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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
Carman scan for
EMS professor
1
Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
Contents
1. Scope Meter Utilization
2. Application of Ignition Secondary
Wave
3. Multi-meter Utilization
4. Application of Simulation Function
5. Application of Special Maintenance
6. Carman scan Utilization Chart
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1. Scope Meter Utilization
1.1 Crank Angle Sensor Signal Analysis
1.2 CAM Angle Sensor Signal Analysis
1.3 TPS Signal Analysis
1.4 Air Flow Sensor Signal Analysis
1.5 O2 Sensor Signal Analysis
1.6 Injector Signal Analysis
1.7 Ignition System Analysis
1.8 ISC Valve Signal Analysis
1.9 Air Temp. Sensor Signal Analysis
1.10 Knock Sensor Signal Analysis
1.11 Vehicle Speed Sensor Signal Analysis
1.12 EGR Valve Signal Analysis
1.13 Purge Valve Signal Analysis
1.14 O2 Sensor Heater Signal Analysis
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1.1 Crank angle sensor signal analysis
1.1.1 Introduction of crank angle sensor and principle (1/2)
About
Sensor
Crank angle sensor is a sensor for locating piston by ECU and necessary to find ignition
time .
If the signal of the crank angle sensor keeps its consistency, then it is hard to find starting
and ending point. Therefore, two teeth are taken out from the crank and it is called Long
Tooth and the rest are called Short Tooth. By using long Tooth, TDC ( Top Dead Center ) is
found.
Contents shown by signal of crank sensor.
1. Ignition time = 360deg * Number of tooth before TDC / Number of tooth at one revolution
of engine.
Ignition time is calculated by number of tooth between the long tooth and peak voltage.
Peak voltage is obtained by measuring signal of crank angle sensor and primary ignition
wave simultaneously.
2. Engine speed (RPM) = 60 / ( Time between long tooth * Number of long tooth at one
revolution of engine)
RPM is calculated by number of long tooth at one revolution of engine.
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1.1.1 Introduction of crank angle sensor and principle (2/2)
Sensor type
Three mostly used crank angle sensor.
1. Optical Sensor : The sensor is used on a single-bodied cam shaft with a hole on the
disk. The signal is recognized when the signal passes through the hole while the disk is
revolving. This particular sensor is destructive by heat and humidity and makes lots of
noise. ( This is the only sensor that disk for crank angle sensor revolve 1 revolution while
crank shaft rotate 2 revolution. )
2. Magnetic Sensor : If the electromagnetic power generated by coil is intercepted by
revolution of a single-bodied camshaft with target wheel (normally outside of flywheel ),
then the voltage is generated. The sensor is using this voltage for signal..
3. Hall type sensor : The circuit is included in the sensor inside. This sensor electron
The circuit included inside the sensor discharge the electron. The single bodied crank
shaft with target wheel (normally outside of fly wheel ) disturbs discharging of electron
and generate the voltage. This voltage is used for signal.
Optical
type
Optical type
Algorithm
Magnetic type
Magnetic type sensor signal
This sensor is the most important sensor for the ECU. If sporadic engine stall
happened , then suspect this sensor at first.
1. If the ECU detects fault on this signal, then the ECU stop “fuel injection and ignition
2. If the ECU could not detect fault signal, then normal component or not equipped
component might be detected as a fault one.
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1.1.2 The Methodology of Crank Angle Sensor Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Vehicle selection
System(Engine / Transmission / ABS
…)Crank Sensor  Measuring
Sensor repair info view.
Normal value
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.1.3 Crank Angle Sensor Trouble type and Analysis (1/2)
Malfunction of Crank Angle Sensor (1/2)
Troubles
1. The signal is always high or low.
2. The signal is intermittently missed.
3. The noise signal detection.
4. The signal is normal but ECU identify wrong crank angle signal.
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
1. Malfunction of crank angle sensor or wiring circuit failure
(Signal, Ground and Reference line)
2. Bad connection of wiring
3. Cut off noise or remove cause of noise from crank angle sensor
3.1 Shield crank angle sensor wiring.
3.2 Check whether spark plug is original part or not
(Resistance range : 2.0 - 4.5K)
4. The counteraction of sensor maker should be required.
1. The engine is not started.
2. The engine vibration and stall are sometimes occurred.
3. The engine vibration and stall are sometimes occurred and display DTC of
normal part or non existed part
4. The ignition timing is out of control range.
Normal
signal
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1.1.3 Crank Angle Sensor Trouble type and Analysis (2/2)
Malfunction of Crank Angle Sensor (2/2)
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
1. Always constant signal
3. The noise signal detection
2. Intermittently signal missing
4. Signal is normal but ECU wrong identification
Ignition timing from scanner is different with
calculation from signal.
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1.1.4 Crank Angle Sensor Field Service Example (1/2)
1.Field example of Crank angle sensor trouble:ECU wrong identification
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Accent 2000MY vehicle is started with hesitation.
ECU identified wrong crank angle signal and it led to wrong calculation of ignition timing. So,
ECU started ignition with suction stroke.
Related
vehicles
This phenomenon is frequently occurred with magnetic crank angle sensor.
Accent 2000MY, Avante 1.5L/1.8L DOHC, Tiburon, Verna
Signal view
Ignition was BTDC 12deg on scanner but calculation from measured signal was ATDC
48deg. TDC position was identified from service information of Carman scan.
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1.1.4 Crank Angle Sensor Field Service Example (2/2)
2.Field example of Crank angle sensor trouble:Intermittently signal missing
Trouble
Cause
trouble
HMC Sonata 2,3(1.8/2.0L DOHC MAP)vehicle : Vehicle is started with hesitation in cold
ambient condition or don’t start.
of
Related
vehicles
Crank angle signal was abnormal due to power cut when key release.
This phenomenon is frequently occurred with optical crank angle sensor(MELCO 52 pin
ECU).
New Sonata 2,3(1.8/2.0 DOHC), New grandeur etc.
Signal view
If you measure crank angle signal with above phenomenon, you can see abnormal crank
signal.It result in injection cut off.
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1.2 CAM angle sensor signal analysis
1.2.1 Introduction of cam angle sensor and principle(1/2)
About Sensor
CAM angle sensor is the sensor to indicate the TDC of each cylinders by ECU.
This sensor is necessary to calculate injection phase. We can calculate TDC
from the crank angle sensor but cylinder number. Therefore ECU recognize the
TDC right after cam angle signal. ECU use the cam signal located between two
long tooth. If the signal of cam is located inside the long tooth, then ECU detects
it as a fault.
TDC
19th
TDC shown after CAM signal is
the first TDC.
Information from the signal of cam sensor : TDC of the1st cylinder
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1.2.1 Introduction of cam angle sensor and principle(2/2)
About Sensor
Three mostly used cam angle sensor.
1. Optical Sensor : The sensor is used on a single-bodied cam shaft with a hole on the
disk. The signal is recognized when the signal passes through the hole while the disk is
revolving. This particular sensor is destructive by heat and humidity and makes lots of
noise. ( This is the only sensor that disk for crank angle sensor revolve 2 revolution
while crank shaft rotate 1 revolution. )
2. Magnetic Sensor : If the electromagnetic power generated by coil is intercepted by
revolution of a single-bodied camshaft with target wheel (normally outside of flywheel ),
then the voltage is generated. The sensor is using this voltage for signal.
3. Hall type sensor : The circuit is included in the sensor inside. This sensor electron
The circuit included inside the sensor discharge the electron. The single bodied crank
shaft with target wheel (normally outside of fly wheel ) disturbs discharging of electron
and generate the voltage. This voltage is used for signal
Optical / hall type sensor signal
Algorithm
Magnetic type sensor signal
In order to reduce the emission, injection should be finished before intake valve open. If
the fuel is injected on the hot intake valve, then fuel is well vaporized and this helps good
combustion.
Therefore, cam signal is used to identify the cylinder number.
In case of no spark time adjustment type,we can know it by comparing cam signal
position with crank angle sensor.
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1.2.2 The Methodology of Camshaft Angle Sensor Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Vehicle
selectionSystem(ENG)CAM 
Part(F4 key)  Measuring
Remark : Since both A and B channels
can be used at the same time, it is better to
measure crank and cam angle signal
simultaneously.
Sensor repair info view
Normal valve
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.2.3 Camshaft Angle Sensor Trouble type and Analysis (1/2)
Malfunction of Camshaft Angle Sensor(1/2)
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
Normal
signal
1. The signal is always high or low.
2. The signal is intermittently missed(Invalid signal detection during 1 cycle).
3. The noise signal detection.
1. Malfunction of CAM angle sensor or wiring circuit failure
(Signal, Ground and Reference line)
2. Check valve timing. If it is not proper, please adjust it.
3. Cut off noise or remove cause of noise from CAM angle sensor
3.1 Shield CAM angle sensor wiring.
3.2 Check whether spark plug is original part or not
(Resistance range : 2.0 - 4.5K)
1. The engine problem is not occurred but GDI engine is not started.
2. CAM sensor error is intermittently detected with poor acceleration.
3. The engine vibration and stall are sometimes occurred and display DTC of
normal part or non existed part
4. The ignition timing is out of control range and in case of LPG vehicle
back-fire is occurred.
