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A SOCIOGRAPHY
OF THE SS OFFICER CORPS, -1925-1939
by
Gunnar Charles
Submitted
for
Boehnert
the Doctor
School of Slavonic
and East European Studies
University
I
/
of Philosophy
of London
'0
?"
R6SUME
A SOCIOGRAPHY
OF THE SS OFFICER CORPS, 1925-1939
Gunnar C. Boehnert
designed
to
Corps
This quantitative
SS
Officer
the
was
study of
in
discover who in German society joined the SS between its inception
1925 and the outbreak of the war in 1939. The study is based on data
from
files
contained in 5250 SS officer
personnel
which were selected
61,340 personnel files
The
housed at the Berlin Document Center.
(1)
had to have reached
the officer
selection
criteria
used were,
(2)
1
1939,
September
to
the personnel
commissioned rank prior
and
file
had to supply an answer to all the questions deemed important by
the investigator.
The selection
of cases can be called random since
files
there was no indication
that certain
were incomplete because of
bias, i. e., interference
by the SS Personalhauptamt.
any systematic
In order to determine who joined the SS at specific
stages of
its pre-war history,
the fourteen year time span under investigation
was divided into six time periods determined by a date important to
either the NSDAPor the SS. The four major branches of the SS - the
deaths
head
Allgemeine SS or general SS, the Totenkopfverb9nde
or
the Sicherheitsdienst
and the Verfogungstruppe
or security
service,
units,
division
further
looked
This
SS
the
at separately.
or
armed
- were
allowed for an analysis of the composition of the various branches of
the Black Order over the time periods of interest.
i. e., date of joining,
The information
gathered on each officer,
highest rank achieved, date of birth,
place of birth,
education,
background,
affiliations,
religious
occupation,
other organizational
to
was coded and transferred
marital
status and number of children
(The
is
presently
available
on magnetic tape).
material
cards.
computer
The information
of
was analyzed on the IBM computer at the University
Package for the Social Sciences)
Guelph using the SPSS (Statistical
subprogram Crosstabs.
The results show that there was a tendency for those with little
in
its
joined
SS
have
While
the
lower
to
the
early
stages.
education
in the sampled FUhrerkorps was overrepresented prior to
Mittelstand
1933,
it
30
January
Hitler's
seizure of power on
was the educated
flocked
formation
to
the
that
elite
society
of the Third
segment of
Reich after that date. As might be expected, the median age of the
1933
January
While the proportion
incoming officers
also increased.
after
Main
River
born
the
of
roughly equalled that of the
north
of officers
tendency
for
there
a
marked
was
southern rural-born
population,
general
September
Fbhrerkorps
to
1930.
dominate
the
A levelling
to
prior
men
dominating
the
then
took
process
place with norther-born officers
FUhrer
after January 1933. As far as the family life of the
Himmler
that
the
quantitative
analysis showed
officers
was concerned,
influence over his officers.
had little
About 80% of the sampled
did not meet the guidelines set by Himmler of four children
officers
Also only about 20% of the officers'
per family.
wives were party
members.
in
the
Differences were also found in the officers
served
who
various branches of the SS. Thus the FOhrerkorps of the general SS and
the security service had the highest percentage of university
graduates,
SS
had
largest
the
the
armed
while
percentage of officers
who gave the
Abitur as their highest educational achievement. The deaths head units
had the highest percentage of elementary school educated officers.
This study shows that the SS attracted
different
men at different
from
times and that the social composition of the officer
corps varied
branch to branch.
While the lower educated joined the SS during the
it was the educated and established
early days of the Kampfzeit,
segment
61ite
German
join
formation of National
that
to
the
of
society
rushed
Socialism after Hitler
assumed power.
PREFACE
the RCAF Staff
changes that
were raised
&lite
the officers
during
the SS.
It
and role
individuals
a number of questions
of Hitler's
of the officers
in such
who led crack panzer units
or
characteristics,
do
would
anything
who
any systematic
dealt
and the
Who were the men who became officers
Were there
the gas chambers?
that
in German society
the Nazi era that
at
of a course
lectures
was after
Did they have special
organization?
misfits?
"
in the teaching
of the officer
about the character
were they simply
they social
role
occurred
formation,
a notorious
for
in Society.
the traditional
with
I was involved
College,
"The Officer
entitled
historian
ago when I was employed as a military
A few years
Were
to get ahead?
differences
between
and those who selected
Who were the men who methodically
people
planned the
murder of thousands of men, women, and children
in the eastern territories?
At that
answers to these questions.
time,
This
I was unable to give
study
those posed above.
organization
is an attempt
satisfactory
to supply
Who in German society
answers to questions
volunteered
for
such as
service
in an
of which even Himmler said,
Ich weiss, dass es manche Leute in Deutschland gibt, denen es
schlecht wird wenn sie diesen schwarzen Rock sehen, wir haben
Verständnis dafür und ýrwarten nicht, dass wir von allzu
vielen geliebt werden.
Forty
years
have gone by since
1
Heinrich
Kampforganization,
Heinrich
Himmler uttered
these words,
Himmler, Die Schutzstaffel
als antibolschewistisc
Zentralv
des NSDAP. Z-München1936), p. 29.
i
and
thirty-two
have passed since
years
in Berlin.
Hitler
Reich that
last
to
was
be brought
to an end by the conquest
felt
day.
to this
never returned
to their
homes.
of the Black Order in their
end of his creation,
of arms, many of its
Hundreds of small
children
Their
all
will
to discover
blood, I were
forget
never
the terror
the son of a former
In Germany, too,
Even today
he
is
he
which
of
do the things
his
father
what made
can be
effects
members of'pure
camp commandant is haunted by the past.
concentration
the
in the conquered
abducted
parents
homelands.
bunker
While the Nazi regime could
a thousand years.
in the mad scheme to salvage
territories
tries
committed
With his death came also the ignoble
in his
suicide
accused.
1942
in
advised
who
SS officer
motif
of anthropology
race and heredity
It
justice
the former
officer
who could
state
This
who are still
families,
in Stuttgart.
lawyer
SS officers
on the subject
of
from the University
of Tbbingen.
recently
retired
I
of the German Federal Republic twelve years to bring to
of the security
chief
claim
government,
study
active
police
to have "cleansed"
years
is not intended
Holland
as a senior
Jewish
civil
in the
members of society.
are mentioned,
complete
or unknown, who were attracted
it
the picture
to the SS.
ii
It
The senior
of 71% of its
to serve as a roster
and contributing
but tohelp
in Warsaw.
even though the authorities
names of former SS officers
their
Jews from a political
day a practising
who lectured
remained employed for
population
to kill
only
took the courts
Bavarian
Himmler that
is to this
was not punishable,
The professor
The high ranking
people are haunted by the Nazi past.
Yet not all
servant
knew of his past.
of those SS men
Whenever the
is not to embarrass them or
of those Germans, prominent
is my hope that
this
study
will
provide
some valuable
sociographic
of the Third Reich whose aim it
formation
members of the elite
data on the pre-World War II
fUr ganz Europa"l
"FUhrungsschicht
the
provide
was to
in the post-war,
Nazi-
dominated, era.
This
degree
Doctor
of
is submitted
study
in History.
of Philosophy
this
under whose guidance
of London for
to the University
To Professor
F. L. Carsten,
I would like
to express
study was written,
thanks for his encouragementand helpful
the
comments.
thank the Central
Research Fund of the University
was made possible
by the generous grants
given
my
I should also like
This
of London.
to
study
to me by the funding
committee.
It
goes without
the completion
late
Bauer,
Richard
Berlin
of this
study.
I would like
of the National
away before
he could
took such an interest.
Kronenberg,
of the Center.
see the completed
I should
I am also
also
in the setting
up of a classification
for me to have complete
Richard
of this
Bauer passed
study
Herrn
eased the
whenever possible.
Michael
stages
in which he
to thank Herrn Pix,
who, over the years,
to Professor
Canada, who in the early
of the
version
at the Document Center,
indebted
and deputy director
Regretably,
Herrn Weber and Frau Teetz,
burden of research
to the
possible
like
to a number of people for
to express my thanks
Archives
Document Center, for making it
access to the holdings
Toronto,
saying
I am indebted
that
Kater of York University,
of the study
system,
but also
not only
pointed
aided me
out the
1
4 October 1943. Trial
Himmler's address to senior SS officers,
before the International
Military
Tribunal
of the Major War Criminals
(Nuremberg 1948), vol. xxxix, Document 1919-PS, p. 171 (Henceforth
listed
as IMT).
iii
many pitfalls
associated
with quantitative
To Dr. Simon
research.
Wiesenthal of the Dokumentationszentrum in Vienna, I owe my thanks for
his generously
time out of his
taking
in
and
supplying
questions,
1945 fate
Department
to the world
print
material
loyal
who, as a
fortitude,
of the numerous tables
skills
study.
shared the rigours
as editor
social
in this
and critical
Dr.
a special
word
a historian
To Pat Law, who spent
thanks
are also given.
of a Berlin
advised
i
winter
Boehnert,
with
considerable
in
the preparation
me
and untiringly
commentator.
in
perseverance
Dr. Joanna Bartlett
scientist
study,
much out-of-
securing
and who showed great
I want to thank my wife,
as a trained
of Guelph,
for
of Lambton College
which was used in this
wife
the post-
and colleague,
task of introducing
the numerous German passages,
FinallY
with
I also wish to acknowledge the help of
many a weekend at the typewriter,
coping with
University
the difficult
of the computer.
Gordon Russell
To my friend
of Psychology,
for
thanks
of
undertaking
to answer my many
many documents dealing
me with
of a number of SS officers.
John Neill,
my friend
busy schedule
demonstrated
her
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
..................................................
INTRODUCTION
.............................................
I
SOURCESAND METHODOLOGY
..................................
13
11
SOMEFACTORSINFLUENCINGPROMOTIONIN THE PRE-WARSS
43
III
THE GEOGRAPHIC
ORIGINS OF THE SS FUHRERCORPS
............
73
IV
THE AGE OF THE SS FUHRERUPONJOINING THE CORPS
..........
89
V
THE EDUCATIONALBACKGROUND
OF THE SS OFFICERS
110
VI
OCCUPATIONS
OF THE SS OFFICERSAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC
BACKGROUND
...............................................
161
FAMILY LIFE AND MORALITY
210
VII
.................................
.....
............
CONCLUSION
...............................................
237
BIBLIOGRAPHY
242
.............................................
APPENDICES
...............................................
ii
254
INTRODUCTION
In the voluminous literature
1945,, few authors
since
that
has been published
on the SS
have devoted more than a few pages to the socio-
economic background of the men who wore the dreaded black uniform and
carried
out Hitler's
orders
One of the first
with
Der SS Staat.
unquestioning
books to be published
the SS and the horrors
Kogon's,
with
of the concentration
Concerning
the social
loyalty.
after
the war which dealt
camp system was Eugen
origin
of the SS men Kogon
wrote:
Eine Untersuchung der Herkunft der SS Angehörigen ergibt fast
in jedem einzelnen Fall, dass es sich bei Ihnen um
Tiefunzufriedene,
durch irgendwelche
Nichterfolgreiche,
Umstände zurückgesetzte,
um Minderbegabte aller Art und 2
häufig genug um sozial gescheiterte
Existenzen handelte.
