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Name
Class
Date
22
Main Idea Activities 22.4
Modern Chapter 13
Living and Working Conditions
CHAPTER
VOCABULARY Some terms to understand:
• abode (559): place to live
• exerting himself (559): making an effort; trying hard
• advantageous (559): favorable, beneficial
• unrestricted (560): not limited
• obstacle (560): something that stands in the way of or stops progress
• inevitable (560): certain to happen; unavoidable
• determine (560): be the deciding factor in or cause of something
• dismal (560): dark, gloomy
• meddle (560): interfere in other people’s affairs
• dues (563): money paid by a member to a group
ORGANIZING INFORMATION Use the following items to complete the chart below.
• Adam Smith
• Thomas Malthus
• David Ricardo
• John Stuart Mill
Theory or Belief
Proponent
The iron law of wages
A government should work for the good of all its citizens.
The law of supply and demand and the law of competition
The connection between poverty and population growth
EVALUATING INFORMATION Mark each statement T if it is true or F if it is false.
1. Adam Smith is considered the founder of modern economics.
2. According to the law of supply and demand, people would pay more for an
item if it was scarce.
3. In the free-enterprise system, strict laws and regulations control what
businesses may do and the profits they may make.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
183
Main Idea Activities
Name
Class
Date
Chapter 22, Main Idea Activities 22.4, continued
4. Economics became known as the “dismal science” because early economists
believed that workers would always be poor.
5. According to the law of wages, wages go down when there are not enough
workers for all the jobs.
6. According to the laissez-faire system, government should not try to control
what business does.
7. Humanitarians believed that writers should not speak out against selfish
business practices.
8. Early reform laws attempted to control the practice of child labor.
9. Early reform laws established a system of improved wages for all workers.
10. Workers have always had the legally protected right to strike.
REVIEWING FACTS Choose the correct items from the following list to complete the
statements below.
unions
inevitable
laws
John Stuart Mill
leave things alone
mercantilism
enforce
supply and demand
1. The economic theory called
only a fixed amount of wealth.
stated that the world had
2. According to the law of
a high price for a scarce item in great demand.
people would be willing to pay
3. According to many early economists, low wages and poverty among workers was
.
4. The term laissez-faire means “
.”
5. Reformers believed that
and working conditions.
were needed to improve wages
6. An important reformer named
government should work for the good of all its citizens.
believed that
7. Early reform laws were not effective because they lacked a way to
them.
8. Workers’ associations called
to pay workers who went on strike.
used money from dues
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
184
Main Idea Activities
ANSWER KEY
SECTION 5 ACTIVITIES
7.
8.
9.
10.
Organizing Information
Reactionaries—Holy Alliance, believed in
absolutism, said that former ruling families
should be restored to their power;
Liberals—ideas that came out during
the American and French revolutions,
individual rights were very important,
supported freedom of speech and press.
dots and dashes
battery
Great Britain
tariffs
SECTION 2 ACTIVITIES
Organizing Information
Factory System—employed women and
children, did only part of a job, workers
fined for being late, paid for hours worked;
Domestic System—workers paid for items
completed, employed skilled workers,
worked on complete products, workers
decided when to work.
Evaluating Information
1. T
5. T
2. T
6. F
3. F
7. T
4. F
8. F
Evaluating Information
1. F
6. F
2. T
7. F
3. T
8. F
4. T
9. T
5. F
10. F
Matching
1. f
2. f
3. a
4. b
5. h
6. e
7. d
8. g
Understanding Main Ideas
1. c
3. b
2. a
4. d
SECTION 3 ACTIVITIES
Chapter 22
(Modern Chapter 13)
Organizing Information
Eli Whitney—interchangeable parts for guns;
Henry Ford—assembly line;
J. P. Morgan—United States Steel Company
SECTION 1 ACTIVITIES
Organizing Information
Agriculture—seed drill, iron plow, replaceable
plow blades;
Manufacturing—water-powered loom, cotton
gin, steam engine;
Transportation—the Clermont, steam
locomotive, canals with locks
Classifying Information
1. F
6. F
2. T
7. T
3. F
8. T
4. T
9. F
5. T
10. T
Understanding Main Ideas
1. c
3. c
2. d
4. a
Evaluating Information
1. T
6. F
2. F
7. F
3. T
8. F
4. F
9. T
5. T
10. F
SECTION 4 ACTIVITIES
Organizing Information
The iron law of wages—David Ricardo;
A government should work for the good of
all its citizens—John Stuart Mill;
The law of supply and demand and the law of
competition—Adam Smith;
The connection between poverty and
population growth—Thomas Malthus
Reviewing Facts
1. “Turnip” Townshend
2. farm workers
3. factory system
4. cotton gin
5. water power
6. steam engine
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
357
Main Idea Activities
ANSWER KEY
Evaluating Information
1. T
6. T
2. T
7. F
3. F
8. T
4. T
9. F
5. F
10. F
Evaluating Information
1. F
7. F
2. T
8. T
3. T
9. T
4. F
10. F
5. F
11. T
6. T
12. F
Reviewing Facts
1. mercantilism
2. supply and demand
3. inevitable
4. leave things alone
5. laws
6. John Stuart Mill
7. enforce
8. unions
Reviewing Facts
1. Michael Faraday
2. magnetism
3. water power
4. electric current
5. hydroelectric
6. wires
7. ship-to-shore
8. outside
9. fuel
10. Kitty Hawk
SECTION 5 ACTIVITIES
Organizing Information
Socialism—Government owns the means of
production; private property allowed
Both—redistribution of wealth
Communism—The people own the means of
production; dictatorship of the proletariat;
classless society; “From each according to
his abilities; to each according to his needs.”
SECTION 2 ACTIVITIES
Organizing Information
Biology—Schleiden and Swann, Rudolf
Virchow, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Charles
Darwin, Gregor Mendel;
Medicine—Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur,
Joseph Lister, Robert Koch, Alexander
Fleming;
Physics and Chemistry—Dmitry Mendeleyev,
Wilhelm C. Röntgen, Pierre and Marie
Curie, Max Planck, Albert Einstein
Evaluating Information
1. F
5. T
2. F
6. T
3. T
7. F
4. T
8. T
Evaluating Information
1. F
5. F
2. T
6. T
3. F
7. T
4. T
8. F
Understanding Main Ideas
1. c
3. d
2. a
Chapter 23
(Modern Chapter 14)
Understanding Main Ideas
1. d
3. a
2. c
4. d
SECTION 1 ACTIVITIES
Organizing Information
Electricity—dams, dynamo, lightbulb;
Communications—radio, wireless telegraph,
telephone;
Transportation— internal combustion engine,
balloons.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Holt World History: The Human Journey
358
Main Idea Activities
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