Upper signal in picture is CAM signal and sine signal is crank signal.
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1.2.3 Camshaft Angle Sensor Trouble type and Analysis (2/2)
Malfunction of Camshaft Angle Sensor (2/2)
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
1. Always constant signal
3. The noise signal detection
Avante, XG use this signal
2. Intermittently signal missing
(CAM signal detection in long tooth duration:This is normal with Avante XD)
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1.2.4 Camshaft Angle Sensor Field Service Example
Field example of CAM angle sensor trouble : Case of CAM signal delay
Trouble
Cause
trouble
Avante DOHC vehicle is not accelerated and CAM error is sometimes detected.
of
Related
vehicles
Ignition was retarded (about 9[deg]) due to wrong valve timing and CAM signal is detected
just before long tooth.
This phenomenon is occurred when CAM signal is identified before long tooth.
Signal view
CAM signal was identified before long tooth but distance between CAM signal and long tooth
was not over 1 tooth.
The valve timing was wrong adjusted as 1 tooth.
< Reference > The valve timing can be fast or delay by tensioner moving when acce
leration
Before valve timing adjustment
After valve timing adjustment
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1.3 Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) signal analysis
1.3.1 Introduction of TPS and principle
TPS
About Sensor
TPS is the sensor to know how much accelerate the acceleration pedal. If the line
of this sensor is broken, then more than 4.7V or 2.1V of constant signal voltage
can be produced depending on ECU internal circuit..
Sensor type
Algorithm
Wiper type is the mostly used signal sensing type by now.
In order to response to the driver’s will quickly, fuel injection is controlled depending on
the acceleration speed and pedal value. If the pedal value is more than 50%, then
oxygen sensor feedback control is stopped to control the engine with more torque.
In case of sensor failure, intake air sensor is substituted for TPS. Therefore, fast accel
and decel can not be detected with sensor failure and hesitation can be occurred.
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1.3.2 The Methodology of TPS Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
Carman scan Mode : Please
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Vehicle
selectionSystem(ENG)TPS 
Part(F4 key)  Measuring
Remark :
As it is possible to use A,B channels at the
same time, it is better to measure TPS and
intake air flow simultaneously.
Sensor repair info view
Normal value
About Sensor
Data analysis
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1.3.3 TPS Trouble type and Analysis (1/2)
Malfunction of TPS (1/2)
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
1. The signal is always high or low.
2. The signal is intermittently missed(Micro cut-off occurrence).
3. The noise signal detection.
4. Even if idle state, ECU does not identify it.
1. Malfunction of throttle position sensor or wiring circuit failure
(Signal, Ground and Reference line)
2. Check ground line and connecting part. If there is something wrong, connect it
correctly. If it is occurred again after repairing, ECU should be changed with
latest version. (Many HMC vehicles have this problem)
3. Remove cause of noise
3.1 Shield sensor signal line.
3.2 Check whether spark plug is original part or not(Resistance range:2.0-4.5K)
Engine
state
1. The vehicle hesitation is occurred with acceleration.
2. Idle TPS adaptation value is less than TPS absolute value at normal idle and
ECU doesn’t idle state even if real idle.Engine vibration is occurred with
this phenomenon.
3. Emission is increased.
4. The vehicle hesitation and vibration are occurred with acceleration.
Normal
signal
As can as possible, TPS signal should be compared with MAF sensor signal. And check
whether TPS & MAF signal are increased at the same time when acceleration.
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1.3.3 TPS Trouble type and Analysis (2/2)
Malfunction of TPS (2/2)
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
1. Always constant signal
3. The noise signal detection
2. Intermittently signal missing (Micro cut-off occurrence)
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1.3.4 TPS Field Service Example (1/2)
1.Field example of TPS malfunction : Signal missing by micro cut off
Trouble
Cause
trouble
Accent 1.3L SOHC vehicle not only doesn’t identify idle state but also vibration
and stall are occurred. The hesitation is occurred with acceleration and scanner
doesn’t recognize idle state even if vehicle is real idle.
of
Related
vehicle
TPS signal is cut off.
This phenomenon is occurred in HMC vehicle which TPS ground line is connected with ECU
outside ( Accent 1.3/1.5L DOHC etc )
Signal view
TPS signal is sometimes “0” with normal MAF sensor signal.
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1.3.4 TPS Field Service Example (2/2)
2. Field example of TPS malfunction : Signal noise occurrence.
Trouble
The emission is increased so much in idle state with Coupe 2.0L vehicle.
O2 sensor is normal feedback control but it is shifted to rich side.
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
As connecting TCU, TPS signal noise is so much detected. ECU identify noise as fast
acceleration, so it result in over fuel enrichment.
Vehicles which use same TPS wiring from TCU and ECU
Signal view
TPS signal noise is so much detected “0” with normal MAF sensor signal.
Signal view
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1.4 Intake Air Flow Sensor Signal Analysis
1.4.1 Introduction of Intake Air Flow Sensor and Algorithm
About Sensor
Sensor type
Algorithm
This is the sensor to see how much air flow is coming into the cylinder. It is very
important to calculate injection time. If the line is broken, then there are
occasions when output voltage is over 4.7V depending on internal circuit like TPS.
Mostly used sensors by now are the MAP sensor ( Intake manifold pressure check ),
MAF (Mass Air Flow :the resistance is changed when heated tip is cooled by inducted
air )and Karman Vortex (This sensor monitors vortices generated as the intake air flows
past vortex generators. Air flow is calculated by the frequency of ultrasonic waves that
are changed depending on the amount of vortices. )
The fuel quantity is decided by the air flow and the injector opening time decides fuel
quantity. The calculated fuel amount is compensated more precisely by oxygen sensor
feedback compensation. In case of air flow sensor error, the substitute value is
calculated by engine speed and TPS.
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1.4.2 The Methodology of Air Flow Sensor Signal Measurement
Carman scan Mode : Please
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Vehicle
selectionSystem(ENG)MAP 
Part(F4 key)  Measuring
Remark :
As it is possible to measure A,B channels, it
is better to measure intake air flow and TPS
simultaneously.
Sensor repair info view
Normal value
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.4.3 Air Flow Sensor Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of Air flow sensor
Trouble
1. The signal is always high or low.
2. The signal is intermittently constant.
Cause of
trouble
1. Malfunction of air flow sensor or wiring circuit failure
(Signal, Ground and Reference line)
2. Check ground line and connecting part.If there is something wrong,connect it.
Engine
state
1. Engine is hard to start. Even if it is started, vehicle hesitation is occurred
when acceleration
2. Intermittently vehicle hesitation or engine stall is taken place.
Normal
signal
As can as possible, MAF signal should be compared with TPS signal. And check whether
MAF and TPS signal are increased at the same time when acceleration.
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
As can as possible, MAF signal should be compared with TPS signal. And check whether
MAF and TPS signal are increased at the same time when acceleration.
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1.4.4 Air Flow Sensor Field Service Example
Field example of Air flow sensor malfunction
:Abnormally high signal (Sensor is normal but signal is high)
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Accent 2000MY vehicle is hard to start. Even if it is started, power is lack
with acceleration and exhaust gas is black color.
MAP signal is very high in idle state but scanner identify normal idle state.
High MAP signal was detected because internal EGR was increased by exhaust pipe
blocking. Due to that, ECU identify big air flow and exhaust pressure make high.
It led to over fuel enrichment and poor acceleration due to lack of power.
In case of MAP equipped vehicles,if exhaust pipe is blocked,this phenomenon is
always occurred. MAP signal is increased proportion to exhaust pipe blocking status.
Signal view
Signal(1.9volt) is slightly higher than signal of no load racing(0.8 - 1.5volt)
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1.5 Oxygen sensor signal analysis
1.5.1 Introduction of oxygen sensor and priciple
About Sensor
This is the sensor to compensate the fuel injection to get the stoichiometric air
fuel ratio (14.6). The different voltage is generated depending on fuel richness
( oxygen richness ). According to this voltage variation, fuel injection is added or
subtracted so that always relevant fuel is injected.
Sensor
type
Mostly used sensor now is the Zirconia ( It generate the voltage from 0V to 1V by oxygen
richness ), Titania ( It generate different resistance by oxygen richness ) and UEGO
sensor ( It is used for lean burn engine and it generate different current by oxygen
richness ). Titania and Zirconia sensors are classified with and without heater.
Algorithm
Oxygen sensor produce below 0.5V with rich oxygen( lean fuel) and over 0.5V with lean
oxygen (rich fuel). Using this, ECU inject more fuel when oxygen sensor voltage is
below 0.5V and reduce fuel as soon as voltage is over 0.5V. By continuing this control,
supplied fuel is getting close to stoichiometirc air fuel ratio. This is the feedback control.
In case of sensor failure, fuel is supplied by basic calculation.
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1.5.2 The Methodology of O2 Sensor Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Vehicle
selectionSystem(ENG)O2 sensor
 Part(F4 key)  Measuring
Remark : As it is possible to measure
A,B channels, it is better to measure TPS
too.
