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Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Key Concept What causes earthquakes?
Directions: On each line, write the term from the word bank that correctly completes each sentence. Some terms
may be used more than once.
damage
downward
earthquake
energy
fault
forces
horizontal
landslides
liquefaction
mountains
plate
rocks
tension
upward
vertical
1. A(n)
is the rupture and sudden movement of
along a break or crack in Earth’s crust.
2. Compression and
forces cause
motion along a fault.
3. Shear forces cause
a(n)
motion along
.
4. An earthquake occurs when
pushing on tectonic plates are
so large that blocks of crust move.
5. Earthquakes usually occur along
boundaries, though some
have occurred far from these boundaries.
6. A tsunami can result from the
or
movement of the ocean floor along a fault.
7. The crust moves along a surface called a(n)
during an
earthquake.
8. A great deal of
can occur during an earthquake when the
ground behaves more like a liquid than a solid. This event is
called
.
9. As the ground shakes, earthquakes also can trigger
that
to
cause rocks and soil to tumble down from the tops of
valleys below.
10. The ground shaking that is felt when an earthquake occurs is caused by the
released when pieces of crust slide past each other.
36
Earth’s Changing Surface
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 2
Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Key Concept What causes volcanoes to form?
Directions: Use the diagram to answer each question on the lines provided.
1. Why does magma move upward?
2. What happens when magma erupts on
the surface?
3. What is a volcano?
4. Where do volcanoes form?
5. How is the mid-ocean ridge shown in the diagram formed?
6. How does low pressure cause volcanoes to form?
7. Which two factors affect the temperature that rocks melt at?
8. What causes magma to erupt through cracks in Earth’s surface?
Earth’s Changing Surface
37
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Key Concept How do earthquakes and volcanoes change Earth’s surface?
Directions: Complete the cause-and-effect chart with the correct information in the space provided.
Cause
Effect
Earth’s crust moves vertically as blocks of crust
slide past each other along a fault.
1.
Movement occurs along plate boundaries.
2.
The mantle above a sinking plate melts and
forms magma.
3.
Land drops as the result of an earthquake.
4.
There is extreme shaking where the ground is
made up of loose sediment.
5.
Lava flows into the rift formed at a divergent
boundary deep in the ocean.
6.
Oceanic crust builds up.
7.
Lava cools and solidifies.
8.
Compression and tension forces act on Earth’s
crust.
9.
Lava flows over long distances.
10.
Magma rises to the surface near the center of
a tectonic plate, called a hot spot.
11.
38
Earth’s Changing Surface
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Key Concept How do earthquakes and volcanoes change Earth’s surface?
Directions: On each line, write the term or statement from the word bank that correctly completes each causeand-effect sentence. Each term or statement is used only once.
caldera forms
cone shape forms
liquefaction
liquid
ridge or mountain forms
shield-shaped volcano forms
sunlight is blocked
volcano forms
waves called tsunamis form
1. When magma rises to the surface of Earth’s crust, a
.
2. When many thousands of lava flows have built up, a type of volcano called
a
.
3. When built-up magma in a magma chamber is removed, a large depression called
a
.
4. When lava flows and ash layers are deposited by explosive eruptions, a large
volcano that has a
.
5. When force from an earthquake causes vertical movement along a fault line,
a
.
6. When volcanic ash and gases from explosive eruptions blow high into the atmosphere,
, causing the temperature of the atmosphere near Earth to
decrease.
7. When an earthquake deep in the ocean causes the upward movement of Earth’s crust
at a fault, water is pushed up and huge
.
8. When extreme shaking occurs where the ground is made up of sediment, an event
called
a
Earth’s Changing Surface
occurs where the ground seems to change to
.
39
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