The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Pelvic (hip) Girdle 2 coxal (hip) bones Ilium Ischium Pubis Sacroiliac Joint Pubic Symphysis Function: Support for vertebral column Protect pelvic organs Attach lower limbs Coxal Bone Markings Ilium Ischium Pubis Acetabulum Iliac Crest Greater Sciatic Notch Obturator Foramen Pelvis Combination of the sacrum, coccyx, and the 2 hip bones 2 parts – greater (false) and lesser (true) Pelvis - continued Ilium Ischium Pubis Pubic Symphysis Sacrum Coccyx Pelvic Brim Pelvic Inlet Pelvic Outlet Pubic Arch X-Ray of Pelvis Comparison of Male and Female Pelvis Point of Comparison Female Male General Structure Light and Thin Heavy and Thick False Pelvis Shallow Deep Pelvic Inlet Larger and Oval Smaller and Heart Shaped Acetabulum Small, faces anteriorly Large and faces laterally Obturator Foramen Oval Round Pubic Arch Greater than 90o Less than 90o Comparison of Male and Female Pelvis Pelvimetry Measurement of the size of the inlet and outlet of the birth canal. Pelvic Girdle Checkpoint What is the name of the hip bone? What are the 3 parts of the hip bone? Can you identify them on a diagram??? List 3 functions of the pelvic girdle What is the name of the “socket” where the head of the femur sits? List 3 differences between the male and female pelvis. Why are these present? LOWER LIMB 30 bones in each Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Femur Longest, strongest heaviest bone in the body Diaphysis has a medial bend to bring knees closer to the midline of the body Femur continued Head Neck Trochanter Condyles Patellar Surface Patella Sesamoid bone Develops in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle Increases the leverage of the tendon and maintains the position of the tendon Patellofemoral stress syndrome AKA “Runner’s Knee” Patella does not glide up and down between the femoral condyles but rather laterally causing pain. Tibia Shin Bone Larger of 2 lower leg bones Articulates with femur, fibula and talus Tibia Continued Condyle (medial and lateral) Tibial Tuberosity Medial Malleolus Shin Splints Soreness or pain along the tibia due to inflammation of the periosteum from the repeated tugging of the attached muscles and tendons. Often the result of walking or running up and down hills. Fibula Parallel and lateral to the tibia Articulates with the tibia and the talus Head, lateral malleolus The Foot Tarsals 7 Ankle Bones Posterior: Talus and Calcaneus Anterior: cuboid, navicular and 3 cuneiform Metatarsals 5 bones make up the instep of the foot Numbered I-V Phalanges 14 in each foot Hallux (Big Toe) has 2, the rest of the toes have 3 Bones of the Foot A - Talus B – Navicular C - Cuneiform D - Cuneiform E – Distal Phalanax F – Middle Phalanx G – Proximal Phalanx H - Metatarsal I - Cuneiform J - Cuboid K - Calcaneous Arches of the Foot Transverse and Longitudinal Arches enable the foot to support the weight of the body LOWER LIMB CHECKPOINT answer these in your notes What are the bones of the lower limb? Describe the hip joint Describe the knee joint Which is the medial bone of the lower leg? What type of bone is the patella?