Sensor repair info view
Normal value
About
Data analysis
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1.5.3 O2 Sensor Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of O2 sensor
Trouble
1. The signal is always high or low.
2. The signal is intermittently constant
3. The switching is too fast.
4. The switching is too slow.
Cause of
trouble
1. Malfunction of O2 sensor or wiring circuit failure
(Signal, Ground and Reference line)
2. Check ground line and connecting part.If there is something wrong,connect it.
3. A/F ratio distribution is unstable with individual cylinder
(Fuel gas is induced from outside)
4. O2 sensor tip is poisoned or exhaust gas temperature is too low.
Engine
state
1,2 If acceleration pedal is worked before engine warm-up before, engine stall is
occurred or power is lack. And also vehicle hesitation is taken place when
fast acceleration.
3. Engine vibration is severe. In case of knock sensor equipped, power is lack
and fuel economy make bad due to knock detection.
4. Engine stall is Sometimes occurred or exhaust gas is black with fast accel.
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
As can as possible, O2 sensor signal should be
compared with TPS signal. And check whether O2
sensor signal is switched or not when
acceleration.
If signal is switched, O2 sensor is normal.
1. Always constant
2. Slow szwithing
3. Fast switching
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1.5.4 O2 Sensor Field Service Example (1/2)
1. Field example of O2 sensor malfunction : Too fast signal switching
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Elantra 1.6 vehicle vibration is severe in idle state and heavy knocking is detected.
O2 sensor signal is rapidly switched(Repeat high and low).
Vibration and knocking is decreased after repairing hydro tappet but it is still remained. It is
cleared as using synthetic oil.
Most vehicles are related, especially it is so much taken place when low quality is used
during long time.
(In case of solid tappet equipped engine,if tappet is not adjusted,it is occurred)
Signal view
In case of too fast signal switching, it is due to abnormal tappet opening and canister closing
etc.
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1.5.4 O2 Sensor Field Service Example (2/2)
2. Field example of O2 sensor malfunction : Too slow signal response
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Accent 2000 MY vehicle hesitation or stall is taken place with acceleration after idling.
At this time exhaust gas is black color and acceleration is poor.
Due to insufficient O2 sensor light off, signal is low and ECU start feedback control at this
time. ECU identify that fuel is lean with low signal and it result in over fuel enrichment.
This phenomenon is frequently occurred with optical crank angle sensor (MELCO 52 pin
ECU).
Elantra, New sonata(1.8, 2.0L SOHC) etc.
Signal view
Signal is stayed around 0.4 volt when problem occurrence. If acceleration pedal is
continuously worked, signal is bigger and bigger as below picture by exhaust temperature.
< Counteraction >
O2 sensor is exchanged with heated type.Signal and ground line make connection same as
before. And heater line is connected with after main relay and always operated with engine
start. After this working, spark plug should be changed with new one and drive with high
speed(2hours) to remove carbon in combustion chamber.
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1.6 Injector active signal analysis
1.6.1 Introduction of Injector and principle
About
Injector
Injector type
Algorithm
The fuel quantity is decided by the air flow and the injector opening time decides fuel
quantity. The injector open by electromagnetic power and close by spring force. Since
the electromagnetic power is depending on battery power, injector opening time is
compensated by battery power.
The principles of opening ( open by electromagnetic power and close by spring force )are
mostly same. But it is classified into orifice and pintle type by injection hole.
If the signal of crank angle sensor has the noise or broken signal, ECU stop the fuel
injection until it get normal signal of crank angle sensor.
Therefore, engine can be unstable or stall.
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1.6.2 The Methodology of Injector Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Actuator  Injection Measuring
.
Sensor repair info view
Normal value
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.6.3 Injector Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of Injector
Trouble
1. Injector is not opened.
2. Intermittently injector is not opened.
3. The clogging of injector.
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
1. Wiring circuit failure (Power supply and Ground line)
2. Crank angle sensor noise detection
3. Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber or
fuel filter problem by other materials.
1. Vehicle vibration is severe after start.
2. Vibration or engine stall is intermittently occurred.
3. Vehicle vibration is severe and engine sound is loud.
Normal
signal
Peak voltage and injector opening time is equal to
individual cylinder without acceleration pedal.
In case of clogging of injector or taking out
from engine, it can be checked by O2
sensor signal.
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
1. Always constant
2. Injector is not opened
3. Clogging of injector
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1.6.4 Injector Field Service Example (1/2)
1. Field example of Injector malfunction : Clogging of injector tip
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Coupe 2.0L DOHC (Camshaft modified vehicle): Checked O2 sensor signal due to
severe engine vibration. O2 sensor signal switching is too fast.
Valve overlap is too big (55 deg). Carbon make clogging of injector.
Most vehicle which has big valve overlap and use injector exception pintle type make this
phenomenon.
Signal view
Abnormal O2 sensor signal. It is due to abnormal A/F distribution with individual cylinder.
Fuel is not supplied in a certain cylinder.
Even if injector is clogged,
injector signal is normal
on scanner.
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1.6.4 Injector Field Service Example (2/2)
2.Field example of Injector malfunction:Sometimes not opened injector
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Signal view
New sonata (MAP sensor) vehicle vibration is intermittently occurred and
engine stall. This is not taken place regularly.
Abnormal crank angle signal is detected due to noise detection, so ECU cut off
fuel injection . At this time problem is taken place.
This phenomenon is occurred with optical or magnetic type crank angle sensor.
O2 sensor signal is mainly below 0.5 volt(lean shift) but sometimes show above 0.5
volt(rich shift).
We don’t know whether ECU identify
noise detected crank angle signal. If
injector is not opened, you can think
that ECU identify noise signal.
< Counteraction > Shield crank angle sensor signal line to prevent noise.
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1.7 Ignition System Signal Analysis
Refer to
“Chapter 2 Application of Ignition Secondary Wave”
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1.8 ISC valve control signal analysis
1.8.1 Introduction of ISC valve and principle
About
valve
ISC
ISC
type
valve
ISC valve is the valve that bypass the air to keep constant engine speed when
throttle valve is closed. ECU control only the opening of the valve and air is
supplied by the under pressure in the surge tank..
Three mostly used type are DC type controlled by DC motor, Duty type controlled by
duty and Step type controlled by the electromagnet
ISC valve
ISC valve
Control line
Control line
Control line
Control line
Control line
GND Duty control
Control line
Duty type (2 coil)
Algorithm
Step motor type
The ECU compare the engine speed with target speed and open or close the valve
when engine speed is lower or higher than target. This compensation is composed of
proportional, integral and differential term- so called PID control..
Engine speed
Engine speed
Target speed
ISC valve opening
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1.8.2 The Methodology of ISC Valve Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Actuator  ISC  Measuring
Sensor repair info view
IAC valve
Normal value
IAC valve
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.8.3 ISC Valve Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of ISC valve
Trouble
1. ISC is not opened.
2. Intermittently ISC is not opened.
3. The closing stuck of ISC valve.
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
1. Wiring circuit failure (Power supply and Ground line) or
Malfunction of TR in ECU
2. Wiring is normal but valve is not operated by carbon or step loss etc.
(Step loss : The difference between ECU control and actual opening duty)
3. Carbon accumulation in air flow path
1, Even if engine start is possible, it is stalled soon or severe vibration
is occurred. (In case of BOSCH ISC, engine speed is stayed around 1500rpm)
2. If it is occurred with little opening,engine vibration or stall is taken place
If it is occurred with big opening, engine is stayed with high speed.
3. As soon as engine is started, it is stalled.
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
ISC valve signal have difference according to
which type is used.
(Duty type / DC motor type / Step type)
1. Always constant
2. ISC valve stuck
3.ISC valve close stuck
Although ISC valve is stuck with closed
position ,signal is normal. So, it can be
checked by actuator operation. “ Refer to
chapter 5”
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1.8.4 ISC Valve Field Service Example
1. Field example of ISC malfunction : Clogging of ISC valve pintle
Trouble
Trajet XG 2000MY stall is frequently occurred and engine start is hard.
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Signal view
Leaking oil from turbo is mixed with carbon. It led to block ISC valve pintle.
This is often occurred with duty type ISC valve equipped vehicles, especially 1 coil type is
more frequent.
There is no problem in ISC signal, only ISC pintle is not operated.
Carbon in pintle should be cleared.
2. Field example of ISC malfunction : ISC valve step loss
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Signal view
Trajet XG 2000MY vehicle: If engine stall is occurred,
it is frequently taken place.
Step between ECU control and actual opening have big difference. At this time,
ISC valve adaptation is abnormal and opening duty is not controlled properly.
So, this phenomenon is taken place.
This is occurred with step motor malfunction or aging vehicle(Above 50,000 km/h) without
step motor equipped.
There is no problem in ISC signal, only ISC pintle is not operated. ISC valve should be
cleaned after disassembling. And reset ISC adaptation value and stay idle state more than
10 minute.
This step loss is not cleared completely. Although it is repaired or
exchanged with new one, it may occur later.
