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THE CELL CYCLE
5.1
Study Guide
Date
KEY CONCEPT
VOCABULARY
Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and
normal functions.
cell cycle
c¡okinesis
mitosis
MAIN IDEA: The cell cycle
has four main stages.
Summarize what happens during each stage of the cell cycle in the boxes below.
Gap 1
Cells Grow, Carry out normal
functions, and copy their
organelles
M
Mitosis
Cells undergo cell division,
which involves both the process
of mitosis and cytokinesis.
S
Synthesis
Cells Replicate DNA
G2
Gap 2
Cells go through additional
growth
1. How did the G¡ and G2 stages get their names?
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At the times that these stages were named, scientists could not observe any
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activity going on in the cells, so they thought there were gaps in the cellular activity.
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2.
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Çells must pass through a critical checkpoint during which two stages of the cell cycle?
G1 and G2
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3.
In the nucleus.
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Where does DNA synthesis happen in eukaryotic cells?
4.
What two processes make up the M stage?
Mitosis and Cytokinesis
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Unit 2 Resource Book
McDougal Littell Biology
Study Guide 65
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STUDY GUIDE, CONTINUED
MAIN IDEA: Cells divide at different rates.
E. Among different types of cells, which stage of the cell cycle varies
G1
6.
most in length?
Why does a skin cell divide more often than a liver cell?
The rate of cell division is linked to the body's need for that type of cell. Skin cells are typically exposed to more damaging conditions
and must be replaced more often than liver cells.
7. What is Gs?
The name given to the stage where cells carry out their normal functions but are unlikely to divide.
MAIN IDEA: Cell size is limited.
8. Write an analogy to explain why cell size is limited.
9.
Answers will vary. Example: Cell size is limited because all substances must cross the membrane.
Enough material needs to enter and exit to keep the cell alive. Since volume tends to increase faster
than surface area (in a sphere or cube), the volume could quickly become too large compared to the area
available for exchange. In a similar way, people in a very large theater that holds thousands might not be able to
exit quickly for an emergency. People in a smaller theater that seats fewer people could exit more quickly.
Which typically increases faster as a cell grows, surface area or volume?
Volume
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1O. For cells to stay the same size from generation to generation, what two things must be
coordinated?
Growth and division.
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11. Think of añ example of a cycle, 'What does this cycle have in common with the cell
cycle?
Answers will vary, but should relate to the recurrence of something (steps, phases, the rotation of
a wheel) to the repeating patter of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic
cells.
process divides a cell's cytoplasm? How do the two word parts of your answer
help you remember it?
12. What
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Cytokinesis; cyto-refers to a cell and kinesis refers to division or movement.
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13. What
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process divides the cell nucleus and its contents?
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Mitosis
66 study Guide
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Unit 2 Resource Book
McDougal Littell Biology
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