6th year Exam Questions 1. Infective endocarditis. Etiology Download

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6th year Exam Questions
1. Infective endocarditis. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations. Diagnostic criteria,
differential diagnosis, complications and outcomes. Treatment.
2. Valvular heart disease: mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation. Etiology, mechanisms of
haemodynamic disorders, clinical manifestations, diagnosis. Treatment.
3. Valvular heart disease: aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation. Etiology, mechanisms of
haemodynamic disorders, clinical manifestations, diagnosis. Treatment.
4. Systemic hypertension. Primary (essential) hypertension: etiology, pathogenesis,
classification,
diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, complications. Treatment.
5. Secondary arterial hypertension. Renal, endocrine and other causes. Cushing’s syndrome.
Pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Treatment.
6. Ischemic heart disease: risk factors, classification. Stable stenocardia: clinical manifestations
and ECG – findings, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, treatment. Indications for surgical
management.
7. Myocardial infarction: definition, classification, clinical features, ECG and laboratory
diagnosis,differential diagnosis, cause and outcomes. Treatment.
8. Myocardial diseases. Cardiomyopathy. Definition, classification. Dilated cardiomyopathy.
Pathogenesis of hemodynamic disorders. Clinical features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis.
Prognosis. Treatment.
9. Chronic heart failure: definition, causes, pathogenesis. Classification. Clinical manifestations,
diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, treatment.
10. Tachyarrhythmias. Electrophysiological mechanisms, classification, clinical manifestations
and ECG – findings. Pharmacologic antiarrhythmic therapy, indications for cardioversion.
Prognosis.
11. Bradyarrhythmias. Etiology, hemodynamic disorders, clinical features. Diagnosis, approach
to treatment. Indications for temporary and permanent pacing.
12. Systemic lupus erythematosus: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria,
differential diagnosis, complications. Therapeutic strategies.
13. Antiphospholipid syndrome. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria,
differential diagnosis, complications. Therapeutic strategies.
14. Acute rheumatic fever: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria,
prophylaxis ,
treatment.
15. Osteoarthritis. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Classification. Clinical manifestations and diagnostic
criteria, differential diagnosis. Treatment.
16. Rheumatoid arthritis: etiology, pathogenesis, classification. Clinical manifestations and
diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, course and outcomes. Treatment.
17. HLA B27 related diseases. Etiology, pathogenesis, classification. Clinical manifestations and
diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, course and outcomes. Treatment.
18. Microcrystalline arthropathy. Etiology, pathogenesis, classification. Clinical manifestations
and diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, course and outcomes. Treatment.
19. Urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical variants,
diagnostic
criteria, differential diagnosis, complications. Treatment.
20. Chronic glomerulonephritis: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and variants,
diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, complications. Treatment.
21. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic obstructive bronchitis: etiology,
pathogenesis, classification, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, complications.
Treatment.
22. Pneumonia: classification, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, course,
complications. Treatment.
23. Bronchial asthma. Etiology and pathogenesis. Extrinsic and intrinsic forms of asthma.
Clinical
manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment.
24. Pulmonary thromboembolism. Definition, risk factors, pathogenesis. Diagnosis, differential
diagnosis, course and outcomes. Treatment.
25. Pleural diseases. Pleurisy. Definition, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features. Diagnosis.
Differential diagnosis of the diseases with pleural effusion. Treatment.
26. Cor pulmonale. Definition, etiology, pathogenesis. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis and
differential diagnosis. Treatment.
27. Chronic gastritis: etiology, pathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria, differential
diagnosis,
course and outcomes. Treatment.
28. Peptic ulcer disease. Etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, course and
outcomes, complications. Treatment.
29. Liver cirrhosis. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Classification. Clinical features, diagnosis,
differential
diagnosis, complications. Treatment.
30. Diseases of the biliary tract: gallstones, acute and chronic cholecystitis. Causes, clinical
manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, complications. Treatment.
31. Diabetes mellitus type 1: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis,
complications.