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1.9 Temperature sensor signal analysis
1.9.1 Introduction of temperature sensor signal and principle
About
Sensor
Sensor Type
Coolant sensor is a sensor for detecting of how much engine is heated up and
necessary to control injection/ignition/ISC valve depending on engine temperature.
Because engine load is surely different depending on engine temperature.
Intake air temperature sensor is used to calculate exact intake air flow and
necessary for MAP sensor type. But it is often not to use it with MAF(Mass air
flow )type.
Some of MAP sensor include intake air temperature sensor inside and it is called TMAP sensor.
Mostly used type is a thermistor type that increase the resistance with high temperature
and decrease the resistance with low temperature.
.
Intake air temp. sensor
Algorithm
T_MAP sensor
Coolant temp. sensor
Intake air temperature sensor is a sensor for calculating intake air quantity more exactly.
The coolant temp. sensor is to set different target of fuel(Air Fuel ratio)/target speed/
spark time in accordance with coolant temperature to compensate different engine load
Target lambda area without feedback control depending on coolant temp
Target ignition area depending on coolant temp. - idle status
AF range
Spark range
Coolant Temp.
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1.9.2 The Methodology of Temperature Sensor Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Sensor  WTS  Measuring
Sensor repair info view
Coolant sensor
Coolant sensor
Normal value
Coolant sensor
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.9.3 Temperature Sensor Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of Temperature sensor
Trouble
1. Signal line open circuit (Temperature is below -30 deg.C )
2. Signal line short to ground (Temperature is above 127 deg.C )
3. Temperature signal change is too fast.
Cause of
trouble
1. Wiring circuit failure (Signal or Ground line open or shorted)
2. ECU internal circuit malfunction or temperature sensor position is not proper.
Engine
state
1. Poor acceleration or exhaust gas is black due to over fuel enrichment.
It is returned normal after 10 minute.
2. Intermittently idle rpm is oscillating (800 - 1000rpm).
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
Temperature sensor signal have difference
according to which type is used.
(Duty type / DC motor type / Step type)
1. Always constant
2. Temp. signal rapidly change
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1.9.4 Temperature Sensor Field Service Example
Field example of Temp.sensor malfunction : Fast coolant signal change
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Signal view
Accent 2000MY vehicle : Engine speed is oscillating from 800 to 1000rpm with
idle state.
Engine speed is oscillated by coolant temperature change due to ECU internal circuit
malfunction. Idle engine speed is set with ECU data by coolant temperature in ECU.
Siemens ECU(52 pin) has sometimes problem but other ECU may have this phenomenon.
Engine speed is changed with coolant temperature oscillating. If actual coolant temperature
is constant. The problem is still remained after TCO sensor change(3ea) but it is cleared
after ECU change.
If you want to measure temperature, please refer to “Chapter 4 Multi
meter utilization”
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1.10 Knock sensor signal analysis
1.10.1 Introduction of knock sensor and algorithm
About
Sensor
Sensor type
The knock sensor employ the
piezoelectric element or silicon that
produce the signal(voltage) when it
gets pressure. If there is knocking in
the engine, then vibration is
transformed to pressure vibration and
it produces voltage. According to
this voltage, knocking is detected.
It is difficult to distinguish the knock sensor type by means of sensor shape.
element to detect vibration may be different.
But the
Knock sensor
Algorithm
The frequency of knocking signal is too fast(about 6 - 18Khz) to analyze it by ECU.
Therefore, this signal is s
ampled by hardware and
knocking is detected.
But the frequency of bad
engine vibration can be
overlapped with
frequency of knocking.
So, too much knocking
can be detected by
engine vibration.
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1.10.2 The Methodology of Knock Sensor Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Sensor  Knock  Measuring
Sensor repair info view
Normal value
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.10.3 Knock Sensor Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of Knock sensor
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
1. Knocking signal is always constant (Signal line open or shorted)
2. Heavy knocking detection
3. Knock signal is normal but knock is not detected
(Communication malfunction of knock signal in ECU)
1. Wiring circuit failure (Signal or Ground line open or shorted)
or knock sensor malfunction
2. A/F is different with individual cylinder.(Refer to 2.6injector trouble)
3. ECU internal circuit malfunction (Should be changed ECU)
1.If ECU detect knock sensor error, ignition is retarded(6-12deg).
It result in lack of power and bad fuel economy.
If ECU don’t detect error,ignition is not retarded even if knocking is occurred.
2 Too much ignition retard(6-12deg) make lack of power and bad fuel economy
3.Same as NO.1 description.
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
Knock sensor signal have difference according to
which type is used.
(Duty type / DC motor type / Step type
1. Always constant
2. Heavy knocking detection
Heavy knocking
Abnormal : constant signal
Normal signal
Normal signal
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1.10.4 Knock Sensor Field Service Example
Field example of Knock sensor malfunction : Heavy knocking detection
Trouble
Trajet XG 2000MY vehicle: The power is lack with driving and fuel economy is bad.
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Signal view
Cylinder #1 intake valve is not opened properly due to malfunction of #1 rocker arm
operation. It result in engine vibration and ignition retard by heavy knocking detection. So,
ignition retard make lack of power and bad fuel economy.
In case of knock sensor equipped vehicles, if engine state is unstable, it guess knocking
detection.
This signal can be also checked with O2 sensor signal.
Knock signal with problem detection
O2 sensor signal with problem detection
Heavy knocking
Normal signal
Knock I.C exist in ECU. If it has malfunction, knocking detection
is impossible. But ECU can detect whether it properly works or
not.
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1.11 Vehicle speed sensor signal analysis
1.11.1 Introduction of vehicle speed sensor and principle
About
Sensor
Sensor
Type
Vehicle speed sensor is a sensor that
check wheel speed per second to
calculate vehicle speed.
It measures speed of body of rotation
that directly connected with driving
shaft.
Mostly used vehicle speed sensor are lead type (switch on and off at every revolution )/
magnetic type and hall type.
VS sensor
Rotor rotate with the cable
connected to driving shaft
A hole for cable
connection
Magnetic and hall
type is same
principle as crank
angle sensor.
VS sensor(lead switch type)
Algorithm
Vehicle speed is calculated by calculating how many voltage over the threshold(normally
1.0 - 2.5V) are generated at one second. If the noise signal is over the threshold, then it is
recognized as vehicle speed.
Vehicle speed signal is
required for AT car to
decide gear shifting level
and for MT car to reduce
the shock during fast
acceleration by adjusting
spark time and fuel
depending on vehicle
speed and gear level.
ECU calculates the
gear level using
engine speed and
vehicle speed.
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1.11.2 The Methodology of Vehicle Speed Sensor Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
Carman scan Mode : Please
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Sensor  Vehicle Speed  Measuring
Sensor repair info view
Vehicle speed
Vehicle speed
Normal value
Vehicle speed
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.11.3 Vehicle Speed Sensor Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of Vehicle speed sensor
Trouble
1. Any vehicle speed sensor signal is not detected with driving.
2. Vehicle speed is much higher than actual speed. (Too much signal noise)
3. Even though vehicle stop, ECU identify vehicle speed.
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
1. Wiring circuit failure (Signal or Ground line open or shorted)
or vehicle sensor malfunction
2. Too much signal noise detection in vehicle speed sensor
1. Engine RPM is slightly high in idle state and it is oscillating.
2. In case of A/T vehicle, shift point is high gear position and it is shifted with 2 or 3 gear
when take off.
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
Vehicle speed signal should be detected in driving.
It should be always constant at vehicle stop.
1. always constant
2. Noise detection in VS signal
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1.11.4 Vehicle Speed Sensor Field Service Example
Field example of VS sensor malfunction : Signal noise detection
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Grandure XG V6 2.0L DOHC vehicle: Vehicle take off with 2 or 3 gear shifting.
Acceleration is impossible and VS is displayed with 40 - 70 Km/H on scanner
even if vehicle stop.
Too much noise is detected in VS signal. ECU identify driving with high speed.
All vehicles (Especially in case that ECU receive VS signal from TCU)
Signal view
VS signal with problem detection
VS signal is not related to shape.
Only check how many detect signal above 1.0 volt per 1sec.
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1.12 EGR valve control signal analysis
1.12.1 Introduction of EGR valve and principle
About EGR
EGR type
This is a valve to add exhaust gas into
the cylinder and so the combustion
temperature is reduced.
Reduced combustion temperature results
reducing of nitrous-oxide emission.
Exhaust gas is supplied through this
valve by under-pressure of surge tank.
Mostly used one is mechanical type that the valve is opened by under-pressure of surge
tank as soon as solenoid valve is opened. And the solenoid valve is opened by ON/OFF
system or duty system. In case of EEGR(Electric EGR) type, the EGR valve is opened
by electromagnetic power..
Electric EGR valve
Algorithm
Mechanical EGR valve
EGR valve is opened within the range(2 - 7%) that is not to give big influence on engine
operation. Opening value is controlled not to have big engine vibration. Therefore, in
case of ON/OFF type, ON signal is activated in the area (engine speed & intake air
flow )where no engine problem is found. With the EGR gas, ignition angle should be
retarded about 4 - 8 degree
If the EGR gas is provided into the
cylinder, combustion temperature
is reduced and it is effective on
reducing of nitrous-oxide emission.
