Question1 The map below shows important African kingdoms and trading states of the period CE 700- CE 1600. Use the map below to answer the following question: What inference is justified by information on the map? (5 points) Select one: a. The kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were allies. b. Ghana participated in a trade network that crossed Africa. c. The kingdom of Mali arose after the kingdom of Ghana. d. Morocco was a source for much of Ghana's culture. Question2 How did the traditional clan system support the unity and strength of the Mali Empire? (5 points) Select one: a. Clans sent their young men to the capital, Timbuktu, to be educated. b. The emperor stationed military units in each region to ensure loyalty. c. The headmen of the clans served as judges in the imperial courts. d. Each clan was assigned a specialty, such as trade or the military. Question3 What role did Islam play in increasing the importance of the Songhai Empire? (5 points) Select one: a. Islamic law helped unify Songhai with its conquered kingdoms. b. Islam helped turn Songhai from a military empire to a peaceful one. c. Songhai Islamic scholars visited and influenced neighboring lands. d. Islam paved the way for Songhai alliances with North African kingdoms. Question4 What led to the downfall of the Mali Empire? (5 points) Select one: a. Mali wealth prompted the Songhai Empire to attack it. b. Internal fighting over succession led to disorganization. c. As the emperors prospered, they lost interest in governing. d. The slave trade with North Africa caused internal unrest. Question5 The brass plaque in the photo below shows a king of Benin flanked by two attendants. Use the photo to answer the following question: What does this plaque demonstrate about Benin culture? (5 points) Select one: a. Benin culture valued the common people. b. In Benin, they used slave soldiers and craftsmen. c. Benin artists were skilled metal workers. d. In Benin, the king was all powerful. Question6 What tradition did the Bantu people bring with them throughout their migrations? (5 points) Select one: a. farming b. hunting and gathering c. trading d. craftsmanship Question7 The map below shows kingdoms, cities, and trade routes of Africa in the period 700–1600 CE. Use the map to answer the following question: What does the map imply about the difference between trade from Songhai and trade from Mogadishu? (5 points) Select one: a. There was a lower volume of trade coming in and out of Mogadishu than at Songhai. b. At Songhai, gold was the major export, while at Mogadishu slaves and ivory were. c. Trade at Songhai was done by Muslims, while trade at Mogadishu was done by Hindus. d. Trade from Songhai was done by camel caravan, while trade in Mogadishu was done by boat. Question8 What was the source of Axum's prosperity in the fourth century CE? (5 points) Select one: a. its strategic location in the middle of African, Mediterranean, and Asian trade networks b. its massive public works projects c. its position as the first African kingdom with a Christian king d. Its alliance with the Sassanid Persians Question9 The map below shows kingdoms, cities, and trade routes of Africa in the period 700–1600 CE. Use the map to answer the following question: Based on the map, which African kingdom had a direct trade route with Morocco? (5 points) Select one: a. Ghana b. Mali c. Benin d. Oyo Question10 Use the photo below of an ancient Aztec calendar to answer the following question: What does this Aztec calendar indicate about Aztec culture? (5 points) Select one: a. The Aztecs were careful stone masons and tradesmen. b. The Aztecs understood the role of religion in society. c. The Aztecs were very interested in measuring time. d. The Aztecs were influenced by distant traders. Question11 Use the photo below to answer the following question: Which of the following statements does the image above support? (5 points) Select one: a. The Moche made their pottery in the shapes of animals. b. The Nazca decorated their pottery with bold colors and a mix of figures. c. The Moche used a jaguar theme in much of their pottery. d. The Nazca drew lines on their pottery as decoration. Question12 In which modern South American country was the Moche civilization located? (5 points) Select one: a. Peru b. Argentina c. Brazil d. Ecuador Question13 Use the map to answer the following question: Which of the following civilizations also would appear in the green-shaded portion of the map, as a predecessor? (5 points) Select one: a. Oaxaca b. Zapotec c. Chavin d. La Venta Question14 Use the map to answer the following question: Which of the following was true of the capitals of both the Aztec and Inca empires? (5 points) Select one: a. They were in central parts of the empire. b. They were in the Andes. c. They were on the coast. d. They bordered major bodies of water. Question15 Which of the following was an important part of both Olmec and Maya culture? (5 points) Select one: a. quipu b. astronomy c. calpulli d. pyramids Question16 Which of the following statements gives evidence to support the conclusion that the Olmecs were a "mother culture" of the Mayas? (5 points) Select one: a. The Olmecs were a war-like people. b. The Olmecs did not participate in human sacrifice. c. The Olmecs built cities to align with the constellations. d. The Olmecs were known for the construction of large stone heads. Question17 The timeline below shows several crucial dates in Zapotec history: What happened as a result of the Zapotecs agreeing to be ruled by the Spanish? (5 points) Select one: a. The Aztecs conquered