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Carbon Management and
Infrastructure Development:
Lessons from Industrial Ecology
Dr. Robin Curry
Institute for a Sustainable World
Queen’s University, Belfast
[email protected]
Overview
 Industrial Ecology (IE), resource
management and Climate Change
 Examples of IE applications in the
UK and Ireland
 Opportunities and synergies
 The future role of IE methods in
policy development and decision
making
Industrial Ecology (IE), resource
management and Climate Change
 Industrial Ecology and Industrial
Metabolism
 Tools, techniques and approaches
Industrial Ecology and
Industrial Metabolism
‘The systematic examination of local,
regional and global material and
energy uses and flows in products,
processes, industrial sectors and
economies’
Industrial Ecology and
Industrial Metabolism
Industrial Ecology and
Industrial Metabolism
 Our Infrastructure must
develop/adapt and change;
 We need to make decisions about
these changes and developments;
 We need tools and techniques to
support these decisions; and
 IE is about Applied Research: What
are the optimum decisions?
Tools, techniques and
approaches
 Material and Energy Flow Studies
 Dematerialisation and Decarbonisation
 Life-Cycle Analysis and Carbon and
Ecological Footprinting
 Eco-Industrial Parks ('Industrial
Symbiosis')
 Geographical Information Systems
Examples of IE applications in
the UK and Ireland
• Northern Limits. A Resource Flow Analysis and
Ecological Footprint of Northern Ireland
(2004/2006)
• Island Limits. A Material Flow Analysis and
Ecological Footprint of Ireland (2008)
• SAMFA: A GIS application of material flow
analysis in Ireland (2010)
• UK Construction Sector Resource Efficiency
Model (2007)
• INTRAWaste. Integrated Resource and Waste
Life Cycle Model for Ireland (2010)
Northern Limits. A Resource Flow
Analysis and Ecological Footprint of
Northern Ireland
Completed as part of the UK Mass
Balance Programme, a £10m
programme which and covered
more than 60 project areas
http://www.massbalance.org/resou
rce/massbalance/
Northern Limits. Ecological
Footprint of Sample Menus
Island Limits. A Material Flow
Analysis and Ecological Footprint of
Ireland
Economy wide material flow accounts
An economy wide MFA was calculated
for the Irish economy for 2003. The
flows of materials and products were
quantified by industrial sector (NACE
Rev.1.1), using the Eurostat guidance.
Eurostat. Economy-wide material flow accounts and derived indicators. A methodological guide. 2002
Mass Balance/Material Flow
Analysis Principles
Environment
materials
energy
Society/Economy
materials
energy
For a given system such as production or consumption processes, companies, regions or
national economies, the material balance principle leads to the following identity:
total inputs = total outputs + net accumulation
meaning that what goes into the system is either accumulated in the system or is leaving the
system again as an output.
Material flow model of Ireland
Note: Net addition to stock is a balancing item as calculation of stock was
outside the scope of the present study.
DMI and DMC by sector in
Ireland in 2003
1 Agriculture
1 Agriculture
2 Forestry
2 Forestry
5 Fishing
5 Fishing
10 Coal, lignite
and peat
extraction
11 Oil and gas
extraction
10 Coal, lignite
and peat
extraction
11 Oil and gas
extraction
13 Metal ores
extraction
13 Metal ores
extraction
14 Other mining
and quarrying
14 Other mining
and quarrying
MFA Indicators
Indicator type
Input
Consumption
Output
Balancing
Resource productivity
Resource intensity
Indicator
DMI
DMI per capita
DMC
DMC per capita
DPO
DPO per capita
DMO
DMO per capita
PTB
PTB per capita
GDP/DE
GDP/DMI
GDP/DMC
DE/GDP
DMI/GDP
DMC/GDP
Unit
Tonnes
Tonnes per capita
Tonnes
Tonnes per capita
Tonnes
Tonnes per capita
Tonnes
Tonnes per capita
Tonnes
Tonnes per capita
Euros per tonne
Euros per tonne
Euros per tonne
Tonnes per euro
Tonnes per euro
Tonnes per euro
Value
119,647,733
30.5
115,129,904
29.4
117,997,978
30.1
127,137,366
32.5
17,240,695
4.4
998
817
849
0.001
0.00122
0.00118
Direct Material Input
2000000
Austria
Belgium/Luxembourg
1800000
Denmark
Finland
1600000
France
DMI ('000 MT)
1400000
Germany
Greece
1200000
Ireland
1000000
Italy
Netherlands
800000
Portugal
600000
Spain
Sweden
400000
United Kingdom
200000
0
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
DMI from 1980-2003 for the EU-15
Direct Material Input per capita
DMI per capita from 1980-2003 for the EU-15
Input-Output Analysis
Methodology
Environmentally extended Ireland’s
2000 monetary I-O tables by extending
a multiplier matrix derived from the
MIOT by a resource intensity vector.
