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3 Phase Wave
Generation
3 Phase waveform generation
using Timer/Counter1 and 3 on
atmega128
Topics
► Sinusoidal
Wave Generation Theory
► Atmega128 setup and considerations
► Results
3 Phase line to line voltages
► uC
used to control switch states
► +E or 0 is shown to the load on each phase
 Depends on if upper or lower switch is on
3 Phase line to line voltages
► 2/3
on switching scheme used
► Allowing switches to be off for 1/3 of the
time reduces switching power losses
► Line to neutral voltages are not sinusoidal,
but line to line are!!!
*U, V, W are the desired line to neutral voltages
Topics
►
Sinusoidal Wave Generation Theory
► Atmega128
►
Results
setup and considerations
uC Sinusoidal PWM
► Line
to neutral voltages approximated using
PWM switching
► Average output voltage controlled by duty
cycle
► uC duty cycle = OCRnA:C/Top
► Top and pre-scaler are set so switching
frequency is at 20kHz
Lookup Table Generation
► Using
Excel duty cycle of was approximated
► One cycle broken up into 192 steps
► Sin(2*PI*i/192), i = 0..191
► OCRnA:C = Round(Sin(2*PI*i/192)*TOP)
► TOP value is 400 for my 20kHz switching
frequency
► Looking up values frees up uC for other tasks
sine Look-Up Table
sin(2*PI*i/192)
i
i
0-63
64-127
128-191
Round(U*TOP)
Sin lookup table array
const uint16_t sin_lookup[192*3] = {
//OCRnA,
OCRnB,
OCRnC
0,
0,
346,
13,
0,
353,
26,
0,
359,
39,
0,
364,
52,
0,
370,
65,
0,
374,
78,
0,
379,
…
…
}
Timer/Counter 1/3 Setup
► Phase
& Frequency correct PWM
► Dual Slope Operation
► Used to control switches
 Timer/Counter1 Upper Switches
 Timer/Counter3 Lower Switches
► Timer/Counter
3 switches inverse of
Timer/Counter 1
► Output bit is set or cleared on compare
match
Timer/Counter 2
► Updates
Timer/Counter1/3
OCRnA,OCRnB,OCRnC to control duty cycle
► Counter variable incremented by 3 every
time Timer/Counter 2 interrupts
► OCRnA:C value generated from lookup table
 OCRnA = sin_lookup[counter]
 OCRnB = sin_lookup[counter+1]
 OCRnC = sin_lookup[counter+2]
► Interrupts
second
occur fdesired*192 times per
My epiphany
+
≈
+
•One output port of uC looks like one switching stage
•Switches between 0 and Vcc
•Upper and Lower switches never on at same time (no shoot-thru)
•Using OCR1A:C of one Timer/Counter1 and the counters three output
pins a three phase waveform can be generated
•**Bonus** I don’t have to buy anything to implement the design
Viewing Wave forms
RC filters and Resistive loads were used to view
the waveforms
PortB.5
PortB.6
PortB.7
Topics
►
►
Sinusoidal Wave Generation Theory
Atmega128 setup and considerations
► Results
Results
Waveform growth
Results
A
B
A-B
C
Shoot Thru
If S+ and S- on at same
time the circuit would
short
Shoot Thru
To avoid shoot-thru add a switching delay
Amount to increment or decrement by
depends on switching frequency
OCR1A = OCRA-1 (cleared sooner)
OCR3A = OCRA+1 (set later)
Other Considerations
Make sure TCCR1 and TCCR3 are synchronous
Using SFIOR
Stop pre-scalers (stop the clocks)
Set TCCR1 and TCCR3 to zero
Restart prescalers
Setting TSM, asserts a reset signal to PSR0 and PSR321. Upon clearing
TSM PSR0 and PSR321 are set to zero and timers/counters begin counting
synchronously
References
Generate advanced PWM signals using 8-bit mCs
Michael Copeland, Infineon
http://www.edn.com/article/CA52686.html
AP16097: Different PWM Waveforms Generation for 3-Phase AC Induction
Motor with XC164CS
Infineon
http://www.infineon.com/cms/en/product/channel.html?channel=ff80808112ab681d0112ab6b
2dfc0756
AVR447: Sinusoidal driving of three-phase permanent magnet motor using
ATmega48/88/168
AVR494: AC Induction Motor Control Using the constant V/f Principle and a Natural
PWM Algorithm
AVR
http://www.atmel.com/products/AVR/mc/?family_id=607
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