The Appendicular Skeleton Download

Transcript
Ch 5 Part 2
The
Appendicular
Skeleton
Bones Song #1
The Appendicular Skeleton
Composed of 126 bones,
which attach the limbs to the
axial skeleton
Allows us to move and manipulate objects
Limbs (appendages)
Pectoral Girdle
Pelvic Girdle
The
Pectoral
Girdle
Bones:
Scapula
Clavicle
The Pectoral Girdle
Consists of:
Not in Notes page
2 clavicles
2 scapulae
Connects with the axial skeleton only
at the manubrium
The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Composed of two bones
Clavicle – collarbone (Both start with C)
It attaches to the arm away from the thorax and
helps prevent shoulder dislocation
Scapula – shoulder blade (Both start with S)
Triangular and are commonly called wings
These bones allow the upper limb to have
exceptionally free movement
Shoulder girdle is light and flexible, but very
susceptible to dislocation
The Clavicle
The Clavicles
(Not in Notes)
Also called collarbones
Long, S-shaped bones
Originate at the
manubrium (sternal end)
Articulate with the
scapulae (acromial end)
Processes of the
scapula
Acromion Process –
enlarged end of the spine and
attaches to the clavicle
Coracoid Process – points
over the shoulder and anchors
some muscles
Borders of the Scapula
Superior
Inferior angle
Vertebral (medial)
Axillary (lateral)
Glenoid cavity – a shallow
socket that receives the head
of the arm bone
Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
Figure 5.20a–b
Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
Figure 5.20c–d
Scapula (shoulder blade) Video
The Upper Limbs
Arms, forearms, wrists, and hands
Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the
humerus
Bones of the Upper Limb
The upper arm is
formed by single
bone
Humerus (also
called arm bone)
Head of the
humerus or proximal
end fits into the
glenoid cavity
The distal end forms
a joint with the ulna
Figure 5.21a–b
The
Humerus
The Lower
Arm Bones
(Forearm):
Radius
Ulna
Bones of the Upper Limb
The lower arm
(forearm) is formed
by 2 bones
Radius – located
on the lateral side
or thumb side
Ulna – located on
the medial side or
pinky side
Figure 5.21c
Bones of the Upper Limb
The hand
Carpals – eight bones arranged in two
rows form the carpus, or the wrist
Metacarpals – palm
Phalanges – fingers
Each hand consists of 14 phalanges –
three in each finger
Making proximal, middle, and distal
The thumb is an exception, it has two,
proximal and distal
Bones of the Upper Limb
Figure 5.22
Bones of the Upper Limb
Done with the Upper Limbs 
Now….
WS Pg1-2
Due Tuesday January 21
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Two Hip bones (Coxal Bones)
Composed of three pair
of fused bones
Ilium
Ischium
Pubic bone
Functions of Pelvic Girdle
The total weight of the
upper body rests on the
pelvis
Protects several organs
Urinary bladder
Reproductive organs
Part of the large intestine
1. Ilium:
The ilium connects posteriorly with
the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint
It is a large, flaring bone that forms
most of the hip bone
If you put your hands on your hips,
they are resting on the ilium
The upper edge of the ilium is the
iliac crest
2. Ischium
The ischium is the sitdown
bone because it forms the
inferior part of the coxal bone
The ischial tuberosity is a
roughened area that receives
body weight when you are
sitting
3. Pubis:
The pubis is the most
anterior part of a coxal bone
The pubic bones of each
hipbone fuse anteriorly to
form a cartilaginous joint
called the pubic symphysis
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
The ilium, ishcium, and pubis
fuse at a deep socket called
the acetabulum (hip socket)
The acetabulum receives the
head of the thigh bone (femur)
The male and female pelvis
differs
The Pelvis
Figure 5.23a
The Pelvis
The Pelvis: Right Coxal Bone
Figure 5.23b
Gender Differences of the Pelvis
Figure 5.23c
Comparing the Male
and Female Pelvis
Female pelvis:
smoother
Lighter
Wider
Don’t write: less prominent muscle and
ligament attachments
Pelvis Modifications
for Childbearing
Enlarged pelvic outlet
Broad pubic angle (> 100°)
Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx
Wide, circular pelvic inlet
Broad, low pelvis
Ilia project laterally, not upwards
Bones of the Lower Limbs
The thigh
has one
bone
Femur –
thigh bone
Note:
Leg = lower
leg
Thigh =
upper
leg
Figure 5.24a–b
Bones of the Lower Limbs
Femur (thigh)
Patella (kneecap)
Tibia and fibula (leg)
Tarsals (ankle)
Metatarsals (foot)
Phalanges (toes)
Femur:
Heaviest, strongest bone in the body
The proximal end has a ball-like head, a
neck, and greater and lesser trochanters
It has many sites for muscle attachment such
as the trochanters and gluteal tuberosity
The head of the femur articulates or moves
with the acetabulum of the hip bone in a
deep, secure socket
Distally, the femur has lateral and medial
condyles that articulate or move with the tibia
below
The Patella
Also called the kneecap
Bones of the Lower Limbs
The
lower**
leg has
two
bones
Tibia
Fibula
Figure 5.24c
Tibia:
Larger and more medial (towards the middle
of body), Supports body weight
At the proximal end, the medial (inner) and
lateral (outer) condyles articulate, or move,
with the distal end of the femur forming the
knee joint
Patella is the kneecap
The patellar tendon attaches to the tibial
tuberosity, a roughened area on the anterior
tibial surface
Distally, the medial malleolus is the inner
bulge of the ankle
Fibula:
Lies alongside the tibia is thin
and sticklike
The fibula has no part in
forming the knee joint
The distal end has the lateral
malleolus, forming the outer
part of the ankle
Bones of the Lower Limbs
The foot
Calcaneus
(Heel)
Tarsus (ankle)
Metatarsals
(sole)
Phalanges
(toes)
Figure 5.25
Foot
Supports our body weight and serves as a lever that
allows us to propel or move our bodies forward
when we walk or run
Tarsus makes up the ankle
It is composed of seven tarsal bones
Most weight is carried by two tarsal bones:
Calcaneus or heel bone
Talus (ankle bone) located between the tibia & the
calcaneus
Five metatarsals form the sole
Phalanges make up the toes
Each toe has three phalanges, except for the
great toe which has two phalanges
Arches of the Foot
Bones of the
foot are
arranged to
form three
strong arches
Medial
longitudinal
Lateral
longitudinal
One transverse
Figure 5.26
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05 Human Body Skeletal System
7:40-10:10
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