Kogon continued
his description
of the SS men by saying:
Alle Leute, die meine Freunde und ich kennengelernt
haben,
diesem
in
Sinne Barbaren, trugen kein Element
waren
Geist
echter Kultur in sich, das heisst die Fähigkeit,
Auseinandersetzung
und Triebe in einer beständigen kritischen
Normen
mit sich, mit der Umwelt und im allgemeinen gdltigen
3
Einheit zusammenwirken zu lassen.
zu einer höheren seelischen
Kogon thus saw the SS man as a socially
deprived
being,
who, by joining
underprivileged
the Black Order,
and educationally
sought a way of obtaining
1
Eugen Kogon, Der SS Staat:
Das System der deutschen Konzentrations
(Berlin
1947).
The book appeared in English translation
under the
(London
The Theory and Practice
title
Hell,
by
Heinz
Norden
translated
of
1950).
For this study the latest
published in Munich
pocket book edition
1974 by Kindler Verlag was used.
2
Ibid.,
p. 346.
3
Ibid.,
p. 344.
2
social
status
and recognition.
Almost a decade later Erminhild
Neusbss-Hunkel completed her study
1
She recognized the problem in dealing with the SS, in so far
on Die SS.
as "eine eindeutige
wenig moglich ist
Beurteilung
sämtlicher
Angehorigen der Waffen SS ebenso
bei
der
Gesamtmitgliedschaft
wie
She recognized the multi-facet
der SS.,ý2
aspect of the SS and analysed the
branches of the organization
and the men who joined them. Thus
3a
(Allgemeine
"die
in
SS
SS)
the
she saw
general
means of attracting
4
in Germany. This absorption of the upper stratum
gute Gesellschaft"
various
of German society
into
the elite
by Himmler in 1937 as "die
was not entirely
Dienstaltersliste
gerauschlose
unsuccessful
of 1938,58
1
formation
of National
Socialism
was describE
.5
That this
attempt
Revolution.
can be seen by the fact
out of 648 SS officers
that
6_
according
or 9% - in the
des Instituts
Erminhild
Neusüss-Hunkel, Die SS, Schriftenreihe
(Hannover
1956).
2
in
No.
Politik
Marburg/Lahn,
wissenschaftliche
21bid.,
to the
für
p. 119.
3
The concept "Allge meine SS" was created in mid-1934 in order to
Hans Buchheim, Martin
distinguish
the old SS from the other branches.
Broszat, Hans-Adolf Jacobson, Helmut Krausnick, Anatomy des SS Staates,
2 vols. (Olten & Freiburg in Breisgau 1965), p. 256. For this study the
introduction
by
State,
Anatomy
SS
translated
the
an
with
version,
of
Elizabeth
Wiskemann (London 1968), has been used.
4
NeusUss-Hunkel, Die SS, p. 15. SS BrigadefUhrer Schellenberg,
he
that
former head of the SD foreign intelligence
when
was
section stated
dashing
"the
black
Fuehrer's
the
and
guard
special
was
a student
uniform of
"
"better
found
type
in
SS
the
that
the
of people.
one
elegant and ...
Walter Schellenberg, Hitler's
Secret Service, Memoirs of Walter
Schell
translated from the German by Louis Hagen (New York 1956),
.
in
is
Pyramide
21.
in
The
the
this
edition published
p.
edition used
study
New York 1974.
5
indoctrinat.
In a speech given by the RFSS to the national
political
der
"Wesen
SS
1937,
Aufgabe
in
January
the
und
und
entitled,
army
course of
Polizei, " IMT, vol. xxix, document 1992 (A)-PS, p. 207.
6
In this study the terms SS officer
and SS FUhrer are used interin
While
the
SS
the
commissioned
ranks
were officially
referred
changeably.
The same applies
to as FOhrer, the term officer
was also frequently
used.
'
FOhr
terms
the
to
or SS officer
corps.
_SS
3
rank of StandartenfUhrer
1
nobility.
and above belonged to the traditional
The armed SS (VerfUguagstruppe,
which Himmler referred
attracted,
fact
according
by the regular
army for
in many instances
quite
The security
its
officer
capable
service
man to whom ideology
Neusbss-Hunkel
this
was less
The Death's
the guarding
SS ruffians,
of social
applicants,
important
trained
Head units
of the
standards
was nevertheless
of becoming an effective
of Reinhard
of the concentration
attracted
educational
set
eager and
4
officer.
more commonly known as
Heydrich,
attracted
According
than power.
man came from the highly
group of young academically
3
den ich in der SS habe ,,
,
the young man who, in spite
(Sicherheitsdienst,
the SD), which was the creation
Hunkel,
better
many did not meet the pre-requisite
that
22
known as Waffen SS)
to as "den schbnsten Teil
to Neusbss-Hunkel
German
intelligent
a type of
to
yet
unscrupulous
5
men who wanted to get ahead.
(Totenkopfverbgnde)
camps.
were responsible
They, according
the unemployed SS men of the early
for
to Neusbss-
Kampfzeit,
the pre-1933
SS service a means of achieving some form
who saw in full-time
6
Benedikt Kautsky, a one-time concentration
status.
camp inmate,
1
Neusbss-Hunkel,
Die SS, p. 16.
2
Stein,
p. 49.
Hitler"
It was not until
1940 that the term Waffen SS was used.
George
The Waffen SS: Hitler's
Elite Guard at War, 1939-1945 (Ithaca 1966),
3
Himmler's speech to the officers
"Leibstandarte
SS Adolf
the
of
in Metz, 7 September 1940, IMT, vol. xxix, document 1918-PS, p. 107.
4
Neusbss-Hunkel,
Die SS, p. 23.
5
Ibid.
6
Ibid.,
p. 53ff.
4
view when he wrote that
voiced a similar
the guards represented
den stumpfsten und faulsten Teil der Bevölkerung, der nach der
Beseitigung der Arbeitslosigkeit
meist keine andere Moglichkeit
vor sich sah, ehrlicher Arbeit aus dem Weg zu ge en und es doch
in die SS.
zu etwas zu bringen, als den Eintritt
Thus the FUhrerkorps
of formal,
educational
motto "Intellekt
analysed
the social
"swiftly
its
step forward.
social
in different
of its
periods
.3
recruiting
1
Benedikt
in its
evolution,
fed by enormOdusbrooks and tributaries,
then over-
recruits.
into
divergent
in
SS
the
chronological
at
Teufel
Koehl's
terms was a significant
The assertion,
in the
"before
the unemployed and the unemployable"
So is his description
Kautsky,
A
making 1933 the watershed
and misfits,
of the SS after
streams.
of the group that
January
flocked
to the
1933, when, he maintains,
(Zürich
Verdammte
und
2
Himmler's address to the GruppenfUhrertagung,
1943, IMT, vol. xxix, document 1919-PS, p. 143.
3
stating
the SS to a
'bruisers'
offices
"that
He likened
However, his division,
is too general.
"
SS,
Nazi
the
of
"The Character
broad.
is
SS
too
the
somewhat
make-up of
1933 came the
while
opportunities
of the SS chronologically,
banks and separating
approach in looking
career
educated and underprivileged.
entitled
different
many
and its
moving river,
flowing
the poorer
composition
different
the SS was quite
many branches
Willensbildung
Koehl in an article
Robert
rejection
under the
qualities
2
,,
large
Energie,
to
und
offer a
educated men unparalleled
at the same time absorbing
its
of
in spite
and of intellectual
standards,
verdirbt
number of university
of the SS was able,
1946),
p. 91ff.
Posen 4 October
Robert Koehl., "The Character of the Nazi SS. " The Journal
No. 3. September 1962, p. 281.
Modern History,
4
Ibid.
of
5
"the police,
the high bureaucrats
...
and the foreign
Germans
ethnic
joined. "'
While NeusUss-Hunkel
the various
studying
branches
Black Order as an everchanging
his general
an attempt
study
at combining
also recognized
of the SS.
that
of the SS by
analysis
and Koehl viewed the
Heinz- Hbhne in
over the years,
organization
Der Orden unter
the two approaches.
dem Totenkopf
Hbhne was aware that
to the SS at different
were attracted
different
But he still
her social
of the organization,
of the SS entitled
of German society
strata
conducted
types of men preferred
spoke in general
2
made
different
He
times.
different
branches
terms when he said,
From the social point of view the SS picture was changed
radically,
men of an entirely
new class of society streamed
in /ifter
193ý-/. The original
SS had consisted primarily
of
Ex-Free Corps men, intellectuals
whose careers had been cut
short by the economic crisis,
and the lower middle class
3
veteran.
Hbhne then proceeded to list
German aristocracy
Weimar Republic
erroneously
that
during
or
listed
the SS either
the early
two aristocrats
Actually
Josef
joined
members of the
a number of prominent
during
1933.
months of
as having joined
the dying
days of the
In the process
in early
The first
they did not do so until much later.
5a
v. Hohenzollern-Emden,
member of the erstwhile
1933.4
was Prinz
royal
he
Franz
house, who
1
Ibid.
2
Heinz Hbhne, Der Orden unter dem Totenkopf (GOtersloh
The Order under the Death's
this study the translated
version,
by Richard Barry (New York 1969
translated
sed.
3
4
Ibid.,
134.
p.
Ibid.,
p. 135.
1967).
Head,
For
5
SS SturmbannfOhrer Prinz Franz Josef v. Hohenzolley
Personnel File:
born 30.8.1891 in Heiligendamm.
Berlin Document Center
Emden, SS# 276,691,
(henceforth
BDC).
listed
as
6
did not join
the SS until
June 1936.
The second was Edler v. Daniels
who did not don the black uniform until
Much like
for
Neusbss-Hunkel,
the young university
Hbhne saw the SD as a collecting
educated
what he means by this
not explain
July 1935.
"man of the 20th century.
but presumably
phrase,
to those who no longer accepted the social
of the nineteenth
be discussed
in greater
VerfOgungstruppe,
detail
according
in this
The armed SS, or
study.
to Hbhne was able to attract
German officer
SS military
a much needed military
with
The bulk of the recruits
Hbhne expressed
Head units
for
the opinion
or Totenkopfverbande
SS Obergruppenfbhrer
the professional
the difference
corps,
officer
corps and its
he
said,
when
2
Hbhne, The Order,
4
determined
values,
by their
class
and class
commander,
an undying
hatred
known
to emphasize
was
units.
"Commanders who act like
Edler
expertise.
make-up of the Death's-
Eicke,, imbued with
1
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
born 31.3.1895 in Arolson.
BDC.
Ibid.
lower middle
between the armed SS and the Death's-Head
not be more explicit
3
and technical
the social
was largely
Theodor Eicke.
the infant
unhampered by tradition
that
4
in the middle
who provided
was made up of young rural
lads eager to advance in an organization
3
consciousness.
he was referring
Weltanschauung_ will
of this
30's members of the former
formation
H6hne does
or the moral values
structure
Representatives
century.