Approach to treatment, patient education and self-control, prognosis.
32. Diabetes mellitus type 2: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria,
differential diagnosis, course, complications, treatment.
33. Hypothyroidism: definition, causes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis,
complications. Treatment.
34. Thyrotoxicosis. Causes of thyrotoxicosis. Diffuse toxic goiter (Graves' disease). Etiology.
Pathogenesis. Clinical features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment.
35. Iron-deficiency anemia: clinical and laboratory features, differential diagnosis. Treatment.
36. Chronic lymphoid leukemia: differential diagnosis, principles of treatment.
37. Megaloblastic anemia: differential diagnosis, principles of treatment.
38. Aplastic anemia: differential diagnosis, principles of treatment.
39. Hemophilia A: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory features. Principles of
treatment.
40. Chronic myelogenous leukemia: clinical and laboratory features. Principles of treatment.
41. Acute leukemia: classification, clinical and laboratory features. Principles of treatment.
42. Hemolytic anemia: clinical and laboratory recognition of accelerated hemolysis, differential
diagnosis. Principles of treatment.
43. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: clinical and laboratory features, diagnostic parameters.
Principles of treatment.
44. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostic
criteria,
differential diagnosis, course, complications, treatment.
45. Gout: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Approach to treatment.
46. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with articular disorders.
Significance of clinical history, physical examination, laboratory investigation and diagnostic
imaging. Algorithm of investigation.
47. Ankylosing spondylitis. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations. Diagnostic criteria,
differential diagnosis. Treatment.
48. Reactive arthritis: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Approach to
treatment.
49. The vasculitis syndromes: classification, differential diagnosis. Takayasu`s syndrome and
giant cell arteritis.
Diagnosis. Approach to treatment.
50. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with abdominal pain.
Significance
of clinical history, physical examination, laboratory investigation and diagnostic imaging.
Algorithm of investigation.
51. Inflammatory bowel disease: classification, differential diagnosis. Ulcerative colitis:
etiology,
pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, course, complications, treatment.
52. Inflammatory bowel disease: classification, differential diagnosis. Crohn`s disease: etiology,
pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, course, complications, treatment.
53. Chronic pancreatitis: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Approach to
treatment.
54. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with airflow obstruction.
Significance of clinical history, physical examination, measurement of ventilatory function,
laboratory investigation and diagnostic imaging.
55. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with airflow limitation.
Differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Algorithm of
investigation.
56. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with chest pain. Common
causes
of chest pain. Identifying ischemic cardiac pain: algorithm of investigation.
57. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with dyspnoea. Common
causes
of dyspnoea. Significance of clinical history, physical examination, investigations.
58. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with peripheral edema.
Common
causes of peripheral edema. Significance of clinical history, physical examination,
investigations.
59. Acute coronary syndrome: classification, diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Approach to
treatment.
60. Atrial fibrillation. Common causes. Diagnosis. Paroxysmal, persistent and permanent atrial
fibrillation. Approach to treatment.
61. Sick sinus syndrome: diagnosis, differential diagnosis, complications. Approach to treatment.
62. Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex: Cushing`s syndrome, primary aldosteronism, syndromes
of
adrenal androgen excess. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Approach to treatment.
63. Hypofunction of the adrenal cortex: primary and secondary adrenocortical insufficiency.
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Adrenal crisis. Approach to treatment.
64. Internal diseases and pregnancy. Pregnancy and medication.
65. Headache in outpatient department. Differential diagnosis and treatment.
66. Acute respiratory viral infection. Differential diagnosis and treatment.
67. An approach to formulating a differential diagnosis in patients with chronic abdominal pain.
Common causes
of chronic abdominal pain.Algorithm of investigation.
68. The vasculitis syndromes: classification, differential diagnosis. Wegener's granulomatosis and
polyarteritis nodosa (PAN).
