South.
Regardless of which state a person lives in, all American citizens enjoy the rights contained in the
Constitution and the Amendments thanks to the
14th Amendment.
In February of 1861, the seven seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama, to
found the Confederate States of America.
"Our people are tired of the war, feel themselves whipped, and will not fight. Our country is overrun, its
military resources greatly diminished, while the enemy's military power and resources were never
greater and may be increased to any extent desired. ... My small force is melting away like snow before
the sun."
--Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston, April, 1865
This quote from Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston was in reaction to
General William Sherman's march through South Carolina
Which of these BEST describes the Compromise of 1877?
Hayes becomes President and Reconstruction ends.
By the end of the Reconstruction era, most African-Americans in the United States
found themselves increasingly left out of the political process because of poll taxes and
literacy tests.
President Andrew Johnson's leniency with former Confederate officials and his veto of legislation designed
to provide civil rights and financial aid to former slaves angered
the Radical Republicans.
Which of these BEST describes the immediate effect of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision?
States passed segregationist legislation and expanded Jim Crow.
Which three groups benefited MOST from Reconstruction policies in the southern states in the late 1800s?
"scalawags," "carpetbaggers," and freedmen
Which of these groups was promised "Forty Acres and a Mule" after the Civil War?
former slaves
The actions of the Republican Party after the Civil War were more favorable to
Northern industrial interests.
The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified following which war?
Civil War
During the American Civil War, the Confederacy hoped to receive assistance from France and Great
Britain. Which of these was a reason the South expected foreign assistance?
Britain and France depended on the South for four-fifths of their cotton for their textile
industries.
Abraham Lincoln's biggest objective in the Civil War was to
save the Union.
The following statements are describing the effects of the Supreme Court's decision in
· Triggered the "Panic of 1857" and resulted in several railroad bankruptcies and bank closures.
· Strengthened pro-slavery and secessionist support in the south.
· Made the question of extending slavery into new territories an unstable issue.
· Divided the Democratic Party on sectional lines and strengthened the Republican Party.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Following the end of the Reconstruction era, African Americans in the South were
often forced to prove their literacy before exercising their voting rights.
In 1909 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was founded by African-American
activist W.E.B. Dubois and a group of Jewish Americans. Why did Jewish Americans historically ally
themselves politically with African Americans?
They felt they both had had similar experiences with prejudice.
Beyond abolishing slavery in the United States, the Civil War was a pivotal event in American history
because it
established the supremacy of the national government over state governments.
Northerners who relocated to the South after the Civil War were called
Carpetbaggers.
"I do not exaggerate when I say that Prof. Booker T. Washington’s address yesterday was one of the
most notable speeches, both as to character and the warmth of its reception, ever delivered to a
Southern audience. It was an epoch-making talk, and marks distinctly a turning point in the progress of
the Negro race, and its effect in bringing about a perfect understanding between the whites and blacks
of the South will be immediate. The address was a revelation. It was the first time that a Negro orator
had appeared on a similar occasion before a Southern audience."
-- Clark Howell, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, printed in the New York World, September 19, 1895
Which sentence BEST describes the "address" by Booker T. Washington to which Howell refers?
It was a call for moderation in the struggle for equal rights by Blacks.
Which Civil War battle resulted in the Union gaining strategic control of the Mississippi River?
Vicksburg
"Our present position has been achieved in a manner unprecedented in the history of nations. It
illustrates the American idea that government rests upon the consent of the governed, and that it is the
right of the people to alter or abolish a government whenever it becomes destructive of the ends for
which it was established. The declared purposes of the compact of Union from which we have withdrawn
were to establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, to provide for the common defence, to promote
the general welfare, and to secure the blessings of liberty for ourselves and our posterity; and when in
the judgment of the sovereign States now comprising this Confederacy it had been perverted from the
purposes for which it was ordained, and had ceased to answer the ends for which it was established, an
appeal to the ballot box declared that so far as they were concerned the government created by that
compact should cease to exist"
--Jefferson Davis, Inaugural Address, 1861.
Jefferson Davis would likely point to __________________ as justification for the Confederacy's secession
from the Union.
the American Revolution
Booker T. Washington was most known for being
the founder of Tuskegee Institute.
Presidential Reconstruction following the American Civil War can BEST be described as
a desire to rebuild the country quickly and without ill feelings following the war.
Booker T. Washington arrived in Alabama in 1881 to serve as the first superintendent of a "normal school
for the education of colored teachers." The school was named
Tuskegee Institute.
Which of these BEST describes the differences between W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington?
Washington was an accommodationist and DuBois believed that blacks should have the
same rights as whites.
During the first two years of the American Civil War, the war in the East was marked by
significant Confederate victories.
Which BEST describes the benefits of sharecropping in southern states following the Civil War?
Sharecropping gave freed slaves a chance to earn a living and gave landowners a much
needed labor force.
The purpose of the Freedman’s Bureau was to
provide work, education, and relief for former slaves.
Which of these describes a significant advantage possessed by the Union at the beginning of the Civil
War?
a larger free population
Which of the following was a border State during the U.S. Civil War?
Kentucky
In judging of the welfare of the slaves, it is necessary to distinguish the different conditions of slavery.
The most important distinction, both as regards numbers and its influence on the wellbeing of the slave,
is that between houseservants and farm or fieldhands. The houseservant is comparatively well off. He is
frequently born and bred in the family he belongs to. The position of the fieldhands is very different; of
those, especially, who labour on large plantations. Here there are none of those humanizing influences
at work which temper the rigour of the system, nor is there the same check of public opinion to control
abuse. The 'force' is worked as a great human mechanism; as a drove of human cattle.
--James Stirling, 1857
What is the MAIN idea of the author's description of life on a southern plantation?
It was better to be a houseservant than a fieldhand.
The Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) basically legalized
the segregation of people according to race.
During Reconstruction, the Black Codes
were laws passed by mainly Southern states to keep African Americans in a system of
virtual slavery.
Why do many United States historians consider the Civil War to be the first "modern" war in American
history?
New technology such as telegraphs, iron-plated warships, and mass-produced weapons
were common.
Which of these statements accurately describes the terms offered to Lee at Appomattox Court House?
Southern troops were allowed to return to their homes with mules and horses for the
spring planting, as long as they promised loyalty to the Union.
Which of these would have been a goal of the Ku Klux Klan in the south during Reconstruction?
restoring southern Democrats to political power
Which book is the BEST example of how growing sectional differences between the North and South were
expressed in the literature of the Antebellum period?
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriett Beecher Stowe
"With malice towards none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the
right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, : to do all which may
achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and all nations."
Abraham Lincoln
March 4, 1865
This excerpt expresses the view of the post-Civil War period held by
Moderate Reconstructionists.
"But in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this
ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor
power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can
never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished
work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here
dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we may take increased
devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly
resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth
of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from
the earth."
Abraham Lincoln
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
November 19, 1863
Which of Lincoln’s statements did not hold true?
The world will not long remember what we say here.
Which Supreme Court case raised the issue of a black slave who lived in a free state and questioned
whether slaves were free once they set foot upon Northern soil?
Dred Scott v. Sandford
According the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, citizens of the United States are BOTH
people who are born here and people who are naturalized here.