.2
point
He could
officers,
v. Daniels,
SS# 258ý0025
135.
p.
p. 447.
SS ObergruppenfUhrer
Theodor Eicke, SS# 259219
Personnel File:
in Hampont, Elsass.
BDC. The personal influence
Eicke
born 17.10.1892,
is
Totenkopfverbande
by
Buchheim
the
also
stressed
et al.,
on
exerted
Anatomy, p. 431.
7
junior
will
who act like
officers
be posted
to the Allgemeine
military
organization
in which
it
that
NCO's. and men who act like
Denying any connection
duty to overcome "den inneren
for
and concern
human suffering,
the men who remained in that
is not surprising
it
a
with
formation
the
of
2
Schweinehund,.
the unique character
and emphasizing
was everybody's
is pity
SS. "l
soldiers
private
that
branch did not have a high cultural
or moral
niveau.
While all
of the above mentioned
contributions
to a better
don the black
uniform,
with interrupted
of whom,or what type of man would
understanding
"bruisers
that
joined
old German elites
studies
they have, nevertheless,
To establish
points.
studies
What about the larger,
remained vague on certain
and social
joined
1933 does not tell
law abiding,
to be found in the SS?
educated and established
professors
did
join?
they
when
joining
behavior?
Machtergreifung
will
If
hard working
strata
provide
a clearly
Did the majority
in power?
It
the
Was he not
were the
the physicians,
of the SS?
join
prior
this
National
study
some answers to these questions.
As such it
p. 331.
2
Kogon, Der SS Staat,,
Ibid.,
p. 345.
the regional
and socio-economic
does not delve
into
so,
to Hitler's
wait until
is hoped that
If
in their
pattern
did
the educated segment of society
and
of the SS Fbhrer.
1
definable
"bruisers"
of
This study aims to establish
origins
Conversely,
found on the membership rolls
Was there
intellectuals
German Mittelstand,,
the lawyers,
of society,
of
us very much.
the tradesman?
so when did he join?
had become the party
Socialism
1933 or that
to January
after
and fragments
misfits"
the SS prior
department
the
store sales clerk,
shopkeeper,
the university
have made valuable
the psychology
8
of the SS officer
this
topic,
corps.
This is not to deny the general interest
but such information
were available
it
to interpret.
However, there
would be outside
be mentioned
which will
"man's inhumanity
The fact
line
Harrower
of a line
has quite
"average"
with
rightly
Milgram
urge them on, is it
in an experiment
necessary
which
own eyes.
the length
people to the gas chamber. 113
may find
Milgram could
that
situation
himself
obeying
simply
to believe
by having a white-coated
that
an
orders
get 65% of his sample
to be severe shock to a middle-aged
trouble
a
decision
a group
"Guessing
out that,
conditions
what they believed
of heart
In the 1950's
the evidence of their
pointed
If
that their
some time.
has shown in an experimental
does
he
which
not agree.
a history
by the Nazi government
would go along with
contradicted
person under certain
to deliver
with
individuals
is not the same as sending
However, Stanley
understanding
accept a decision
Solomon Asch, found that
decision
2
for
research
branches of the SS.
matching,
even though this
Molly
a basis
provides
that many people will
psychologists
involved
here as it
it
of the historian
is a body of social-psychological
them is wrong has been known for
senses tell
if
and
available
the area of expertise
to man" which was legitimized
and implemented by all
social
is not generally
in
SS officers
man
experimenter
were sadistic
1
Modification
Group
Pressure
the
Solomon Asch, "Effects
upon
of
Newcomb,
"
in
T.
E.
Harteley,
E.
Maccoby,
Judgments,
and Distortion
and
of
(New
York 1958).
in
Social
Psychology,
Readings
third
eds.,
edition
pp. 175-183.
2
results
Nbrnberg.
Dr. Harrower was one of ten experts asked to evaluate the
defendants
Rorschach
test
to
the
the
administered
major
at
of
3
Dr. Molly
(July 1976),
Harrower,
p. 76.
"Were
Hitler's
Henchmen Mad?",
Psychology
9
and maladjusted?
Nbrnberg
'
Harrower,
represented
disturbed
"...
for
instance,
found the defendants at
from severely
a wide range of personalities,
to the superbly well
adjusted.
,2
In his book Obedience to Authorit
Milgram points
out that
-y,
killing
a person, who with inner conviction loathes stealing,
and assault may find himself performing these acts with
3
relative
ease when commandedby authority.
The applicability
of Milgram's
by the remarks made by Rudolf
for
the killing
of two million
Commandant of Auschwitz.
4
statement to the SS situation
Hoess who in 1946 admitted
during
persons
In his autobiography
even
is demonstrated
responsibility
the time that
he described
he was
his own
I
In 1953 Dr. Elie Cohen, a Dutch psychiatrist
former
and
concentration
camp inmate, dealt with the question whether the SS men
In Freudian terms he stated,
that since 1933 the superego
were criminals.
of the SS men was taught that "Jews are our ruin" and "Jews must be
the SS acquired a criminal
exterminated. " He concluded that "...
superego and came to belong to the category of normal criminals. "
He did, however, voice the following
"This
reservation.
conclusion
holds good only from our point of view, for the SS did not regard
themselves as criminals,
into practice
as they only translated
what they
had been taught to look upon as right by the standards of their society. "
Elie Cohen, Human Behaviour in the Concentration
from
Camps, translated
the Dutch by M. Braaksma (New York 1953), p. 232.
2
Harrower, "Hitler's
Henchmen, " P_Vchology Today, p. 76.
Harrower quotes from a report which an American psychiatrist,
Dr. Douglas
defendants.
Kelly,
Kelly
interviewing
NOrnberg
the
submitted after
that such personalities
states "...
are not unique or insane and could
be duplicated
in any country today. " Reitlinger
viewed the SS
FUhrerkorps
but as a group of amateurs.
or ruthless,
not as sadistic
He thought muddlers like Karl Wolff or Gottlob Berger were far more
"savagely
like
the
SS
FOhrer
typical
the
than
were men
examples of
The SS; Alibi
brutal Heydrich or Kaltenbrunner. " Gerald Reitlinger,
of
(New
In this study the Viking
Nation,
1925-1945
York 1957), p. 220.
a
(New York 1968) was used.
Press edition
3
(New York 1974), p. xi.
Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Auth
4
Rudolf Hoess, Commandantof Auschwitz, with an introduction
by Lord Russell of Liverpool,
translated from the German by Constantine
FitzGibbon (New York 1959), p. 11.
10
feelings
and reactions
on witnessing
year was 1934 and Hoess, still
states
for the first
in the Death's
a novice
he was "compelled"
that
a flogging
to look on "because if
rear of the company I would not have looked. "'
the whole thing,
even the beating of the first
over.
prisoner
/Who did not scream-/ made me shudder. ,2
he admitted that when "...
of others
my first
attended
this
witnessing
of this.
execution,
corporal
punishment.
immune to the suffering
at the beginning of the war, I
did not affect
it
As he went through the
me nearly
so much as
I am unable to give an explanation
3
"
Milgram
is dependent
be relevant
points
out that,
upon the authority
held me in thrall.,,
Totenkopfverbande
among other
giving
to the individual
because he was part
drilled
which made him gradually
up" course,
I had been in the
This later-hardened
cold all
"toughening
Head units,
"when the man began to scream I went hot and
camp commander wrote that
In fact,
The
time.
for
things,
the degree of obedience
the command. The authority
him to obey.
4
must
Hoess obeyed not only
"the
life
because
but
the
also
soldier's
of
system,
5
Even though the training
to become Part of the
was extremely
"bis
hounded
and
tough - Kogon wrote
that
the recruits
6
ihnen das Wasser im Arsch kochte ý, - it
was worth
1
Ibid.,
2
p. 56.
Ibid.
31bid.,
p. 57.
4Milgram, Obedience,
5
were
p. 140.
Hoess, Commandant, p. 55.
6Kogon, SS Staat,
during
Hoess
how
his
35-36.
pp.
recounted
he
training
would walk around the camp expressionless
so as to
period
he
'
'toughening
further
that
his
required
superiors
no
up.
convince
Hoess, Commandant5 p. 71.
it
in the end to serve
as "the
the enemy day and night,
one was too soft
only
soldiers
who even in peace time faced
the enemy behind the wire
for the job would have resulted
....
"l
To admit that
in dismissal
and
dishonour.
Dr. Henry V. Dicks,
a study
a London psychiatrist
on 26 SS war criminals
Milgram's
substantiated
still
Franz Hofmann,
man at Auschwitz
still
Concentration
troops
interview
Ah!
to us all.
that
very much with
Eicke,
Hofmann exclaimed
Aufrechterhaltung
die Gefangenenlager,
able to enact
the Inspector
of
Dr.
Dicks
when
different
he
-
Head Division
which Eicke had given
training
which they had for
his notorious
orders
der Zucht und Ordnung, Diziplinar-und
5
"
Number Two
this
the successes of the Death's
and because of the affection
Eicke was undoubtedly
SS
He died a hero's death at the head of his
3
"
Much like Hofmann, Hoess also held Eicke
because of the ironclad
possible
the former
with
that
completed
indirectly
sentences,
"Now Eicke - that was something quite
in high esteem claiming
the troops,
their
Dicks discovered
associated
on the Russian front.
"were only
2
Camps from 1934-1939.
mentioned Eicke,
'Papa'
was
In his
results.
Hauptsturmfbhrer
serving
who recently
because he represented
Eicke himself.,.
"Zur
Strafordnung
the authoritarian
für
father
to so many.
1
Buchheim, et.
al.,
Anatomy,, p. 433.
2
SS Hauptsturmfbhrer
Personnel File:
in Hof. BDC.
born 5.4.1906,
3
study
Franz Hofmann,, SS# 40ý6515
Henry V. Dicks, Licensed Mass Murder; A socio-Dsvcholooical
ýLondon
122.
killers
1972),
SS
p.
of some
4
Hoess, Commandant, p. 231.
5
Buchheim,
et.
al.,
Anatomy, p. 431.
4
12
That well-adjusted
social
forces'
which makes it
been challenged
by a psychologist
and Selzer have tried
Rorschach tests
was, in fact,
3
done on the NOrnberg defendants,
that
degrees "psychopathic.
In a recent
test
results
He concludes
group.
review,,
fifteen
"
Rubenstein
They found depression,
defendants
of their
study
which they associate
his
the following
review
with
proclivity
male-
of the group.
were in varying
have been challenged.
has accused the authors
characteristics
of the
the Nazi leadership
that
common characteristics
of the sixteen
The results
interpretation
depersonalized
and a
of responsibility,
view of sex to be fairly
They concluded
has recently
2
Miale
scientist.
and unproductive,
to show, on the basis of their
rejection
Jews or the
of six million
and a political
a very distinctive
to violence,
chauvinist
execution
of the elderly
elimination
of
for them to commit such
possible
as the calculated
abominations
systematic
people may get caught up in the tangle
of reading
into
the
with war criminals.
words:
It is tempting to portray the Nazis as demons or perverts,
for
To see the
such a view protects
our illusions
about ourselves.