IO Sectors
IO Sectors
…
40
41
Final
Total
Demand Output
1
2
1
Z1,1
Z1,2
Z1,j
Z1,40
Z1,41
F1
X1
2
Z2,1
Z2,2
Z2,j
Z2,40
Z2,41
F2
X2
…
Zi,1
Zi,2
Zi,j
Zi,40
Zi,41
Fi
Xi
40 Z40,1
Z40,2
Z40,j
Z40,40
Z40,41
F40
X40
41 Z41,1
Z41,2
Z41,j
Z41,40
Z41,41
F41
X41
Primary Inputs
P1
P2
Pj
P40
P41
Total Inputs
X1
X2
Xj
X40
X41
Separate analyses
were carried out for:
DMI (Direct
Material Input)
Biomass
Metals
Fossil fuels
Material Input
R1
R2
Rj
R40
R41
Minerals
Imports
Total material requirements of
sectors to produce total final demand
1 - 5 Agriculture, forestry and fishing
10 - 14 M ining and quarrying products
15 Food and beverages
16 Tobacco products
17 Textiles
18 Wearing apparel
19 Leather and leather products
20 Wood and wood products (excl furniture)
21 Pulp, paper and paper products
22 Printed matter and recorded media
23 & 36 Petroleum and other manufacturing products
24 Chemical products and man-made fibres
25 Rubber and plastics
26 Other non-metallic mineral products
27 Basic metals
28 Fabricated metal products
29 M achinery and equipment n.e.c.
30 Office machinery and computers
31 Electrical machinery and apparatus n.e.c.
32 Radio, television and communications apparatus
33 M edical, precision and optical instruments
34 M otor vehicles and trailers
35 Other transport equipment
37 Recycling
40 Electricity and gas
41 Water collection and distribution
45 Construction work
50 M otor fuel and vechicle trade and repair
51 Wholesale trade
52 Retail trade and repair of household goods
55 Hotel and restaurant services
60 Land transport services
61 Water transport services
62 Air transport services
63 Auxiliary transport services and travel agencies
64 Post and telecommunication services
65 Financial intermediation services
66 Insurance and pension services
67 Services auxiliary to financial intermediation
70 Real estate services
71 Renting services of machinery and equipment
72 Computer and related services
73 Research and development services
74 Other business services
75 Public administration and defence
80 Education
85 Health and social work services
90 Sewage and refuse disposal services
91 M embership organisation services n.e.c.
92 Recreation
93 Other services
95 Private households with employed persons
Highest requirements:
Construction – 36% of
DMI
Food & Beverages –
24%
Non-metallic mineral –
9%
Agri, forestry, fishing –
8%
SAMFA: A GIS application of
material flow analysis in Ireland
Combines national MFA accounts with
dynamic MFA (dMFA) work by Muller,
to spatially allocate material flows
using vectors such as material
intensity & building lifetime
simulations.
(Roy, Ellis, Curry. In print)
Muller, D. Stock dynamics for forecasting material flows—Case study for housing in The Netherlands. Ecological
Economics. 59. 2006
SAMFA: A GIS application of material
flow analysis in Ireland
National/ regional govt. policy &
standards
Further analysis/application
Local govt. authority
development
- Housing provision
factors
SAMFA
- Energy standards
M3:
New house building
Material-balance at various
spatial levels
- Resource management
Existing housing
- Waste and recovery
- Year built
- Energy efficiency
Restoration/ retrofitting
Land & planning factors
- Land availability
M1:
M2:
Material intensity &
building lifetime simulation
Spatial allocation of new
housing units
- Planning permission
Demolition/ recycling/ waste
Geographic factors
- Density
- Planning constraints
Demographic factors
- Population
Analysts/ professional bodies/LA
Industries & services
Private Households
- Lifestyle (e.g. floor area)
SAMFA: A GIS application of
material flow analysis in Ireland
M6:
Total energy use at various
spatial levels
M4:
M5:
EE at various spatial
levels
OE at various spatial
levels
Use of existing building
National/ regional govt. policy &
standards
Local govt. authority development
factors
- Housing provision
SAMFA
- Energy standards
M3:
New house building
Material-balance at
various spatial levels
- Resource management
Existing housing
- Year built - Waste and recovery
- Energy efficiency
Restoration/ retrofitting
Land & planning factors
- Land availability
M1:
M2:
Material intensity &
building lifetime
simulation
Spatial allocation of
new housing units
- Planning permission
Demolition/ recycling/ waste
Geographic factors
- Density
- Planning constraints
Demographic factors
Analysts/ professional bodies/LA
Industries & services
Private Households
- Population
- Lifestyle (e.g. floor area)
UK Construction Sector Resource
Efficiency Model
 Links material and product flows to
building type vis Bills of Quantities
and combines this with the Carbon
Trust Inventory of Carbon and Energy
(ICE) for Inventory of Carbon and
Energy (ICE);
 Allows designers to assess the
resource use and carbon footprint of
different products and material
choices at the design stage.
UK Construction Sector Resource
Efficiency Model
INTRAWaste. Integrated Resource
and Waste Life Cycle Model for
Ireland
INTRAWaste structure
Opportunities and synergies
 Construction Sector dynamic Material Flow
Analysis (dMFA) Model for resource and energy
use, waste and emissions – comparative
evaluation of economies?
 International Open-Source Life Cycle Analysis
Model for Integrated Waste and Resource
Management – align with current developments in
International LCA standards – ILCD and ISO.
Construction Sector dynamic Material
Flow Analysis (dMFA) Model
Offers the possibility of:
 Assessing the Whole Life Carbon Footprint of
infrastructure development (direct and
embodied energy);
 Identify when material inputs will become
wastes and what the policy measures, capacity
building and waste infrastructure needs will be;
 Can be combined with other tools such as GIS
or Life Cycle Analysis/Carbon Footprinting.
Construction Sector dynamic Material
Flow Analysis (dMFA) Model
Duffy and Woodward. Cement and concrete flow analysis in a rapidly expanding economy: Ireland as a case study.
Resources, Conservation & Recycling. Under review
Opportunities and synergies
Conclusions
 Resource efficiency is as important as direct
energy use in reducing our carbon emissions;
 A range of tools and techniques from Industrial
Ecology can be combined to give us a complete
picture of the metabolism of our infrastructure
over time; and
 This ‘picture’ provides the evidence base to
make informed decisions about creating lowcarbon infrastructure and economies.