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1.12.2 The Methodology of EGR Valve Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Actuator  EGR valve  Measuring
Sensor repair info view
EGR sensor / EGR valve
Normal value
EGR sensor / EGR valve
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.12.3 EGR Valve Operation Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of EGR valve
Trouble
1. Malfunction of valve operation
2. EGR valve closed stuck
3. EGR valve opened stuck
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
1. Wiring circuit failure (Power supply or Ground line open or shorted)
or EGR solenoid valve malfunction
2. EGR valve is stuck for a while or friction increase by over heating.
1. Severe engine vibration is occurred(Open stuck) or
lean fuel control(MAP sensor type).
2. lean fuel control(MAP sensor type), fuel adaptation is increased to positive
direction. Knocking is often taken place.
3 Severe engine vibration
(Engine is hard to start or severe engine vibration after start)
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
EGR valve operation can be checked only if it is
operated. So, it should be checked with working
acceleration pedal.
1. Always constant
EGR valve stuck is not checked with
signal,indirectly it can be checked with
O2 sensor signal. “Refer to O2 sensor
chapter”
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1.12.4 EGR Valve Field Service Example
Field example of EGR valve malfunction : EGR valve closed stuck
Trouble
Cause of
trouble
Related
vehicle
Signal view
Grandure XG V6 3.0L DOHC vehicle : Knocking is often taken place and intermittently
fuel control is rich because fuel adaptation is increased to positive direction.
EGR gas is not supplied in combustion chamber due to EGR valve closing stuck. At this
time, ECU reduce fuel injection as much as EGR duty. So, injection is not sufficient and fuel
adaptation is increased. And also knocking is occurred because ECU apply EGR activated
ignition.
This is occurred at EGR valve equipped vehicles with MAP sensor. MAF(Mass Air Flow:Hot
Film Type)is also happened if ECU separately control EGR activated ignition.
O2 sensor signal with problem detection
EGR valve stuck is not checked with signal,indirectly it can be
checked with O2 sensor signal.
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1.13 Purge valve control signal analysis
1.13.1 Introduction of purge valve control and principle
About valve
Part type
Fuel vapor gas from fuel tank is not
emitted to the air but stored in the
canister to follow the emission
regulation. And then this fuel
vapor gas is supplied to the engine
via purge valve during engine
running.
Mostly used one is solenoid valve type that uses under-pressure of surge tank while
valve is open. This is also divided into ON/OFF and duty type..
Purge solenoid valve
Canister
Algorithm
Purge valve is opened in the limit area no to give big influence on engine operation.
Opening amount is controlled no to have rpm drop by too much rich fuel caused by purge
gas. Therefore, in case of ON/OFF type, ON signal is controlled to activate in the area
( engine speed, intake air flow )of no engine problem.
If purge gas is
supplied into the
cylinder, mixture is
getting richer. But
as it is
compensated by
oxygen sensor,
total fuel amount is
same
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1.13.2 The Methodology of Purge Valve Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
Carman scan Mode : Please
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Actuator  Purge valve  Measuring
Sensor repair info view
Canister purge solenoid
Canister purge solenoid valve
Normal value
About sensor
Data analysis
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1.13.3 Purge Valve Operation Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of Purge valve
Trouble
1. Malfunction of valve operation
2. Purge valve closed stuck
3. Purge valve opened stuck
Cause of
trouble
Engine
state
1. Wiring circuit failure (Power supply or Ground line open or shorted)
or Purge solenoid valve malfunction
2. Purge valve is stuck for a while or friction increase by over heating.
1. Severe engine vibration is occurred when hot start(Open stuck) or
over fuel enrichment control.
2. The smell of fuel gas is detected from vehicle.
3. Severe engine vibration is occurred when hot start(Open stuck) or
over fuel enrichment control.
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
Purge valve operation can be only checked with
driving. It should be always constant with vehicle
stop.
1. Always constant
Purge valve stuck is not checked with
signal,indirectly it can be checked with
O2 sensor signal. “Refer to O2 sensor
chapter”
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1.13.4 Purge Valve Field Service Example
Field example of Purge valve malfunction : Purge valve opened stuck
Trouble
Coupe vehicle : Engine is hard to start when hot summer season.
And fuel control is so rich with engine vibration after start.
Cause of
trouble
Purge valve is stuck at closed position with hot condition. At this time, over fuel gas is
supplied into engine when vehicle start and it lead to make hard vehicle start.Engine
vibration is still remained until fuel gas is completely exhausted.
Related
vehicle
Signal view
This is frequently taken place with Siemens purge valve equipped vehicle. With BOSCH
valve, it is sometimes occurred.
O2 sensor signal with problem occurrence
Purge valve stuck is not checked with signal,indirectly it can be
checked with O2 sensor signal when fuel control is too rich.
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1.14 Oxygen sensor heater control signal analysis
1.14.1 Introduction of oxygen sensor control and principle
About
sensor
Oxygen sensor heater is a heater to heat up the tip
of oxygen sensor. Since oxygen sensor activate
when the sensor temperature is over 370degC,
heater is needed to prevent delay of signal at low
exhaust gas temperature.
Sensor type
There are oxygen sensor without
heater too. Oxygen sensor without
heater is used to reduce the cost.
Algorithm
In order to prevent sensor
over-heating, heater control is
stopped at high exhaust gas
temperature area. In case of
engine start, sensor might be
cracked by heating due to
water on the sensor.
Therefore, heating is start
after water is evaporated
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1.14.2 The Methodology of O2 Sensor Heater Signal Measurement
How to connect sensor : A and B channel can be
used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red color)
should be connected with signal line of sensor and the
minus(black color) should be connected with ground line
of sensor.
Carman scan Mode : Please
perform following procedure on the
screen,
- Scope meter  Engine 
Sensor  O2 sensor  Measuring
Sensor repair info view
Normal value
About Sensor
Data analysis
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1.14.3 O2 Sensor Heater Operation Trouble type and Analysis
Malfunction of O2 sensor heater
Trouble
1. Malfunction of valve operation
(Power supply line is no problem but O2 sensor is not heated)
2. O2 sensor is not activated (Always OFF)
Cause of
trouble
1. O2 sensor heater damage
2. Wiring circuit failure (Power supply or Ground line open or shorted)
Engine
state
1,2 O2 sensor signal switching is too slow (Too slow light off)
Intermittently exhaust gas is black and poor acceleration is detected and
engine stall is occurred when fast acceleration. Fuel economy is bad.
Normal
signal
Signal
wave when
trouble
detection
O2 sensor heater should be always “ON” if after
start time is elapsed 40 sec
(In case of duty type, it is “ON” above 95%)
1. Always constant
If O2 sensor heater signal is “OFF”
when idle, error is detected.
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1.14.4 O2 Sensor Heater Field Service Example
Field example of O2 sensor heater malfunction : Crack of tip
Trouble
HMC vehicles for US market : O2 sensor malfunction is many taken place in early
winter season
Cause of
trouble
O2 sensor heater should be operated after removing humidity around tip.
But as soon as engine is started, O2 sensor is heated at the same time.
It result in crack of O2 sensor tip.
Related
vehicle
Signal view
Vehicle which is manufactured before 1995 year
(BOSCH O2 sensor:Frequently occurrence, Woojin O2 sensor:Sometimes occurrence)
O2 sensor signal with problem occurrence
O2 sensor signal is not switched (Always constant).
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2. Application of Ignition Secondary Wave
2.1 General explanation & principle of
Ignition secondary wave
2.2 Measuring method of Ignition secondary
wave
2.3 Analysis of Ignition secondary wave
2.4 Field Examples
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2.1 General explanation & principle of Ignition secondary wave
The calculated time for ignition system by ECU are spark time and dwell time.
The dwell time is to induct current to primary coil to get
60A and it is compensated by battery power.
Dwell time is the power charging duration of primary coil.
The longer dwell time is the higher current. That means,
if this power charging duration of primary coil is long,
then current is high and ignition energy (E = VA) is high
so that combustion in the cylinder is
stable with strong spark energy.
But the problem is that electric energy is
increase as current is increase. If it is too big
then there will be a problem with endurance of
ignition coil.
So, with good endurance of
ignition coil, we can increase dwell time, which
gives high current.
But, as it needs more money to increase
endurance with current ECU that have power
TR inside, current is controlled to a certain
value (generally 6A) as fast as possible.
Therefore eclectic current is changed very
fast by dwell time and there is big difference
of electric current by small dwell time change.
Then what is a countermeasure of carmaker?
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The countermeasure is to prevent over current, but there is no countermeasure for low current.
Because over current can give damage on ignition coil or power TR while low current does not give big
problem with small secondary voltage and small ignition spark.
The reason why it is not a big problem is as
following.
The secondary voltage signal is almost similar at
each engine operating conditions, but generation
and destruction of instant high voltage is very
various. Especially, it is depending on combustion
chamber shape and engine operating conditions
(temperature, airflow and mixture condition) and
even with same conditions, it can not be regular.
Therefore, in my opinion, to investigate engine
condition with secondary voltage signal can give
only few information such as problem of spark plug
and coil wiring or decreasing of compression rate.