Nazis as more or less ordinary men is neither to excuse their
deeds nor minimize the threat they pose.
On the contrary,
it
is to recognize how fragile
are the bonds of civility
and ecency
that keep any kind of human community from utter collapse.
1
forces
that social and political
Reitlinger
recognized the influence
"If
in
he
Himmler
had
can excert on an individual
not grown up
wrote,
when
he might have projected
Germany, the tortured
Germany of the 'twenties,
that
dimly artistic,
in
Buried
his
the Cotswolds
side of
speculative
nature.
Heinrich Himmler and his Marge could have cultivated
their herbs, clothed
in homespun wool and nurtured wholemeal bread, occasionally
throwing peasant
mediaeval instruments. " Reitlinger
pottery or playing duets on reconstructed
The SS, p. 22.
2
Florence Miale and Michael Selzer, The Nuremberg Mind; The
Psychology of the Nazi Leaders (New York 1976).
3
The Rorschach test consisted of a number of inkblots
not intended
The idea is that when a person describes the blots he
to resemble anything.
his
his
11
of
personality
particularly
aspects
unconscious
needs
reveals
...
"Hitler's
"
"
Henchmen,
75.
Psychology
Harrower,
Today,
desires.
p.
and
4
Richard Rubenstein's
review of The Nuremberg Mind, ibid.,
p. 84.
Chapter I
SOURCESAND METHODOLOGY
Data Collection
The primary
files
personnel
source materials
housed at the Berlin
the personnel files
2
1925-1945 certain
criteria
study
for
selection
the SS and belonged to its
selection
was that
the officer
chronologically
commissioning
rank,
categorized
date.
While
dates were the same, this
prominent
officers,
were also
found.
joiners.
prior
is
between 1925-1939
the first
for
criterion
had to be a member of the SS, and have
to 1 September 1939.
Selected
cases were
to the joining
date and not the
in many cases the joining
and commissioning
according
was especially
differences
This
FUhrerkorps,
the years
As it
had to be applied.
to show who in German society
into
went
reached commissioned
for
corps
of 75% of the SS officer
contains
the purpose of this
study were the SS officer
1
Document Center.
Since the collection
used in this
true
among the more socially
of up to ten years
between the two events
tended to be more common among the very early
3
As this
classification,
writer
did not want to work with any missing data
the second criterion
1
61,465 SS officer
Document Center.
for selection
files
personnel
2
was that
the file
was
Berlin
the
are stored at
director
deputy
former
Bauer,
from
Richard
Information
obtained
of the BDC.
3
it was not
in the sample of 1925-1927 joiners
Especially
date
the
find
to
enrolment
a gap of several years separating
uncommon
from the commissioning date.
13
14
able to answer every question
Should the personnel
Siedlungshauptamt
one.
1
file
devised questionnaire.
on the specially
If
fail
to do so, a back-up source, the Rasse und
(RuSHA) file
On the basis
was consulted,
of the two criteria,
joining
to 1 September 1939, and a no missing
prior
The information
selected.
cards and analysed
and commissioning
data file,
onto punch
2
of Guelph.
used in this
study to collect
form of the questionnaire
Canadian Armed Forces in their
officer
A.
the following
contained
date
5250 cases were
on the. SS FUhrer was a revised
questionnaire
had
was coded, translated
gathered
by the computer at the University
The questionnaire
the officer
provided
selection
the social
data
used by the
procedures.
The
questions:
SS Career Data
1.
Rank (highest
2.
Branch of service /general
SS (A/SS), security
death's head units (TV), armed SS (VT)7.
3.
Date of joining
Personal
4.
rank attained).
service
(SD),
the SS.
Data
Name of SS officer
(given
only
in detailed
histories).
1
A RuSHA file
The BDC houses some 238,000 RuSHA files.
was
It contained a
started on every SS member who intended to marry.
detailed
medical record of the SS man, as well as of his proposed bride,
(Lebenslauf)
hand-written
biography
a
of both, and the enormously
detailed
ancestral
and to 1800
record dating back to 1750 for officers
for NCOs and other ranks.
It was Himmler's intention
to eventually
retrace the family trees of his chosen men to 1648, the end of the Thirty
Years War. Hans Peter Bleuel, Strength Through Joy; Sex and Soc
from the German Das Saubere Reich by J. Maxwell
Nazi Germany, translated
BrownjohinýLondon
1973), p. 198.
2
from SPSS, The Statistical
The computer sub-programme 'Crosstabs'
Package for the Social Sciences (New York 1970) was used in the analysis
of the data.
15
5.
Date of Birth.
6.
Place of Birth.
7.
Age (at time of joining
8.
Education
9.
Occupation (includes
father's
occupation).
10.
(highest
Organization
the SS).
level
educational
the learned
affiliation
attained).
and the applicant's
occupation
background.
and military
Family (marital
status,
number of children,
political
of wife, SS marriage selection
and moral code).
Although
the outbreak
this
study
item is rank.
determine
how far
Other post-1939
of children
war-time
to the collapse
the officer
post-1945 fate
progressed
In specially
and assignments
rank the
in order
Reich,
in the rank structure
marital
selected
which
One such
study is the highest
of the Third
to
prior
items of information
record have been included.
data used were the officer's
he sired.
record
war-time
The rank quoted in this
held prior
officer
on the SS Fbhrerkorps
of the Second World War, certain
to the officer's
pertain
concentrates
affiliation
to
of the SS.
and the number
status
case histories
the officer's
In some cases the officer's
are reviewed.
has also been included.
Branch
The branch in which each officer
was considered
the general
dienst;
third,
factor.
an important
Allgemeine
or
the Death's
order
The major
SS; second,
Head units
the armed SS or VerfUgungstruppe
served prior
was classified
branches
the security
used were first,
or Sicherheits-
service
and fourth,
or TotenkopfverbAnde;
or more popularly
to overcome the problem of inter-service
in a particular
to September 1939
branch other
the Waffen SS.
transfers,
In
an officer
than the general
SS, when he
16
became a member of it.
other
If
than the general
served
longest.
1
served in two branches of the SS,
an officer
SS, he was classified
The reason for
in the branch in which he
the breakdown of the selected
cases into
the four major branches of the SS, was to allow an assessment of the
social
composition
of each branch.
One of the purposes of this
was to see whether the branches were distinguishable
terms of the social,
educational,
from each other in
backgrounds
and regional
study
of their
members.
Age and Birthplace
In the Personal
applicant's
SS records
did not list
birthplace.
that
situation,
it
if
the age was determined
he Joined
age at the time that
place of residence.
officer's
Data Section
the place
of enrolment,
The onlY geographical
This writer
a geographic
recognized
may occur.
geographic
by using
was, therefore,
For instance,
mobility
the
or the applicant's
available
confronted
included
be
to
was
analysis
the birthplace
Unfortunately
information
would have to be based on the birthplace
that
the SS.
by the
information.
of the officer
was the
with
the
in this
It
study,
is fully
some inaccuracies
Wolfgang K811mann has shown in a study of
in Germany, that
in 1907 of 60.7 million
Germans
in
their
half,
31.4
residing
still
million were
only about
some
2
birthplace.
In view of this evidence the reader is cautioned not to
1
Only
1% of the sampled Fbhrerkorps
.
2011mann
fell
into
this
category.
divided
be
internal
German
that
could
migration
showed
lasted
first
During
the
into two distinct
until
which
phase,
phases.
is,
to
that
1880, short distant
migration
migration
was more prevalent,
The only long distance migration
the nearest larger town.
of any
distance
1890's
long
Berlin.
During
this
time
to
the
was
at
significance
from
in
importance,
being
the
east
most
one
conspicuous
gained
migration
Wolfgang K811man, "The Population
to west.
of Germany in the Age of
" in Population
Movements in Modern Europe, ed. by Herbert
Industrialization,
in
in
German
Deutsch
The article
Moller (New York 1964). p. 102ff.
appeared
27. Folge,
fUr Bevblkerungswissenschaft:
Mitteilungen,
Gesellschaft
November 1962.
17
confuse
the geographic
place of residence
origin
of the sampled SS Fbhrer with
or the location
The birthplaces
of the selected
officers
were first
northern
line
between north and south Germany. According to this
and southern Germany, with the Main river
Wbrttemberg,
(Regierungsbezirke),
districts
1A
Germany.
further
Trier
and Sigmaringen
and rural
a population
of 100,000 and over were categorized
a population
between 10,000-100,000
as rural
areas.
Germany three
2
as towns,
For those applicants
special
those born in Austria,
regional
division
were placed
into
in south
(Grosstgdte),
cities
Centres with
as cities,
those with
and those under 10,000
born outside
categories
the
as the administrative
(Land) was undertaken.
areas
categorized
as the dividing
Baden and Hessen, as well
breakdown of the birthplaces
towns (KleinstAdte)
major
where they joined.
into
LAnder Bavaria,
their
the borders
were used:
of
these were for
the Sudetenland and in other foreign
countries.
Education
The educational
generally
accepted
included
all
(Volksschule).
categories
progression
applicants
in
this
used
of education
study conformed to the
in Germany.
The first
category
who had attended and completed elementary school
Trades training
outside
the school
system was not taken
'In
this writer
the geographic organization
adopted the categories
"
"Zur
der
in
his
Soziographie
FrOhen
NSDAP,
by
Kater
Professor
article,
used
Heft 2, April 1971, pp. 136-37.
fUr Zeitgeschichte,
Vierteljahrshefte
2
Lexikon über die
Geograp isch-Statistisches
Karl Ritter's
Gebirge, Staaten,
Länder, Meere, Häfen, Seen, FlÜsse, Inseln,
Erdteile,
9. Vollständige
Städte, Kanäle, Eisenbahnen, Post und Telegraphenämter,
(Leipzig
Auflage,
2
vols.
sehr vermehrte und verbesserte
umgearbeitete,
the size of cities
1905). was used as a guide in determining
and towns.
18
into
The second category was designed for all
consideration.
who had attended a secondary school,
either
a Mittelschule,
SS members
Realschule
or Gymnasium. Although they may have obtained a school-leaving
Reife
such as. mittlere
Abitur
they were placed
for
reserved
university
in this
second was for
The third
included
The third
Abitur.
category
There were three
those who attended' an
from a recognized
institution,
or Technische Hochschule, but did not obtain
included
There is a special
o, the newly-founded
Socialist
was
but never completed a course of study.
those who graduated
category
or National
category.
The first
of higher learning
Universit9t
as long as they did not hold the
anyone who held the coveted
categories.
institution
etc.
or Einjdhrige,
certificate,
all
category
doctorates,
for
Dr. phil.,
those who after
National-Politische
The
a
the doctorate.
Dr. med., Dr. jur.,
1933 attended
Erziehungsaristalten
one
(Napola),
secondary schools.
Occupation
difficult
The occupational
the
system
was
perhaps
most
classification
2
After some consideration
Theodor Geiaer's basic
one to establish.
