Download Multicellular life Evolution of multicellular life Animal tissue types

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Multicellular life
Evolution of
multicellular life
Animal tissue types
Campbell
Fig1.1
Campbell
Fig 20.2
Animal tissue types
• What is a tissue?
• A cooperative unit of many very similar
cells that perform a specific function.
• Examples
–
–
–
–
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
Review
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What are the major characteristics of the plant, animal and fungi
kingdoms?
Sketch basic plant cell and compare it to an animal cell
What are the basis tissue and organ types in plants? What is the
function of each? What special cell are found in each type?
List the major groups of plants and describe each. How does each
group reproduce?
What is alternation of generation? Draw a diagram that briefly
describes this process. Which type of generation is dominant in each
major plant group?
What are fungi? Describe the basic body plan of a fungus. What are
the major groups of fungi? How do they reproduce?
What are lichens and mychorrhizae?
List some harmful fungi and the conditions that result from them
List some beneficial fungi and their effects.
Review
•
Terms: decomposer, mutualism, parasite, Spore, sporangium,
mushroom, lichaen, hyphae, mycellium, athlete’s foot, ringworm,
Candida albicans, dikaryotic, fruiting body, sporophyte, gametophyte,
N, 2N, haploid, diploid, photoautotrophic, cellulose, epidermis,
mesophyll, stomata, guard cell, meristem, leaf , root,
xylem,phloem,ground tissue, vascular tissue, algae, moss, fern,
gymnosperm, angiosperm, vascular plant, non-vascularplant.
Review
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List the major animal phylums and describe the distinguishing
characteristics of the animals in each. Give several examples of
animals in each phylum.
Describe the four tissue types, nervous, muscle, epithelial, connective.
How did tissues and multicellular animals evolve?
How do animals develop? Terms: Zygote, blastula,gastrula, larva
Define choanocyte, ameobocyte, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry,
cephalization, dorsal, ventral , anterior, posterior, cnidocyte,
gastrodermis,epidermis, gastrovascular cavity, polyp, medusa, hydra
acoelomate, psudocoelomate, coelom, true body cavity. Planarians,
flukes, tapeworms, proglottid, scolex, trichinella,redula, mantle,
muscular foot, segmentation, earthworms, polychaetes, leeches,
Hirudo, medicinalis, exoskeleton, cuticle, molting, head, thorax,
abdomen, incomplete and complete metamorhosis, water vascular
system, tube feet
What are the basic chordate characteristics? Notochord etc
Tunicate, amphioxus, lamprey, swimbladder, operculum, coelocanth,
Review
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How did the first amphibians arrive on land
Salamander, metamorphosis, frog, aquatic adaptations, terrestrial
adaptations
What are the major adaptations of amphibians, birds, reptiles and
mammals. What are the different types of animals in these groups?
Anmiotic egg,plastron, carapace, snake, lizard, turtle, feathers
How did jaws evolve? Ectothemic, endothermic, acheaoptrex,
mammals, placental, oviparous, marsupial, heterodont teeth
Epithelial tissue
• Covers and lines the body and its parts
• One surface free, the other bound to
basement membrane
• Tissues are named by
– Shape of cells
– Number of layers of cells
Epithelial
tissue Campbell
Fig 20.4
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Simple= single layer
Stratified = multiple layers
Squamous = flat (tiles)
Cuboudal = like dice
Columnar = like bricks
Simple Squamous
Simple Cuboidal
In the kidney tubules
Campbell
Fig 20.4
Lines the lungs
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Campbell
Fig 20.4
Lines the esophagus
Ciliated columnar epithelium
Campbell
Fig 20.4
Lines the air ways in the respiratory system
Connective tissue
• Binds other tissues an provides support
matrices
• Few cells in a nonliving matrix
• Three fiber types
– Collagen fibers
– Elastic fibers
– Reticular fibers
• Fibroblasts - cells that produce connective
tissue
Loose connective tissue
(Areolar) Campbell
Fig 20.5A
Holds other tissue in place
A “binding” material
Other Connective tissues
Campbell
Fig 20.5
Loose
Fibrous connective
Adipose
Cartilage
Blood
Bone
Tendons
Dense connective tissue that
Attaches muscle to bone
Like Campbell
Fig 30.7
Bone Tissue
• Osteocytes
• Haversian canal
• Lamelle (matrix)
Campbell
Fig 20.5D
Bone Development
Muscle tissue
• Functions in movement
• Bundles of long cells ( muscle fiber= muscle cell)
• Skeletal muscle
– Attached to bones by tendons, produces voluntary
movement
– Striated unbranched
• Smooth muscle
– Found in walls of digestive tract, produces involuntary
movements
– Unstriated, spindle shaped
• Cardiac Muscle
– Striated , branched, produces heartbeat
Muscle tissue
Campbell 20.6
Cardiac
muscle
Skeletal
muscle
Smooth
muscle
Nervous Tissue
• Responsible for coordinating body activties
• Neurons are nerve cells
• Motor neurons are nerves that activate
muscles
• Compsed of cell body and dendrites
• Supported by glial cells
Campbell
Fig 28.3A
Modified
Nervous Tissue
Campbell
Fig 28.2
Summary
Pop quiz
• What Eukaryotic kingdom has no
mitochondria and flagellar motion?
• List the 4 basic animal tissue types.
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