If you want to understand the combustion condition
exactly, you have to look at cylinder pressure.
Some of electric control unit maker and carmaker’s research center use the sensor that equipped inside
the spark plug to see cylinder pressure variation.
Back to main subject, in fact, to say no problem with small ignition energy is dangerous. To say exact
meaning, when engine is in idle at cold state (Coolant below -10C), energy of approximately 1J is
required and energy of approximately 1 – 3mJ is required for warm-up engine with oxygen sensor
feedback control. And more energy is required during acceleration or for rich mixture or for lean mixture.
But normally required energy for warm-up engine is one-hundredths of cold engine.
As carmaker make there ignition system to get enough energy at cold state, if there is no trouble with
ignition system then there will be no big problem with low current at warm-up engine. Then what is the
effect when we limit over current on ignition system?
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If we limit the current then we can see that voltage increase by a step. This does not give any influence on
engine (combustion condition), but ignition system has to consume more energy by itself. And this current
size is depending on battery voltage.
So, according to battery voltage, ECU gives different
dwell time.
As a reference, ECU has several power
supply lines with different purposes and the line for
battery voltage recognition is used to compensate battery
voltage.
What if battery voltage is changed due to high resistance
or noise in the battery voltage line, which is connected to
ECU?
Then ignition sparks for each cylinder is irregular due to frequent changing
of ignition enrage by irregular dwell time.
This phenomenon happens more in hot summer with complex power supply wiring to ECU.
Then what will be influence by this
phenomenon? First, engine
combustion is unstable
due to unstable current flow. And this
leads engine vibration. In case of
knock sensor, engine
vibration generates knock sensor
signal and ECU detect this signal as
knocking and retard spark time.
< Reference>
ECU analyzes knock sensor signal frequency to define real knocking frequency (generally 8-13KHz) from
the engine. Yet, engine vibration due to different ignition power between each cylinder can be detected
as knocking.
How can the technician find out this condition that has very short difference of dwell time? It is difficult.
But it can be suspected that dwell time is unstable when battery voltage from the power line that
recognized by ECU is irregular.
If engine vibration is severe with that condition, connect power line for voltage recognition to the ECU
directly with one line.
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2.2 Measurement of Ignition Secondary Wave
How to connect Carman scan : A and B channel
can be used simultaneously. The plus of probe(Red
color) should be connected with signal line of sensor and
the minus(black color) should be connected with ground
line of sensor.
Connection of Pick-up cable
Carman scan Mode : Please perform
following procedure on the screen,
- Vehicle
Scope  Automatic scope  Ignition 
Measuring
Connection of Ground wire
Normal value
Analysis of data
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
2.3 Analysis of Ignition Secondary Wave
A. Measurement of Ignition primary wave.
Ignition secondary wave shows discharging status according to the status of the cylinder.
As it has a complicated relation with status of components and wires which control electrical energy at
first coil, status of second coil which is induced by high voltage and status of mixed gas in the cylinders
representing how much thermal electrons discharge while being discharged finally, To confirm whether
status of supplying electrical energy to ignition system is good or not, it is desirable to check the current
from first coil at each cylinder.
To generate enough ignition energy at secondary voltage, there must be enough current at first coil.
Although this current is different according to the sorts of the vehicle, generally 60.5A is considered as
a standard.
The
point
keeping in mind
is despite this
current is weak,
ignition
secondary wave
may not have
any problem.
If air-fuel ratio in the normal temperature (over 20 °C) is closer to stoichiometric , Ignition by secondary
voltage is possible with approximately 1/200~1/1000 energy of the ignition energy in the cold
temperature (below -5°C).
In case that the current flows weak , but ignition secondary wave has no problem,
Ignition secondary wave must be confirmed whether it is normal state at rapid acceleration, cold
temperature, both rich and lean of fuel condition.
Ignition energy at normal temperature and stoichiometric condition : 1~2mJ
Cold temperature and Rich fuel: approximately 1J
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Checkpoint for current and primary ignition wave.
1)Distributor Less Ignition type
< Measuring part >
Measure flowing time and the current at
checkpoint 1,2
<Checkpoint>
Resistance
of
wire,
status
of
components (checking components 1:
internal ECU or external TR)
2) Distributor Ignition type
<Measuring part>
Measure flowing time and the current at
checkpoint 1,2
<Checkpoint>
Resistance of wire or a short, status of
components (checking components 1:
internal ECU or External TR, checking
components 2: ignition coil)
Most important point is dwell time(depends on battery voltage). If battery voltage is 13.5V the dwell time
is 3.0~3.5msec. Cylinder by cylinder deviation(over 20%) check is required to know the normal or not. If
the deviation is more than 20%, it means coil, power TR or wire has a problem..
Also check the ECU recognized battery voltage is stable(within 3V). Because the dwell time can be
some difference depends on battery voltage.
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B. Measurement of Ignition
Secondary wave
Ignition secondary wave means discharging to high
voltage from electric energy at first coil. Especially
ignition system in automobile, discharging time &
discharging voltage level is affected more by status of
the mixed gas in the cylinders and plug than electric
energy from first coil.
When secondary high voltage (approximately
20000~30000V) is induced instantly and flows, the
flow means discharging, time is discharging time,
Voltage is discharging voltage.
When the secondary voltage generates, this energy
separates carbon and hydrogen from constituent of
fuel.
<Ignition secondary wave: classification of each wave>
While this constituent of fuel separates,
electrons are generated. It’s called thermalelectron.
Discharging voltage combusted normally
from the cylinder is a voltage discharging
through those thermal-electrons.
Since level and time of the discharging
voltage are affected by the temperature and
shape (vortex) in the cylinder, air-fuel ratio of
the mixture, and compression ratio, it is hard
to fix absolute value. So it must be analyzed
through comparing each cylinder.
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Parts to confirm ignition secondary wave are as follows.
1) Distributor less type
<Measuring parts>
Measure flowing time and the current at
checkpoint 1,2
<Checkpoint>
Resistance of wire, status of components
2) Distributor Ignition type
<Measuring part>
Measure voltage secondary wave at
checkpoint 1,2(plug wire at each cylinder)
<Checkpoint>
Resistance of wire or short, status
components (checking components 1,2)
of
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
. Comparing each cylinder
(1) After a current flowed, if peak (voltage of surge) is low or discharging time is short
and high:
This means that electric energy through discharged thermal-electron isn’t discharging
well,while molecule separates from fuel.Electric energy trying to ignite isn’t for fuel
combustion , it’s kind of discharging phenomenon through plug ejja. So misfire occurs
in the cylinder.
A.Confirm the status of plug
(attached carbon, clearance)
When a peak voltage is generated,
some parts of voltages flow on the
attached carbon in the plug tip. So
it gets weak to separate molecule.
In case that discharging voltage
flows through carbon to plug.
B.Check plug wiring and status of coil
In case that connection to plug
and high voltage wire and coil status
aren’t good , peak voltage becomes weak.
Then electric energy to separate
fuel molecule becomes weak because
Thermal-electrons generated from fuel
are little so that resistance
discharges large state..
c.Check if the mixture ratio of fuel is too lean
In case that fuel is lean, even more electric energy is needed to generate thermalelectrons separated from fuel molecule.thus peak voltage generated near
stoichiometric with normal fuel isn’t enough to generate thermal-electron so that
resistance dischargelarge state
d.Check if the compression ratio is too high
In case compression is high, far more electric energy is needed to generate
thermal-electrons separated from fuel molecules.
Thus peak voltage generated near normal compression ratio isn’t enough to generate
thermal-electron so that resistance discharges large state. It isn’t for normal case.
it’s for especially reorganized vehicle. Just do interpret that as theoretical aspect.
In 4 cylinder engine , If one cylinder has some troubles, the troubles are made
in two cylinders at the same time. Therefore when measuring wave with
Carman scan, choose “one of NO1.and NO3.” or “ one of NO2. and NO4.”
then measure 2cylinders at the same time.
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(2)After a current flowed,if a peak(voltage of surge) is low and discharging time is long:
Although electric discharge is well,it causes power reduction because discharging
electric energy (spark) gets weak and long so that combustion timing of fuel gets long
and flame spread leading to combust between fuel particles gets weak
a. Check status of plug (clearance of tip is too small)
b. Check compression pressure of cylinder is low
c. Check the mixture ratio is too rich
<Reference>
More detail refers to chap 6.”6.3 uniform ignition energy to each cylinder.
In 4 cylinder engine , If one cylinder has some troubles, the troubles are made in two cylinders at
the same time. Therefore when measuring wave with Carman scan, choose “one of NO1.and
NO3.” or “ one of NO2. and NO4.” then measure 2cylinders at the same time.
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Ignition Energy Discharging Time
For ignition, high voltage must be generated and sparked on ignition plug tip in cylinder
But actually to combust fuel in cylinder, discharging must be done continuously for some
time.Because spark from combusted fuel in cylinder must transfer flame to other surrounding fuel. If
intake air is little (idle, deceleration), air playing a role on transferring
flame and fuel mixture gets lack and compression ratio is low in cylinder so that
there is high possibility to occur misfire.