3
Rolf
occupational
ol German society was adopted.
categorization
1
Engelmann, German Education and Re-Education,
Charlotte
with an
25. Dr. Engelmann was
introduction
by L. M. Terman (New Yor
p.
,
from
University
the
Dr.
be
first
to
the
of
phil.
a
granted
one of
women
Berlin in 1908. A well-known Social Democrat, she was active in the
1933,
Hitler
1920's.
In
the
after
came
educational
reform movement of
to power, she had to resign her senior government post and emigrated to
21-25.
Abitur
importance
the
On
the
USA.
see,
pp.
of
the
2
the
For the advice this writer received in establishing
he
Michael
Kater
like
Professor
to
thank
should
occupational categories,
Toronto,
Canada.
York
University,
of
3
Theodor 'Geiger, Die soziale Schichtung des deutschen Volkes,
1967),
Versuch auf statistischer
Grundlage (Stuttgart
Soziographischer
1932.
Stuttgart
first
printed
19
Dahrendorf wrote of this
classification
system,
Es gibt in der Geschichte der deultschen Soziologie ein Vorbild
für eine Analyse sozialer Schichten, die unseren AnsprÜchen
genügt, zumal auch sie in eine Gesamtanalyse der deutschen
Gesellschaft
in politischer
Absicht einqebunden erscheint.
In categorizing
but also
Geiger
occupations,
the socio-psychological
not only
the economic factors
considered
As Geiger stated:
ones.
Die Mentalität
ist geisItig-seelische
Disposition,
...
Prägung des Menschen durch seine soziale
unmittelbare
Lebenswelt und die von ibr ausstrahlenden,
an ihr
2
Lebenserfahrungen.
gemachten
Thus he recognized
was as important
group viewed itself',
occupational
work is also important
insofar
as how it
as he tried
w.-s viewed by others.
to explain
Geiger's
through his
of the Weimar Republic.
Geiger
divided
to the overtures
the German Mittelstand,
of National
Socialism
He showed how the old Mittelstand,
businessmen,
felt
how a given
to consider
the advances made by National Socialism duri,; g tile last
classifications
years
it
that
ist
and peasant
threatened
occupational
but also
comprised of artisans,
in industry
groups were af, -aiU nol, only ol losing
their
level.
It
social
status
in
the new Mittelstand,
was
1
Gesellschaft
Rolf Dahrendorf,
(Stuttgart
1965), pp. 101-102.
2
Geiger,
Soziale
Schichtung,
occupations
and business.
Dahrendorf,
Gesellschaft,
3-
These
livelihood
their
,4
that
Geiger saw "den
He ascribed
und Demokratie
to the new
in Deutschland
p. 77.
3
Hermann Lebovics, Social Conservatism and the Middle
dissertation
(Princeton
1969), p. 6. The study was a doctoral
University.
4
independent
and of being dragged down to the
NAhrboden des Nation alsozialismus.
sozialen
small
the
pre-industrial
-
proprietors
succumbed
into the old and the new Mittelstand.
by modern conglomerates
of losing
proletarian
which so readily
p. 103.
Classes
at Yale
20
Mittelstand
die ideologische Unsicherheit des Siedlers auf gesellschaftlichem
Neuland; in seiner Standorttypischen
Mentalität
noch unsicher
'falscher
und ... das gegebene Einzugsfelt
Idologien. 'l
This
new Mittelstand
was composed largely
management employees,
technicians;
the "white
lower
civil
of clerical
Unsicherheit"
,2 or "pencil
worker,
of the rapidly
that
represented
by the German upper class
it
unionized working class.
than differences
1
Geiger,
pusher. ,3
The "ideoloqische
4
was brought about
was squeezed between the very cohesive
5
It
and the highly
bloc
organized
and
is arguable that there were more similarities
between the "white
Soziale
to as
group also referred
growing new Mittelstand
by the fact
lower
and the new industrial
servants,
in other words the occupational
collar
workers,
Schichtung,
collar
worker"
and the proletariat.
p. 105.
2Cecil
Wright Mills, White Collar, The American Middle Class
(New York 1951). In contrast'to
the nineteenth-century
clerk, the white
collar worker had virtually
no prospect of ever replacing his boss.
For the career opportunities
clerk
of an ambitious nineteenth-century
who through hard work and honesty rose to the position
of partner,
see
Gustav Freytag's
novel Soll und Haben.
3
For a useful discussion
see,
of the new and old Mittelstand
Elite Theorist, "
Walter Struve, "Hans Zehrer as a Neo-conservative
American Historical
Review, LXX, July 1965, pp. 1035-1057; see also,
" p. 135.
Kater, "Soziographie,
4
According to the 1925 census 48% of German society belonged to
72-73.
The
Schichtung,
Soziale
Geiger,
the new Mittelstand,
pp.
see,
in
by
Croner
demonstrated
Fritz
is
Mittelstand
the
growth of
new
TKöln und Berlin 1962), p. 199. Croner
Soziologie
der Angestellten
by
the
Mittelstand
the
the
ratio of wage
comparing
showed
new
growth of
to
In
1882
the
to
earner
of
wage
ratio
employees.
earners
salaried
by
1:
9,
1907
1:
21.
By
the
and
ratio stood at
salaried
employee was
1925 at 1: 4. See also, Struve, "Hans Zehrer, " p. 1039.
5Lebovics
points out that under the Republican governments of
Weimar, the Junker, business and labour groups were sufficiently
interests.
Mittelstand
the
The
their
to
on
new
protect
well organized
itself,
it
for
into
fend
had
to
hand,
to
unite
a single
unable
was
other
Social
Conservatism,
32.
Lebovics,
p.
pressure group.
21
Walter Struve in his discussion
that
of the "white collar
in terms of the relationship
level
both social
"white
collar
working class.
workers"
1
Germany, the stability
consistent
of this
When this
early
1930's the social
fears
of loss
was that
demand for
Germany.
for
Socialism
1
Struve,
The old
the open. The result
2
Often the
were revived.
a great
leader
to "save"
longing
promoted a
politicians
3
The "soziale
Bismarck.
Nghrboden" for
was there.
In the actual
minor alterations,
1920's and
into
The weakness of contemporary
of the great
of industrialized
in the late
burst
theories
elite
himself with the
were immediately felt.
status
the
depended upon the success
segment of society
repercussions
important
a creation
was accompanied by the cry for
an elite
worker" to his
to identify
largely
was
of income and social
a successor
National
aversion
success was threatened
many neo-conservative
the two groups,
of his work and equally
Since the new Mittelstand
of industry.
What divided
"white
the
of
collar
the non-manual nature
employer,
and income
to the means of production
groups were similar.
however,, was the relationship
worker" pointed out
breakdown of the occupations
adhered closely
to Professor
this
Kater's
writer
has, with
categories,
which
"Hans Zehrer, " p. 1039.
2
Struve is of the opinion that the insecurity
of the middle class,
1920's,
this
during
the
decline
the
class
encouraged
of monarchism
and
that were "non-monarchical
theories
to accept elite
and highly authoritarian.
"Hans Zehrer, 11p. 1041.
Struve,
3
Weimar
1043.
Wilhelmine
the
During
the
Ibid.,
and
period
p.
Rebpulic school texts stressed the virtue of strong leadership and
in
Society
See,
Hinton
Education
R.
Thomas,
and
government.
authoritarian
(London
1949),
Letrpa_ýy
pp. 71-81. The failure
Modern
of the Republic to
first
to
its
generation
according
republican guidelines was also
educate
in
Engelmann
German
Education,
72-76.
Charlotte
by
pp.
recognized
22
in turn
were based on Geiger's
work.
The following
occupational
categories
were used:
1.
unskilled
2.
skilled
3.
tradesmen
(Handwerker)
4.
lower & middle level
employees
private
(untere & mittlere
Angestellte)
(privat)
5.
lower & middle level
servants
civil
(untere & mittlere
Beamte)
(öffentliche)
7.
(ungelernte
workers
Arbeiter)
(Facharbeiter)
workers
Military
- officers
(Militär
military
ranks
NCO's
and other
-
(Militär
Unteroffiziere
Mannschaften)
Offiziere)
-
8.
peasant proprietors
(Landwirte)
9.
businessmen
(Kaufleute)
10. artists
(Künstl er)
11.
entrepreneurs
(Unternehmer)
senior
(Höhere (privat)
12.
13.
senior
private
civil
employees
servants
und
Angestellte)
(Höhere (öffentliche)
Beamte)
prof essi onal s
(Freiberufliche
15.
students
(Studenten)
16.
jurists
(Juristen)
elementary school teachers
(Volksschullehrer)
secondary school and
teachers
university
(Gymnasium and Hochschullehrer)
14.
17.
18.
Akademiker)
-
23
The unskilled
jobs which required
Most unskilled
labourers
Arbeiter.
in contrast
required
trades
beyond elementary school.
(spezialisierte
workers
The skilled
the Facharbeiter
non-university
educated
category.
Thus technicians,
Found in this
able to support
Germany of the twentieth
The lower
century.
employees,
4
Included
and government.
the vast
servant
confusingly
or Beamter.
1
Kater,
2
victim
134.
p.
in the highly
private
called
Also
and
were included
in
trades
with
a
that
industrialized
employees represented
industrial
and commercial
Of the 5.27 million
in this
2
assistants
were a number of trades
63% worked in administration
salaried
rather
laboratory
category
private
the mass
complexes that
and public
in industry,
commerce,
bank
the
clerk,
also
was
Bankbeamter in Germany although he is no civil
included
"Soziographie.
were the many sales
clerks
employed
" p. 133.
Ibid.
3
fell
Flaschner
Brunnenbauer,
Mbhlenbauer,
Trades such as
and
"Soziographie,
in
Kater,
Germany.
industrialism
to the growing
4
in
3
level
Germany.
in
modern
sprang up
the traditional
the traditional
category
themselves
and middle
in
administering
employed
all
between the
which was lacking
the nur-Ingenieur,
engineers,
Tradesmen included
tradition.
were barely
(Zunfttradition)l
tradition
category.
that
as
Handarbeiter)
The difference
training.
specialized
who performed
themselves in the personnel files
classified
rested on a guild
labourers
all
worker and the tradesman lay in the fact
skilled
guild
training
no specialized
ungelernte
this
worker category
included
Lebovics,
Social
Conservatism,
p. 31.
"
24
by the rapidly
service
civil
department
expanding
and bell-hops.
area such as waiters
servants
included
included
in this
stores,
traditional
all
I
2
whether
this
colleagues
joining
their
3
differed
officer
this
classified
group,
in high-schools
writer
but because he wanted to determine
which holds
significantly
such a unique status
from their
in
more educated
and universities
as far as their
which Geiger and Kater treated
category,
two parts.
writer
NCO's and other
study and treated
was concerned.
The military
into
in this
since they were
This was not done because this
Beamten status,
who taught
pattern
was divided
18).
occupational
German society,
Although Geiger also
category elementary school teachers,
(see category
disagreed with
The lower and middle level
Beamte.