69. The vasculitis syndromes:
classification, differential diagnosis. Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
70. Occupational carcinogens.
71. Silicosis: pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention.
72. Occupational allergy: occupational allergens, mechanisms of allergic reactions.
73. Vibration disease due to local vibration.
74. Occupational skin allergy.
75. Occupational bronchial asthma: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention.
76. Vibration disease due to general vibration.
77. Carbon monoxide intoxication.
78. Mercury intoxication.
79. Asbestosis. Principles of treatment and prevention.
80. Phosphoroorganic pesticides intoxication.
81. Types of cancer considered to be occupational in Russia.
82. Solvents intoxication.
83. Vibration disease: principles of treatment and prevention.
84. Lead intoxication: mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention.
85. Benzene intoxication: mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention.
86. Primary pulmonary tuberculosis: definition, pathogenesis, clinical forms.
87. Primary pulmonary tuberculosis: specific features of primary ТВ in adults. Diagnosis,
treatment,
outcomes.
88. Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with tonsillitis (angina, scarlet fever, diphtheria,
infectious mononucleosis, tularemia). Algorithm of investigation.
89. Groups of individuals with a high risk for ТВ (medical and social). Frequency of their
examination. Indications to consultations.
90. Tuberculoma of the lung. Pathogenesis. Clinical picture, diagnosis. Treatment.
91. Tuberculoma of the lung. Differential diagnosis of round shadows in the lungs.
92. Miliary lung tuberculosis: pathogenesis, forms of miliary tuberculosis. Symptoms and
course.
93. Significance of early ТВ patients recognition. Methods of ТВ revealing. Obligatory
diagnostic
minimum. The role of a general practitioner.
94. ТВ pleuritis. Classification. Clinical picture, diagnosis. Differential diagnosis. Treatment and
outcomes.
95. Miliary lung tuberculosis: diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Treatment and outcomes.
96. Disseminated pulmonary ТВ: diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Treatment and outcomes.
97. Disseminated pulmonary ТВ: subacute and chronic forms. Pathogenesis, symptoms and
course.
98. Infiltrative pulmonary ТВ. Pathogenesis, clinical picture, course.
99. Infiltrative pulmonary ТВ: diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Treatment and outcomes.
100. General principles of ТВ treatment. Methods of treatment. Etiotropic ТВ chemotherapy.
Classification of antituberculosis drugs.
101. Focal pulmonary ТВ: pathogenesis, symptoms and course.
102. Focal pulmonary ТВ: diagnosis, differential diagnosis. Treatment and outcomes.
103. Caseous pneumonia. Pathogenesis. Clinical picture, diagnosis. Prognosis. Treatment.
104. Urgent states in infectious diseases. Toxic shock: pathogenesis, clinical manifestations,
emergency medical care.
105. HIV-infection. Epidemiological and clinical features. Clinical indications for laboratory
investigation.
106. Acute hepatic insufficiency: pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and emergency medical
care.
107. Acute renal failure in infectious diseases. The cause of development, clinical
characteristics, emergency medical care.
108. Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with respiratory syndrome. Variants of an
acute respiratory failure.
109. Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with diarrhea (salmonellosis, food poisoning,
cholera, amebiasis, shigellosis). Algorithm of investigation.
110. Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with exanthems (measles, rubella, scarlet
fever, chickenpox, typhoid fever, epidemic typhoid and others). Algorithm of investigation.
111. Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with jaundice (viral hepatitis, leptospirosis,
infectious mononucleosis, yellow fever and others). Algorithm of investigation.
112. Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with fever (typhoid fever, epidemic typhoid,
malaria, viral hemorrhagic fevers, sepsis). Algorithm of investigation.
113. Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with lymphadenopathy (infectious
mononucleosis, tularemia, HIV-infection, brucellosis). Algorithm of investigation.
114. Viral hepatitis. Differential diagnosis of hepatitis A, E and parenteral hepatitis.
Laboratory confirmation.
115. Differential diagnosis of purulent and serous meningitis.
116. Urgent states in infectious diseases. Dehydrative shock: pathogenesis, degrees of
dehydratation and methods of correction.