Actually in US regulation (OBD2: On Board
Diagnostic2), if misfire rate is over
regulation on exhaust gas, ECU recognizes
as a malfunction
It is written that “if intake air is little, misfire
exempts from regulation
So to speak, this means it admits air lack
case is inevitable on air-fuel mixture
transferring flame to the cylinder.
But if enough secondary voltage keeps for
some time (about 1,5msec), these misfire
decreases.
There is some product (CDI) making
secondary voltage strong and discharging
long time. The purpose of those products is
on that.
Compression pressure in
according to ignition timing.
cylinder
Although the direct way to keep
discharging time is to produce CDI, there
is also indirect way to keep pressure in
cylinder high. One of them is to retard
ignition timing.
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
2.4 Field Service Example of Ignition Secondary Wave (1/3)
1. Field example of Ignition secondary wave : In case heat value of plug is too high
Coupe 2.0L DOHC vehicle which platinum plug is equipped has poor performance
when acceleration,black color of exhaust gas and engine start is hard in cold
ambient condition.
Trouble
Cause
trouble
of
Related
Vehicle
Combustion wasn’t well due to high heat-value Pt plug
All vehicle equipped with too high heat-value Spark plug
Signal View
Big difference at wave between appropriate plug and high heat-value plug. (Discharging
time is short with cold heat-value plug)
< Reference >
Since waves are different according to vehicle/ engine/ temperature of temperature, there
were no absolute standard. It should be compared when it is normal condition.
Pt plug equipped
Comparison pt plug with appropriate one
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
2.4 Field Service Example of Ignition Secondary Wave (2/3)
2. Field example of Ignition secondary wave : In case too much noise is generated from
plug
Trouble
New sonata (Map) Cranking isn’t well,After cranking engine disorder is severe.
Cause of
trouble
Effected on ECU by being used no resistor plug, at ignition excessive noise was
generated.
Related
Vehicle
All vehicles equipped with no resistor plug (except using SIEMENS 55 pin ECU)
Signal
View
Big difference at wave between appropriate plug (resistance:3.5~4.5 kohm) and no
resistor plug. (After discharging, finishing is well)
< Reference >
Since waves are different according to vehicle/ engine/ temperature of temperature,
there were no absolute standard. It should be compared when it is normal condition.
No resistor plug
Comparison no resistor plug and appropriate one
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
2.4 Field Service Example of Ignition Secondary Wave (3/3)
3. Field example of Ignition secondary wave : In case Compression ratio at cylinder is low
Trouble
Cause
trouble
Avante 1.5L DOHC Vehicle is a normal at cold engine condition, engine gets
warmer, engine disorder happens.
of
Related
Vehicle
Signal view
Since too much carbon was attached on intake valve stem, no problem at cold condition,
but engine gets warmer stem expands so that compression pressure gets lower because
stem can’t be closed well.
All vehicles used too much fuel annex to raise octane value, probability is high.
One of two ignition secondary wave discharging time is long and discharging voltage is
low.
< Reference >
Since waves are different according to vehicle/ engine/ temperature of temperature, there
were no absolute standard. It should be compared when it is normal condition.
Pressure in cylinder is low
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
3. Multi-meter Utilization
3.1 Repair by measuring current
3.2 Repair by measuring pressure
3.3 Repair by measuring temp.
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
3.1 Repair by measuring current
3.1.1 Measuring of Large current ( 1 - 600 A )
How to connect Carman scan :
Carman scan mode : Please perform
Can be used by B channel, connect cable for
following procedure on the screen
measuring large current to main line (battery ).
-Vehicle scope Oscilloscope  Measure
Connection of Current cable
Explanation of current probe
Measure
Compression pressure
Check compression leak at
each cylinder
Cranking current
Check status of battery
charging
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
3.1.2 Measuring of Small current ( 50mA - 100 A )
How to connect Carman scan :
Can be used by B channel, connect cable for small
current to each component power supply line.
Connection of current cable
Carman scan mode : Please perform
following procedure on the screen, -Vehicle
scopemeter Oscilloscope  Measure
Explanation of current probe
Measure
Ignition primary current
Check Ignition system(Status of
Power supply)
Component operating current
Check operating status of each
component
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
3.2 Repair by measuring pressure
3.2.1 Measurement of vaccum : 760mmHg - 0
(From atmospheric pressure to vaccum 1bar)
3.2.2 Measurement of pressure : 0 - 500 psi
(From atmospheric pressure to 35 bar)
How to connect Carman scan :
A and B channel can be used simultaneously.
After connecting adapter to pressure
line(measuring part), connect cable to
converting module.
Carman scan mode : Please perform following
procedure on the screen, -Vehicle scopemeter
Multimeter PressureMeasure.
Measuring of vaccum : check MAP sensor and master back
Measuring of pressure: check fuel pump,regulator
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
3.3 Repair by measuring Temp.
(Can be measured from -50°C to 1000 °C )
How to connect Carman scan :
Both Channel A and Bcan be used. After installing
thermo couple, connect cable to converting module.
Carman scan mode : Please perform following
procedure on the screen , -Vehicle scopemeter 
MultimeterTemperature
Measurement of Temp. : Intake air Temp, Coolant
Temp, Exhaust Gas Temp.
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
4. Application of Simulation Function
4.1 Operating Sensor
4.2 Operating Actuator
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
4.1 Operating Sensor
4.1.1 The Methodology of operating sensor with Carman scan
If Service data from Carman scan is strange, sending signal to the sensor directly,
Check whether a problem of line or a problem of component.
How to connect Carman scan :
Can be used by B channel, connect cable to sensor
Carman scan mode : Please perform following
procedure on the screen, -Vehicle scopemeter
simulation operating with (+), (-) key
(+)---->signal line, (-)-----> GND (body of vehicle)
DRIVING
???
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
4.1.2 The flow of operating sensor with Carman scan
With this function, being able to distinguish exact cause between sensor and wire
which is causing any abnormal engine running or fault.
Sending signal by
Carman scan
Connector without sensor
Sending signal
Abnormal E/G
running
No
Yes
Fault code ?
Monitoring service data
expected as a cause
No
Yes
Abnormal Service
data ?
No
Yes
Sending signal by
Carman scan
Disappeared fault
code ?
Sending signal by
Carman scan
No
Yes
Disappeared
abnormal service
Data ?
Yes
Disappeared
abnormal E/G
running ?
No
Yes
Sensor problem
Wire problem
Sensor problem
Other cause
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
4.2 Operating Actuator
4.2.1 The Methodology of operating actuator with Carman
scan
Although there is some problem at state of engine, No trouble code is showed at actuator
system,(namely, No problem at actuator power but it is suspicious of operating well),
Check it directly if actuator operates well.
How to connect Carman scan :
Can be used by A channel. connect (+) at cable for sensor to
component operating line(-)
Carman scan mode : Please perform following
procedure on the screen, Vehicle scope meter
Actuator Operating with ‘driv’, ‘stop’key.
Connection cable to operating line
DRIVING
?!?
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
4.2.2 The flow of operating actuator with Carman scan
With this function, being able to distinguish exact cause between actuator and wire
which is causing any abnormal engine running or fault.
Sending activation
signal by Carman scan
Actuator without connector
Sending activation signal
Abnormal E/G
running
No
Yes
Fault code ?
Monitoring E/G running
phenomenon
No
Yes
Any actuator
related to problem
?
Yes
Sending activation
signal by Carman
scan
Sending activation
signal by Carman
scan
Disappeared fault
code ?
No
No
Yes
E/G running is
changed ?
Yes
Disappeared
abnormal E/G
running ?
No
Yes
Actuator problem
Wire problem or
actuator stick
Actuator problem
Other cause
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
5. Application of Special Maintenance
5.1 Compression pressure at
each cylinder
5.2 Battery charging status
5.3 Check if actuator is stuck
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
5.1 Compression pressure at each cylinder
How to connect Carman scan :
Can be used by B channel, connect cable for large current
to main line (Battery).
Connection current cable
Carman scan mode : Please perform following
procedure on the screen, -Vehicle scopemeter
OscilloscopeMeasure
Explanation of current probe
View compression
pressure
Measure with CAM signal, first peak is NO1.Cylinder
it shows explosion oder of engine.
By comparison of height, compare pressure of each
cylinder.
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5.2 Battery charging status
How to connect Carman scan :
Can be used by B channel, connect cable for large current
to main line (Battery)
Connection current cable
Carman scan mode : Please perform following
procedure on the screen, -Vehicle scopemeter
Oscilloscope  Measure.
Explanation of current probe
View Cranking
Current
Comparing the first peak current with CCA, if the
value of peak is below 70% of CCA value, Judging
“Battery charging status ” is lack.
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
5.3 Check if Actuator operates well
How to connect Carman scan :
Can be used by A channel, connect cable for sensor(+) to
component operating line(power), (-)to GND.
Carman scan mode : Please perform following
procedure on the screen, -vehicle scopemeter
Actuator  operating ‘Driv’, ‘stop’ key
Connecting cable to operating line
DRIVING
Check if RPM increases proportionally, when duty gets larger
by Carman scan PRO. After disconnection of ISC probe.