the Zapotecs. b. The Zapotec king became Aztec. c. The Zapotec king became Christian. d. The Zapotecs and Aztecs forged a peace treaty. Question18 The timeline below shows events in both Mesoamerica and South America during the century before the Spanish arrival in the Americas. Use the timeline below to answer the following question: Which conclusion is supported by the timeline? (5 points) Select one: a. After Viracocha died, the Inca empire declined. b. The expansion of the Aztec empire caused the Inca empire to decline. c. The expansion of the Inca empire caused the Aztec empire to decline. d. After Pachacuti took over, the Inca empire focused on building projects. Question19 What did the Aztec and Spanish calendars have in common? (5 points) Select one: a. They had days designated for worship of Catholic saints. b. They were written in hieroglyphics. c. They had days designated for religious observances. d. They were based on Mayan arithmetic. Question20 The image below shows the sign for one particular day in the Aztec calendar. Use the image to answer the following question: What inference about the Mesoamerican view of time can be made on the basis of the sign? (5 points) Select one: a. For Mesoamericans, time was a frightening creation connected to death. b. Each Mesoamerican day was represented by a number, not a month. c. For Mesoamericans, each day in the calendar had a distinct identity. d. Each day in the Mesoamerican system was named after a creature. Question21 The diagram below compares the styles of pyramids from several different Mesoamerican cultures. Use the diagram to answer the following question: If a historian knew the dates of all the pyramids, what could he or she tell by comparing the ten different styles? (5 points) Select one: a. which culture was the most artistic b. which cultures influenced each other c. why the Mesoamericans built pyramids d. which cultures had power over the other Question22 Which of the following would not be considered an artifact by historians studying early Mesoamerican and South American cultures? (5 points) Select one: a. a piece of ancient pottery b. a letter written by a 15th century Spanish conquistador c. a rope bridge d. an article written in modern scholarly journal Question23 Which of the following is true of the people of Tenochtitlan? (5 points) Select one: a. They were mostly the social elite. b. They were mostly farmers. c. They were mostly craftsmen and merchants. d. They were mostly indentured servants. Question24 What role did runners play in Inca society? (5 points) Select one: a. They brought supplies to remote parts of the empire. b. They carried messages between different parts of the empire. c. They facilitated trade between different parts of the empire. d. They hunted and gathered food and supplies and carried it to city centers. Question25 What was an important responsibility of warriors in Aztec culture? (5 points) Select one: a. to take part in ritualistic blood-letting b. to build roads and land bridges c. to take prisoners from conquered lands. d. to help clear land for construction projects. Question26 In what way were the Maya different from the Aztec and Inca civilizations? (5 points) Select one: a. The Aztec and Inca had large, united empires, but the Maya did not. b. The Aztec and Inca had vast trade networks, but the Maya did not. c. The Aztec and Inca relied mainly on agriculture, but the Maya did not. d. The Aztec and Inca were deeply religious, but the Maya were not. Question27 Which of the following represents a difference between the Mayans and the Incas? (5 points) Select one: a. The Mayans worshipped one god, but the Incas worshipped many. b. The Mayans prayed mainly to the sun god, but the Incas prayed to hundreds of gods. c. The Mayans relied on calendars to plan activities, but the Incas relied on divination. d. The Mayans performed human sacrifices, but the Incas did not. Question28 The following two quotes are accounts of indigenous leaders in the Americas. The first is about the Aztec emperor. The second is about the Incan ruler. Use these excerpts to answer the question that follows: There were many…grandees around the monarch, some of whom held the canopy over his head, while others again occupied the road before him, and spread cotton cloths on the ground that his feet might not touch the bare earth. No one of his suite ever looked at him full in the face; everyone in his presence stood with eyes downcast. The court was filled with Indian nobles, dressed in gaily ornamented attire, in attendance on the monarch…. His dress was simpler than that of his attendants. But he wore on his head the crimson borla or fringe, which, surrounding the forehead, hung down as low as the eyebrow. This was the well-known badge of Peruvian sovereignty [royalty]. Based on the two passages, how did the Inca emperor and the Aztec emperor compare? (5 points) Select one: a. The Aztec emperor was more powerful. b. The Inca emperor was more ordinary. c. The Aztec emperor was more respected. d. The Inca emperor was more generous. Question29 What motivated Moctezuma I to reorganize the Aztec government? (5 points) Select one: a. concern about civil war b. fear over Spanish invasion c. competition with the Incas d. the massive toll of the famine Question30 What did Pacal the Great, Moctezuma I, and Huayana Capac all have in common? (5 points) Select one: a. They emphasized urban development. b. They relied on divination as a decision making tool. c. They inherited the throne through matrilineal succession. d. They encouraged the peaceful conquests of territories.