Beamte, they were excluded from the category
separately
and men employed in the
realized
From personal
that the political
ranks can differ
as one category
experience
significantly.
and NCO's and other
as one,
as a professional
orientation
Therefore,
of officers,
officers
ranks as another.
were
In a
1
By 1925 the well-known Karstadt department store chain, which
was founded in 1920, operated 32 outlets
across Germany. The Leonard
Tietz store operated 17 outlets
in Germany by 1928. Ibid.,
p. 25. More
information
on the growing department store chains in Germany is provided
by Karl Schleunes, The Twisted Road t,o Auschwitz, Nazi Policy toward the
German Jews, 1933-1945 (London 1972), p. 7ff.
2
listed
his father's
One SS officer
occupation as Kutscher.
He was included in the lower private
employee category.
The elementary school teacher occupied a peculiar
social position
Although he was considered a professional,
in pre-1914 German society.
his profession
was the only one that did not require a university
Without
the
teacher
a
university
education
school
elementary
education.
'Akademiker,
'
he
be
therefore,
an
considered
and
was,
could never
in
discussion
that
detailed
For
stratum
of
society.
a more
unacceptable
the
Engelmann,
teacher,
the
of
position
elementary
school
see,
social
on
German Education,
p. l6ff.
25
more detailed
were each looked
NCO's and other
profession,
proprietor
category
themselves as either
was easily
Landwirt,
recognizable
smaller
Kaufmann.
businessmen;
One can assume that
wealthier
themselves as "Importeur
The artist
teachers of art,
with
this
this
not only
included
Two cases of note were SS Sturmbannfbhrer
Obersturmbannfbhrer
Walter
The category
According
to Geiger
performing
It should be emphasized that men
found in the SS.
2a
Waldemar Klingelhoefer,
Einsatzgruppe
member
of,
was a
4
Ilges,
an author and playwright
B, '
3
trained
and SS
who became a
5
SD.
of entrepreneur
it
but also
artists
21ýyears
member of the
prominent
businessmen described
background were not too frequently
for
who
the
contains
Grosskaufmann.
music, drama and dance.
particular
opera singer
as most labled
category
and more prestigious
or
category
as most
Bauer, or Kleinbauer.
The businessmen group was easy to categorize
themselves
ranks
at separately.
The peasant
described
of the military
analysis
included
estate
was a difficult
define.
to
one
(Rittergutsbesi-Lzer
owners
and
1
"Soziographie,
Kater,
Kaufmann
the
term
For a good description
see,
of
depression
is
during
the
businessman
fate
the
135.
The
small
ol
p.
Social Conservatism,
described by Lebovics,
p. 41.
"
2
SS SturmbannfUhrer Waldemar Klingelhoefer,
Personnel File:
SS #52,704, born 4.4.1900, in Moscow. BDC.
3
(Philadelphia
1961),
Kommandos
The
Eichmann
Musmanno,
Michael
judge
the
Navy,
US
US
the
Musmanno,
Captain
at
210.
appointed
was
p.
in
1947.
held
Nbrnberg
trial
Einsatzgruppen
at
4
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Breslau.
born 31.5.1870,
5
Shlomo Aronson. Reinhard He drich
Zeitgeschichte,
Studien
SD;
zur
Gestapo und
(Stuttgart
1971),
14.
p.
Zeitgeschichte
Walter
Ilges,
SS
1111-36,239,
'ie Früh geschichte
von
und U
herausgegeben vom-Institutefür
26
Gutsbesitzer)
other
Munich.
Kater
from rural
described
Prussia
in the following
the category
pub owners in
as small
as well
terms,
Die Unternehmer bilden eine Berufsgruppe manigfacher sozialer
Abstufungen,
Kapitalisten
jeder Schattierung,
alle im Besitz
& Betriebs-kapital,
von Produktionsmitteln
wobei
'Kapitalismus'
hier nicht als klassenbegriffliche
Norm,
Kriterium
sondern als professionelles
verstanden werden soll.
In strict
ran an independent
business
supplied
little
very
giving
any indication
all
Senior
this
occupation
industry.
heads of major
Kater
also
and business
i. e. independent
in the classifying
as Tischler
departments,
not
businessman
of occupations,
or Tischlermeister
were
that
for
Kater,
titles
larger
of
managers
or personnel
trained
most academically
did not follow
in the Akademiker
Senior civil
to our managers,
this
or Freiberufliche
servants were easily
i. e.,
"Soziographie.
practice
Regierungesrat,
" p. 135.
Kaufleute
engineers
but categorized
these
category.
because
their
of
recognized
Kriminalrat,
in
in upper level
industry
by
be
employed
would
administrators
professionals
and leading
Diplom - Ingen eure and-Diplom
classified
This writer
positions.
1
of
or Tischlermeister
They corresponded
on the assumption
category
preference
as Tischler
files
In the majority
in
responsible
men
employees were
private
in private
department
firms.
who
Handwerker.
as
categorized
positions
themselves
to be consistent
men who gave their
carpenter
But the personnel
kind of information.
as to employment status5
In order
or employee.
as an Unternehmer.
of this
cases the men described
the trained
in one of the many basement shops in Berlin,
have been classified
should
definition
adherence to this
1
or Medizinialrat,
27
in describing
their
position.
The independent
professional
category
included
doctors,
architects,
educated
engineers
category.
Geiger
as well
While this
writer
does not disagree
jurists
all
and business
it
graduates was that
As pointed
category
in order
this
lawyers
category.
he placed
them to a more detailed
of jurisprudence
analysis
that an inordinate
number of
As law studies
have
in German society as a means of insuring membership
I
the question arose as to whether many of the jurists
e'lite,
served
in the governing
in the SS used their
and social
political,
graduate
in this
categorization,
to subject
was soon discovered
in this
were also placed
placed
the separate
such as medical
out above, university
administrators
with
and Akademiker)
professionals
had been members of the SS FUhrerkorps.
traditionally
this
educated
as Kater also
The reason for
examination.
jurists
academically
pharmacists.
in a separate
(Freiberufliche
affiliation
advancement.
such an important
profession
with the Black Order for professional
2
Another
member in German society
had, and still
has, on the senior
According to Dahrendorf "Mehr als die Hälfte
Beamte.
Mehr als
Juristen.
.3
die Hälfte
factor
aller
aller
that
made the law
was the tight
civil
service
hold
positions.
deutschen Juristen
Beamten des Höheren Dienstes
Because of the involvement
of German jurists
,
sind
sind
in both the civil
1
Dahrendorf compared German jura studies to the English public
i
te.
Etudes
trai
Grandes
French
uture
the
af
el
ng
of
ni
as
a
means
school s and
264-265.
Demokratie,
Gesellschaft
Dahrendorf,
pp.
und
2
the fact that jura
One should be cautious and not overstress
3.5%
1959
late
As
factor.
only
as
studies can serve as a social mobility
background,
from
in
Germany
jura
as
working
class
came
students
all
of
266.
Ibid.,
Juristen.
had
fathers
10%
that
to
p.
were
who
compared
3
Dahrendorf points out that in the Wilhelmine era, the Weimar
half
Third
Cabinet
Reich,
during
than
the
the
ministers
more
of
Republic and
262.
Ibid.,
jurists.
p.
were
28
service
teacher
1
and the SS special
I
attention
Similarly
two professional
the final
was paid to this
and the secondary school and university
from their
respective
of the elementary
categories
school teacher
of civil
school
because of their
teachers
in the social
felt
education.
the elementary
school
teachers were extracted
servants.
in German society
The secondary school teachers and university
together
groups,
group.
The unique position
2
has been mentioned.
professors
were grouped
At a time when many secondary
hel d the Dr. phi 1. the two prof essi ons stood qui te cl
ose
3
hierarchy.
There is also little
doubt that the Studienr9te
a much closer
the underprivileged
toward the university
4
elementary school teacher.
affinity
professor
than toward
1
The surrender of the German legal profession
to National Socialism
is further
demonstrated by an article
by Werner Best, which appeared
written
in the legal journal
Deutsches Recht.
According to the Nazi jurist
there
was to be no indepencFent justice
Judges
apparatus in the Third Reich.
and lawyers were to act like loyal state employees, and, just like the
they were to be mere executors of state policy.
Werner Johe, Die
police,
(Frankfurt/Main
Justiz
1967), p. 11.
gleichgeschaltete
2
See p. 24, note 3.
3Bolte,
a German sociologist,
ranked thirty-eight
occupations and
in
German society.
According
professions
according to their prestige
value
to his findings
the university
the
professor ranked highest in prestige,
just after the senior civil
This
secondary school teacher fifth,
servant.
study was undertaken in the 1950's. and the prestige
value of certain
by the events of the war.
For instance,
professions
was undoubtedly affected
(Major),
in post-war West Germany the army officer
ranked eleventh on the
There
scale, even behind the elementary school teacher who ranked ninth.
is little
doubt that in pre-1939 German society the army officer
had a
(Stuttgart
Abstieg
higher social position.
Karl Bolte, Sozialer Aufstieg
und
1959), p. 42.
4
1920 that professors,
It was not until
secondary and elementary
began
look
joint
together
to
teachers
and
came
at
a
conference,
school
from
Volksschule
to university
the
as a continuous
process
educational
at
Even
then
university
professors
and secondary school teachers
process.
in
Engelmann,
teachers
in
elementary
session,
school
another.
one
met
German Education5 p. 43.
29
Family
Life
and Morality
In dealing
and quantitative
political
looked
was
the attitude
or merely
toward
with
this
on the marital
number of children
to illustrate
applied
homosexuality
the application
used in divorce
and the fate
status,,
was looked at.
to the officer
political
quantitative
orientation
In addition
The length
by an event
of National
Socialism
The major
Phase I:
are used
Data
from the founding
of the SS Fbhrerkorps
determined
and
SS
the
code of
and the moral standards
divided
in
turn
were each
phases which
periods.
of wives,
case histories
to the outbreak of the Second World War has been divided
six
proceedings,
his
family.
and
of Quantitative
The study
time
of
of those convicted
of the. SS Fbhr
aspect
the unique marriage
Organization
1.
use of
Life
In dealing
information
procedures
extensive
of homosexuality.
suspected
Home and Family
2.
code,
divorces,
and the number of
wives,
In addition
at.
statistical
including
status,
was made in order to illustrate
the unique SS marriage
3.
on the marital
of the SS officers'
per family
case histories
of the Fbhrerkorps
aspect
information
orientation
children
this
with
or for
division
of importance
for
divisions
Period,
April
of
was
the development
the SS.
chronological
The Infancy
into three major
into two parts for a total
of each chronological
(or events)
in
1925
SS
the
of
are:
1925-December 1930;
30
Phase II:
The Formative
Phase III:
The Functional
The six chronological
Phase 1:
Phase 11:
Phase 111:
Phase 1.
July
Period,
sub-categories
1931-June 1934;
1934-September
1925-December 1927;
April
2.
January
1928-December 1930.
3.
January
1931-January
4.
February
5.
July
6.
January
Phase I covers
1939.
are:
1.
