DDT and DIE TIOZON, Rhowell Jr. N. PADUA, Jann Andre It is right to ban DDT! Welcome to DDT DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is an organochlorine insecticide which is a white, crystalline solid, tasteless and almost odorless chemical compound. Welcome to DDT .Technical DDT has been formulated in almost every conceivable form including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, granules, aerosols, smoke candles, and charges for vaporisers and lotions Welcome to DDT First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops Welcome to DDT DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds What’s with DDT? It is highly hydrophobic, nearly insoluble in water but has a good solubility in most organic solvents, fats, and oils What’s with DDT? DDT does not occur naturally, but is produced by the reaction of chloral (CCl3CHO) withchlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) in the presence of sulfuric acid, which acts as a catalyst What’s with DDT? From 1950 to 1980, DDT was extensively used in agriculture—more than 40,000 tonnes were used each year worldwide—and it has been estimated that a total of 1.8 million tonnes have been produced globally since the 1940s. What’s with DDT? In 2009, 3314 tonnes were produced for the control of malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. India is the only country still manufacturing DDT, with China having ceased production in 2007. India is the largest consumer DDT and Biochemistry In insects it opens sodium ion channels in neurons, causing them to fire spontaneously, which leads to spasms and eventual death. DDT and Biochemistry DDT resistance is also conferred by upregulation of genes expressing cytochrome P450 in some insect species. DDT and Biochemistry In humans, however, it may affect health through genotoxicity or endocrine disruption DDT effectiveness In 1955, the World Health Organization commenced a program to eradicate malaria worldwide, relying largely on DDT. DDT effectiveness Taiwan, Caribbean, the Balkans, parts of northern Africa, the northern region of Australia, and a large swath of the South Pacific DDT effectiveness DDT was less effective in tropical regions due to the continuous life cycle of mosquitoes and poor infrastructure. DDT and human Induce enzymes to produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts. It is an endocrine disruptor DDT TOXICITY • DDT and DDE have been linked to diabetes. A number of studies from the US, Canada, and Sweden have found that the prevalence of the disease in a population increases with serum DDT or DDE levels DDT TOXICITY • The US Environmental Protection Agency states that DDT exposure damages the reproductive system and reduces reproductive success. These effects may cause developmental and reproductive toxicity DDT TOXICITY Human data also indicate possible disruption in semen quality, menstruation, gestational length, and duration of lactation DDT TOXICITY Risk factor for premature birth and low birth weight, and may harm a mother's ability to breast feed. DDT TOXICITY There is some evidence that the daughters of highly exposed women may have more difficulty getting pregnant DDT TOXICITY DDT is associated with early pregnancy loss, a type of miscarriage. DDT TOXICITY A Japanese study of congenital hypothyroidism concluded that in utero DDT exposure may affect thyroid hormone levels. DDT TOXICITY Liver, breast and pancreas cancer, prostate, rectum, lung, bladder, stomach and endometrium cancer. DDT TOXICITY There is mixed evidence that it contributes to leukemia, lymphoma and testicular cancer. DDT TOXICITY Malaria remains a major public health challenge in many countries. 2008 WHO estimates were 243 million cases, and 863,000 deaths DDT TOXICITY . Its use in this context has been called everything from a "miracle weapon [that is] like Kryptonite to the mosquitoes,” to "toxic colonialism.” . DDT TOXICITY "it can be estimated that at current rates each kilo of insecticide added to the environment will generate 105 new cases of malaria." DDT TOXICITY "it can be estimated that at current rates each kilo of insecticide added to the environment will generate 105 new cases of malaria." DDT TOXICITY "it can be estimated that at current rates each kilo of insecticide added to the environment will generate 105 new cases of malaria." DDT Poisoning Causes 1. Accidental or Motivated Ingestion and Inhalation. 2. Food Consumption 3. Occupational DDT Poisoning Symptoms • • • • • • • Skin irritation Eye irritation Mouth paresthesia Facial paresthesia Paresthesia in the extremities Anxiety Dizziness DDT Poisoning Symptoms • • • • • • Confusion Tremor Malaise Headache Weakness Fatigue • Hand weakness • Nausea DDT Poisoning Symptoms • Vomiting • Tremors • Liver damage • Hypersensitivity • Convulsions DDT Poisoning Treatment 1. Decontamination 2. Symptomatic and supportive measures DDT in the environment the National Institutes of Health said in 2007, "The ban on DDT may have killed 20 million children.” You can decide whether you agree or not in using DDT but you have to decide more if you will be careful to anything that harms you. Yum, yum, yum! Salamat sa pakikinig. Oh friend alam mo na, magingat!