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Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
6. Carman scanUtilization chart (1/3)
Signal analysis of ENGINE/TCU/ABS related sensor
Each function and explanation
● : Judgment
○ : Possible
△:Partially possible
Blank : Confirmation impossible
or unnessary
Function of HI-SCAN Pro
1 SCAN DATA
Input signal to ECU: Crank angle sensor / Cam angle sensor / TPS / Intake air flow sensor / O2 sensor / Intake air
temperature sensor / Coolant temperature sensor / Vehicle Speed sensor / battery recognition vlotage / Ground
recognition / Knock sensor / I
Explanation of function
Poor sensor
●
●
○
○
○
○
Intermittent trouble
Signal modulation
Noise occuring
Poor wire
View communication with ECU
1.1 Trouble codes
1.2 Data value when trouble occurs
View details of trouble when trouble occurs
1.3 Internal ECU calculation DATA
View calculating value internal ECU
1.4 Operation status monitoring
1.5 Simulation
Checking status of OBD2 operation
2 Scopemeter
Comparing operating sign with scan data
Measuring signal wave directly
Measuring signal and operating status directly
2.2 Analysis of wave
checking if abnormality exists comparing with
normal wave
2.3 Explanation of wave
2.4 Analysis of Data
2.5 Data store
2.7 Operating Component
Operating actuator directly
Measuring ignition secondary wave directly
3.2 Analysis of wave
checking if abnormality exists comparing with
normal wave
Comparing compression at
each cylinder
4.1.2 Cranking test
△
△
△
△
○
○
○
Measuring status of each wiring & components
Measuring consuming status of electrical
energy(current)
View conversed compression pressure at each
cylinder
Measuring status of battery charging status
indirectly
Measuring current flowing on ignition coil
Measuring current to operating components
4.2 Measuring pressure
Measuring pressure of engine vaccum & fuel
pump etc.
4.3 Measuring Temperature
Measuring temperature
4.4 Measuring frequency
Measuring frequency of duty signal
4.5
4.6 Measuring duty pluse width
Measuring proportion of duty signal ON
5 PC SCAN
○
Explanation of wave
4.1.4 Measuring Operating curent
4.7 Measuring resistor
○
Sending & watching wave after storing
4.1.3 Measuring current at coil
Measuring duty
○
Measuring wave inducting to ignition secondary
coil
3.1 Measuring wave
4.1 Measuring current
○
Operating component directly
Changnig signal of sensor with optional value
4 Function of Multimeter
○
Sending & watching wave after storing
2.2.2 Operating Actuator
3.3 Eaplanation of wave
3.4 Wave store
○
Explanation of wave
Analysis & explanation of MIN/MAX/Average
value
2.2.1 Operating sensor
3 Ignition Secondary wave
△ (For US only)
View operating value of troubled component
2.1 Measuring wave
4.1.1
A wire snap / a short circuit
△
△
△
△
Measuring time of frequency operated by duty
Measuring resistor
components
at each wiring
&
○
Realization of SCANNER function from PC
5.1 SCAN Data
5.2 Simulation
View communication with ECU
5.3 Store Data and Wave
Sending & watching wave after storing
5.4 Function of scope
Measuring wave directly
Operating components directly
95
Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
6. Carman scanUtilization chart (2/3)
Actuator related
Each function and explanation
● : Judgment
○ : Possible
△:Partially possible
Blank : Confirmation impossible
or unnessary
Function of HI-SCAN Pro
1 SCAN DATA
Components operated by ECU : Injector / ISC valve/ Purge valve / O2 sensor heater / EGR valve
Explanation of function
View details of trouble when trouble occurs
1.3 Internal ECU calculation DATA
View calculating value internal ECU
1.4 Operation status monitoring
1.5 Simulation
Checking status of OBD2 operation
2.1
Measuring wave
2.2 Analysis of wave
2.3 Explanation of wave
2.4 Analysis of Data
2.5 Data store
2.7 Operating Component
Measuring signal and operating status directly
Measuring consuming status of electrical
energy(current)
View conversed compression pressure at each
cylinder
Measuring status of battery charging status
indirectly
○
○
○
○
△
△
○
○
○
△
○
○
○
○
●
●
○
Measuring pressure of engine vaccum & fuel
pump etc.
Measuring frequency of duty signal
4.5
4.6 Measuring duty pluse width
Measuring proportion of duty signal ON
Measuring time of frequency operated by duty
Measuring resistor
components
at
each
wiring
&
○
Realization of SCANNER function from PC
5.1 SCAN Data
5.2 Simulation
View communication with ECU
5.3 Store Data and Wave
Sending & watching wave after storing
5.4
Measuring wave directly
Function of scope
○
Measuring current flowing on ignition coil
4.4 Measuring frequency
5 PC SCAN
○
Measuring status of each wiring & components
Measuring temperature
4.7 Measuring resistor
○
Explanation of wave
4.3 Measuring Temperature
Measuring duty
○
Sending & watching wave after storing
4.1.4 Measuring Operating curent Measuring current to operating components
4.2
○
Measuring wave inducting to ignition secondary
coil
checking if abnormality exists comparing with
normal wave
Measuring pressure
△
Operating component directly
3.2 Analysis of wave
4.1.3 Measuring current at coil
○
Sending & watching wave after storing
Measuring ignition secondary wave directly
4.1.2 Cranking test
○
Explanation of wave
Analysis & explanation of MIN/MAX/Average
value
3.1 Measuring wave
Comparing compression at
4.1.1
each cylinder
○
checking if abnormality exists comparing with
normal wave
Operating actuator directly
4.1 Measuring current
●
Measuring signal wave directly
Changnig signal of sensor with optional value
4 Function of Multimeter
●
Comparing operating sign with scan data
2.2.2 Operating Actuator
3.3 Eaplanation of wave
3.4 Wave store
Poor wire
View operating value of troubled component
2.2.1 Operating sensor
3 Ignition Secondary wave
Component trouble Intermittent trouble Operating modulation
View communication with ECU
1.1 Trouble codes
1.2 Data value when trouble occurs
2 Scopemeter
A wire snap / a short circuit
Operating components directly
96
Carman scanFor EMS PROfesor
6. Carman scanUtilization chart (3/3)
Etc
Each function and explanation
● : Judgment
○ : Possible
△:Partially possible
Blank : Confirmation impossible
or unnessary
Function of HI-SCAN Pro
1 SCAN DATA
Watching
Watching
Checking
compression
charging status status
of
pressure
at
of battery
actuator stuck
eachcylinder
Watching
Measuring Receiving
pressure of
temperature general
cmpression
of each part technical advice
/vaccum
Receiving
professional
technical advice
to treat trouble
Explanation of function
View communication with ECU
1.1 Trouble codes
1.2 Data value when trouble occurs
View details of trouble when trouble occurs
1.3 Internal ECU calculation DATA
View calculating value internal ECU
1.4 Operation status monitoring
1.5 Simulation
Checking status of OBD2 operation
2 Scopemeter
View operating value of troubled component
Comparing operating sign with scan data
Measuring signal wave directly
2.1 Measuring wave
Measuring signal and operating status directly
2.2 Analysis of wave
checking if abnormality exists comparing with
normal wave
2.3 Explanation of wave
2.4 Analysis of Data
2.5 Data store
2.7 Operating Component
Explanation of wave
Analysis & explanation of MIN/MAX/Average
value
Sending & watching wave after storing
Operating component directly
2.2.1 Operating sensor
Changnig signal of sensor with optional value
2.2.2 Operating Actuator
Operating actuator directly
3 Ignition Secondary wave
○
Measuring ignition secondary wave directly
3.2 Analysis of wave
checking if abnormality exists comparing with
normal wave
3.3 Eaplanation of wave
3.4 Wave store
4 Function of Multimeter
4.1 Measuring current
Comparing compression at
each cylinder
4.1.2 Cranking test
4.1.3 Measuring current at coil
○
Measuring wave inducting to ignition secondary
coil
3.1 Measuring wave
4.1.1
having remote help
Explanation of wave
Sending & watching wave after storing
Measuring status of each wiring & components
Measuring consuming status of electrical
energy(current)
View conversed compression pressure at each
cylinder
Measuring status of battery charging status
indirectly
△
△
○
○
Measuring current flowing on ignition coil
4.1.4 Measuring Operating curent Measuring current to operating components
4.2 Measuring pressure
Measuring pressure of engine vaccum & fuel
pump etc.
4.3
Measuring temperature
Measuring Temperature
Measuring frequency of duty signal
4.5 Measuring duty
4.6 Measuring duty pluse width
Measuring proportion of duty signal ON
5 PC SCAN
○
○
4.4 Measuring frequency
4.7 Measuring resistor
○
Measuring time of frequency operated by duty
Measuring resistor
components
at each
wiring
&
Realization of SCANNER function from PC
5.1 SCAN Data
5.2 Simulation
View communication with ECU
5.3 Store Data and Wave
Sending & watching wave after storing
5.4 Function of scope
Measuring wave directly
○
○
Operating components directly
○
97
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