The Infancy
I
January
1933;
1933-June 1934.
1934-December 1936;
Period,
1937-September
April
the period
1939.
1925-December 1930
from the founding
of the SS in April
1925
There is some dispute over the actual founding date of the SS.
Neussbss-Hunkel gives the founding date as 9 November 1925. Die SS, p. 7.
der NSDAP, 1937
So does the Statistische
Jahrbuch der Schutzstaffel
(Berlin
1938),, p. 3. Buchheim stated that the SS made its first
appearance
30.
H6hne
Anatomy,
in
April
1925.
Ernst
Pbhner's
funeral
stated
p.
at
that Schreck was given the task to form a new loyal Stabswache in April 1925.
He merely stated that after his
The Order, p. 23. Stein ignored the issue.
isolated
felt
thereHitler
from
Landsberg
and,
politically
prison
release
This view
The Waffen SS, p. xxvi.
fore. decided to form a loyal bodyguard.
James
in his stuFy on the Leibstandarte.
is also expressed by Weingartner
,
Adolf
Hitler,
SS
Leibstandarte
Story
the
Hitler's
Guard, The
Weingartner,
of
history
in his official
1939-1945 (Carbondale 1974). p. 1. Gbnter d'Alquen,
der
Aufgabe
1925.
Geschichte
date
founding
SS,
to
the
und
the
as
of
refers
for this early period of the
1939). p. 7. The personnel files
SS (Berlin
The personnel file
SS prove to be equally inconclusive.
of Ulrich Graf,
Emil Maurice, SS #2,
1 November 1925 as the entry date.
SS #26, lists
date.
Julius Schreck, SS #5, the man whom
just has 1925 as the joining
delegated to form a loyal bodyguard, has 1 November 1925 as the
Hitler
All three men were said to be founding members of the SS.
date.
joining
Hbhne
the
Buchheim
inclined
place
is
to
who
and
This writer
agree with
isolation
feeling
If
Hitler's
1925.
in
April
political
date
of
founding
feeling
then
this
bodyguard,
form
decision
in
to
the
a new
played any part
is
It
Roehm.
he
broke
April
in
also
with
when
strongest
was probably
at
to ignore the appearance of eight black capped pallbearers
difficult
issued
have
Schreck
how
1925.
16
Finally,
April
funeral
could
P6hner's
on
was not created
his Order No. 1 in September 1925 when the organization
The
be
The
to
early
November.
semantics.
of
one
appears
problem
until
The
Stabswache.
but
in
Schutzstaffel
April
founded
was not called
group,
the
of
creation
Schutzstaffel
after
months
coined
until
some
was
not
name
is
Stabswache
The
Order,
23.
If.
the
Hbhne5
therefore,
p.
the Stabswache.
,
date.
If
founding
ýTsa direct
1925
is
SS,
April
the
the
forerunner
of
seen
formed,
November
Schutzstaffel
determine
the
to
when
actual
was
wants
one
date.
be
suitable
more
a
would
31
to the breakthrough
September 1930.
deals
period
The decision
The first
exclusively
phase is divided
with
promotion
September 1930 Reichstag
elections.
Phase I was entitled
in the development
organization
was that
It
of selectivity.
the black
swastika
The first
the silver
armband.
3
Circular
1928 to 31 December
2
SS as well
because it
as the
during
was
to be established
characteristic
In order
itself
to appear outwardly
adopted the uniform
in November 1923.
death's
this
of the
characteristics
began when the SS sought to differentiate
which was disbanded
cap with
Period
the basic
of the SA.
the SS immediately
Hitler
to ReichsfUhrer
of the SS that
from the mass organization
Adolf
Period. 1 January
the Infancy
were established.
different,
The first
two periods.
1925 to 1927 was based on an interest
of the Infancy
Himmler's
stage
into
of
members of the SS, i. e. , those who had an SS number under
The second part
1930, included
in the Reichstag elections
whose SS numbers were under 1000.
officers
to look at the period
in the very early
1000.1
of the NSDAPat the polls
of the former
The first
head, the black
tie,
Stosstrupp
SS men wore
and black
rimmed
No. 1, dated 21 September 1925, which was sent to
1
is
Phase
I
based
date for the first
The cut-off
on a
of
period
SS
Personalhauptamt.
head
the
Herff,
letter
SS
ObergruppenfUhrer
of
of
,
der
in
Zeit
850-1050
Nummern
die
SS
"In
der
SS
It stated:
vom
wurden
1.1.1927 bis zum 31.12.1927 verliehen. " Letter of Herff to SS BrigadefOhrer
in Weber's personnel file.
Chritian
Weber, dated 17.2.1943,
2
1926,
April
SS
the
head
the
Schreck
Julius
until
when
of
stayed as
d
f
i
ti
i
Berchtol
Jul
1
Hi
Stosstrupp
tl
returned
rom
pol
cal
us
er eader,
one-time
SS
leader
the
first
the
Berchtold
of
permitted
to
was
command.
assume
exile
1927,
March
RFSS
He
SS.
ReichsfUhrer
himself
at
until
to call
remained
Himmler
became
Heinrich
Heiden
innocuous
Erhard
took
the
time
over.
which
1929.
Karl
6
January
SS
leader
the
fourth
RFSS,
of
on
the third
and
istische
Die
Schulz,
Wolfgang
Sauer,
Gerhard
Bracher,
national
Dietrich
-sozial
Herrschaftssystems
des
Studien
Erricht
totalitAren
Machterqno±ýý2ung
zur
'
(K61n
1962),
1933-1934
p. 838.
in Deutschland, ý
3
Neussbss-Hunkel,
Die SS, p. 7.
32
every
local
SS formation.
efficient,
(OrtsgruDpe)
group
party
It
elite
whom Hitler
however,, that
stressed,
in the spring
ready even to march against
accordance
with
the National
men were to be taken
into
the SS.
to be between the age of 23-35,
by the police
"Habitual
(polizeilich
drunkards,
1
Illusion
Occupied
University
theory
Applicants
"
5
as residents
The selectivity
member conceivable.
stated
that
,6
With all
only
to this
(Waschweiber)
mongers
gossip
a body guard ...
3
,, stressed
.,
have two sponsors,
emphasized when an SS instruction
party
4
elite
angemeldet)
were not to be considered.
exemplary
of 1925 to form "...
Socialist
an
they were to he small,
1
2
Julius Schreck
and ten men. "
own brothers..
their
groups to establish
party
"...
at most a leader
groups,
delegated
urged all
that
specially
selected
in
selected
group were
and have been registered
of five
and other
orinciple
years
standing.
delinquents
was further
"The SS man is the most
the emphasis on 'elitism
Hbhne, The Order, p. 24; see also,
Edgar Knoebel, Racial
Necessity:
A study of SS Political
Objectives
and Military
Belgium,
from the
The study was a Ph. D. dissertation
p. 5.
1965.
of Colorado,
in
2
Julius Schreck, SS #5,, born
SS BrigadefOhrer
Personnel File:
13.7.1897,
in MOnchen. Schreck died of natural causes on 16 May 1936.
17.5.1936.
V61kischer Beobachter,
3
first
SS
the
The SS, p. 13. On Hitler's
Reitlinger,
view of
from
German,
Talk,
the
Table
translated
Hitler's
Henry
Picker,
members see,
by Norman Cameron and R. Stevens (London 1953),
Hitlers
Tischgespr9che,
p. 167.
4
When it was discovered that in a Munich Ortsgruppe 15 former SA
"This
He
Schreck
form
SS
began
to
wrote,
new
protested.
unit,
men
an
The S,S is an
is no more than the old SA rechristened
formation
....
its
foundations
built
the
laboriously
and
sound
up upon
organization
"
Schreck
Letter
imitation
by
be
tarnished
image
of
copies.
must not
unique
Hbhne, The Order, p. 24.
dated 27.9.1925.
to Party Headquarters,
issued
5
This order was Dart of the quidelines
Ibid.
by SS headquarters.
6
98.
Konrad Heiden,
Geschichte
for
the formation
des Nationalsozialismus
(Berlin
of the SS
1932),
33
it
is
not
that
surprising
as the "imperial
the
newly
SS soon beqan to
created
see itself
guard of the new Germany."'
The other
basic
characteristic
established
during
the Infancy
Period
the special bond of loyalty
was the special relationship,
to the
2
FUhrer,
and the evolvement from being the FUhrer's special protective
squad to being
extended
the party's
to the FOhrer only,
for
responsibility
speaking tours.
at major party
guarding
the lives
of the Fbhrer
in later
years
into
the major
of other
security
Period,
importance
of the SS.
SS.
It
In this
was in this
in the history
study
period
the years
that
functionaries
when on
for
of responsibility
of the Third
force
the
the Black Order
was to transform
force
January
The time span between January
of vital
party
assumption
functions
and party
The Formative
loyalty
also became the SDecial securitY
The early
meetings.
Whereas the soecial
the SS began very soon to take over
The Schutzstaffeln
security
Phase II:
force.
security
Reich.
1931-June 1934
1931 and June of 1934 was not only
of the NSDAPbut also
are called
in the development
the Formative
Period
of the
the major branches of the SS were created
1
line,
SS
Guard.
the
the
the
The SA was to be the infantry
of
Just as the Persians,
the Greeks, Caesar and Napoleon had a Guard, so was
Hbhne, The Order, p. 28.
the Third Reich to have one.
2
H8hne quotes Alois Rosenwink, the "real organizer of SS Headquarters"
black
to
head
death's
"We
the
as
our
cap
a
warning
on our
carry
as saying,
lives
FOhrer
that
indication
to
our
sacrifice
will
we
our
enemies and an
death's
head
in
24.
the
Dawidowicz
for him. " Ibid.,
a symbol
sees
p.
"...
to carry out Hitler's
that the SS was willing
murderous ideology with
idcal-, sm. " Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945
fanatical
(New York 1975), P. 73. This is perhaps reading too much of Auschwitz
days.
SS
into
the
Solution
the
the
Final
The
of
early
purpose of
and the
The adoption of the death's head was more of a transference
of the symbol
der
der
Geschichte
Hitler.
Hans
Volz,
Daten
StosstrUDp
former
of the
1935), p. 120.
NSDAP (Berlin
34
Numerically
the SS grew from a force of under 15,000 menl and fewer than
350 officers
2
to an organization
The Formative
last
1931 to January
to study
possible
the social
is a well
into
two parts;
Phase II
fact
established
the first
into two parts
composition
as during
as well
should
that
the
composition
of the
at this
the SS expanded enormously
it
in
17 months of Hitler's
from
52,000
January
grew
rule 5_
however, a detailed
to 221,000 by 1 July 1934
study of the social
the first
composition
force
the
of
An important
during
the first
law.
marriage
6
during
event
half
for
this
of the Formative
of the SS that
1933
occurred
Period was the introduction
the law in the following
Jahrbuch der S,
in
has never been done.
the development
Himmler explained
lS--tatistisches
period
it
17
the first
become apparent
1933
is that
of the SS during
Any changes in the social
Reich.
about by the Machtergreifung
It
of
1933, the second from February
of the Weimar Republic
months of the Third
SS brought
has been divided
The reason for dividing
two years
point.
Period
from January
to June 1934.
makes it
a Fbhrerkoros
4
3,227 Officers.
extends
3
221,000
men with
of
of the
words:
p. 6.
2
1
dated
January
is
SS
Fbhrerkorps
the
The first
count of
official
,
der
Dienstaltersliste
SS
350
there
1932. At that time
officers.
were
der NSDAP, 1938 (Berlin 1939), p. 526.
Schutzstaffeln
3
4
Statistisches
Dienstaltersliste
5
Statistisches
6
The marriage
Jahrbuch
der SS, 1937, p. 6.
der SS,, 1938, p. 526.
Jahrbuch
der SS, 1937, p. 6.
law is discussed
in greater
detail
in Chapter VII.
35
Kein SS Mann kann heiraten ohne Genehmigung des Reichsführer SS. Dazu wird verlangt eine gesundheitliche
Untersuchung der Braut, es sind Bürgen für diese Frau
in welta y schaulicher und menschlicher Beziehung zu
bringen.
Furthermore the bride and groom had to submit three photographs of
themselves,
person.
one front
and one showing the total
2
It
in
Formative
the
was
SS were founded.
or SD,
one side facial
facial,
4
Period
that
the important
branches of the
3
to the Al_lgeme ne SS, the Sicherheitsdienst
In addition
or TV and the VerfUgungstruppe
the Totenkopfverbande
or Waffen SS or
VT were established.
for
The responsibility
in Phase I of the SS, but it
security
arrangements
was not until
1931 that
had been established
Himmler appointed
the new arri val , Rei nhard Heydri ch, to bui 1d up a securi ty servi ce f or the
5
SA
during
the
Ie
Dienst
first
the
This
and
called
service was
party.
6
This
the
(13
1932)
PI
Dienst.
June
days
April-14
was
prohibition
1
by Himmler to a course of national
delivered
From a lecture
1937,
IMT,
January
forces,
for
the
vol. xxix,
armed
political
studies
document 1992 (A)-PS, p. 225.
2
illustrated
be
"scientific"
Himmler's
procedures can
selection
1.70m
keine
Leute
"Ich
habe
genommen
unter
by the following
example.
bestimmten
über
deren
Grösse
dass
Menschen,
ich
einer
weiss,
weil
Zentimeterzahl
p. 208.
3
der SS.
liegt,
das erwünschte Blut irgengwie haben müssen."
Kogon called the Allgemeine
Der SS Staat, p. 347.
SS das
Ibid.,
11
Sammelreservoir"
grosse
4
Partei
"Gehirn
Hess
by
the
to
und
von
The SD was referred
as
Staat. " Ibid. , 23.
5
Aronson, Reinhard Heydrich, p. 38ff; see also, Neusbss-Hunkel.,
the
dubious
times
For
of
account
a more anecdotal and at
Die SS, p. 8.
22ff.
Service,
Secret
Hitler's
p.
SD see, Schellenberg,
6
57.
Heydrich,
Reinhard
p.
Aronson,
36
forerunner
of the notorious
SD, initials
with cold blooded calculated
It
murder throughout
was in the second half
June 1934, that
the foundations
Waffen SS were laid.
Period,
of the Death's Head units
February
1933-
and the later
In June 1933 Himmler chose the then SS Oberfbhrer
pulled
to become commandant of the already
off
the psychiatrist's
established
K. L. Dachau.
in time his methods of running
was so successful
that
camp were applied
throughout
when Hitler
occupied Europe.
of the Formative
Theodor Eicke a former policeman,
The first
which were to become synonymous
couch,
1
Eicke
a concentration
Germany.
step in creating
an armed SS was taken in March 1933
delegated
his one-time bodyguard Josef (Sepp) Dietrich,
at
2
the time SS GruppenfUhrer,
in Berlin an armed detachment of
to establish
3
This was to be the third time within
some 120 specially
selected SS men.
10 years
Hitler
that
bodyguard,
ordered
the creation
"Leibstandarte
named
SS Adolf
was to become the most prestigious
Reich's
elite
Hitler"
Panzerdivision
Thus by the end of the Formative
of the Third
of a loyal
formation
Period,
bodyguard.
Thi s
4
in September 1933,
in the Waffen SS.
all
5
of the major branches
had been established,
and the Black
1
At the time Eicke was a patient
clinic
at the psychiatric
of the
University
Hbhne, The Order, p. 202; see also, Aronson,
of Wbrzburg.
Reinhard Heydrich,
p. 105.
2
Personnel File:
SS #1,177,, born 28.5.1892,
Guard,
3
Stein,
4.
p.
4
Stein,
5
SS Oberstgruppenfbhrer
in Hawangen,, Bayern.
The Waffen SS, p. 4.
See also,
Josef
BDC.
(Sepp) Dietrich,
Weingartner,
Hitler's
The Waffen SS, p. 6.
Weingartner is of the opinion that as the Leibstandarte
Ibid.
firepower,
the unit was no longer intended
increased in size, mobility,
and
force.
"
Hitler's
8.
but
Guard,
"guard,
active
an
striking
as
p.
as a
37
Order was ready to enter the Functional
Period or Phase III
its
of
development.
Phase III:
The Functional
Ernst
Second World War.
.
utter
Period
During this
renewed opportunities
also their
1939
of the SS began with the elimination
of the
1
R6hm on 1 July 1934 and ended with the outbreak of the
The Functional
SA Stabschef
1934-September
Periodý, July
branches of the SS had
period the various
to demonstrate
not only their
and military
ruthlessness
loyalty
During
efficiency.
but
to Hitler
the Anschluss
first
time
for
the
VerfUgungstruppe
the
employed
were
units of
2
in
Sudetenland
the
In
the
in a purely military
the
role.
occupation of
of Austria
autumn of 1938 and in the seizure
To
battalions
3
command.
station
The active
incident
of Czechoslovakia
and the entire
role
VerfOgungstruppe
in
SD
the
creating
of
Hitler
"forced"
which
to attack
in March of 1939, four
were placed
the Gleiwitz
Poland,
under Army
radio
in 1939, is
also well-known.
The Functional
dividing
Period
date 31 December 1936.
issue
1986
the
the
was
at
end of
position
Reichsfbhrer
the
of
into
has been divided
The reason for
two parts
dividing
with
the third
the
Phase
by
in
1936,
the
decree
FUhrer
the
which
of
SS was formally
amalgamated with
the
1
30
Zeitung,
Sbddeutsche
See
and
127.
also,
Hbhne, The Order, p.
1957.
8
May
Rundschau,
Frankfurter
1947;
also,
31 March 1947,11
and 14 May
2
Stein,
The Waffen SS, p. 24.
Ibid.
4
Hbhne,
64;
Service,
Secret
Hitler's
also,
see
p.
Schellenberg,
Oberfall
den
'Der
Runzheimer,
JUrgen
auf
260-65;
also,
Order,
The
pp.
1962,
4.
October
No.
fUr
Zeitgeschichte,
"
Vierteljahrshefte
Gleiwitz,
Sender
408-426.
pp.
38
governmental
of Chief of the German Police.
office
"was the all-important
this
Police
into
forces
of the Interior
police
step in the transformation
the instrument
German police
younger highly
of the Fbhrer's
had also tried
riveted
ambitious
Not only were the
a merger which the Ministry
to bring about, but more important,
to the SS.
lawyers attracted
in 1936 in the German legal
German
the
of
"'
authority.
from then on centralized,
were now firmly
According to Buchheim
journal
Dr. Werner Best,
to the SS prior
2
the
one of the
to 1933, wrote
Deutsches Recht,
Die deutsche Polizei
ist unter der Führung des Reichsführer
SS zum Schnittpunkt
der Bewegung und des Staates geworden.
Die Bedeutung dieser Tatsache kann überhaupt nicht
in
ihrer
Bedeutung
für
unterschätzt
nicht
werden nur
die Entwicklung
des Reichsneubaues sondern auch in ihrer
3
Bedeutung für die Sicherung der Zukunft unseres Volkes.
It
during
then
was
by the addition
recruits
SS freely
the second part
of the traditional
of Phase III,
police
officers
and Sudetenland
4
prosecution.
from the annexed Austria
without
fearing
that
the SS was enlarged
as well
as by the many
join
could
who now
the
1
detailed
157.
For
Anatomy_,
analysis,
a more
Buchheim et. al.,
p.
(Duisdorf
1964).
Bonn
b.
Staat
NS
im
Polizei
SS
Buchheim,
Hans
und
see,
2
SS
#23,377,
Best,
Werner
Dr.
ObergruppenfUhrer
SS
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Darmstadt.
born 10.7.1903,
3
Werner Best,
Deutsches Recht,
15.7.1936,
258.
p.
4
1930's
in
the
in
Austria
early
Although the SS was established
SS
for
difficult
it
became
VIII,
more
Abschnitt
SS
progressively
as
the
abortive
after
Austrian
especially
to
prosecution,
survive
members
1934.
Nazis
took
Austrian
after
place
A
1934.
in
of
exodus
major
coup
(New
first
1961).
York
in
Tyranny
published
Study
A
Hitler,
Bullock,
Alan
in
housed
the
Nazis
Austrian
283.
Many
the
were
1953,
of
p.
in January
Shortly
border.
Austrian
the
German
side of
on the
SS camp at Lechfeld,
in
functions
the
SS
the
police
of
Anschluss
many
assumed
the
after
The
Reitlinger,
formation.
join
the
Austria,
and young men could openly
SS, pp. 75,108-110.
39
Description
of Tables
Two approaches will
for this
be used in presenting
In the first
study.
the sociographic
data
approach, each category group, i. e.,
unskilled
labourers
The total
for any such group in the sample, then, equals 100%. Each
in the occupation
is considered
category,
group is looked at in terms of the six periods
The percentage of SS officers
phases).
group, for
occupational
instance,
(two for each of the three
falling
into a particular
during any of these periods
For example, Table 1.1 depicts
apparent.
individually.
the joining
is readily
for two
pattern
Table 1.1
occupational
teachers,
university
seen that
labourers
the unskilled
groups,
over the period
covered by the study.
by the end of Phase 1,35.7%
sample had joined
with
and the secondary
of the unskilled
between 1928 and the end of 1930.
joined
Phase II
are compared with
one sees that
and 23% in Phase III.
those for
(only
few
very
(61.6%) entered
during
and
can be
labourers
in the
8.9% coming in between 1925 and 1927 and the remaining
26.8% joining
during
It
school
the secondary
Phase II,
while
same group,
41%
When these percentages
school
and university
Phase I.
during
2%) joined
For this
44% joined
teachers,
The majority
between February
1933
and June 1934.
For the second approach the emphasis is on the six
time periods.
Thus, the periods
from 1925 to 1927,1928
in
the
terms
looked
of
sociographic
at
on are
in this
100%.
study.
Reference
Each period,
individual
to 1930, and so
considered
characteristics
interest,
the
groups of
summed over
to Table 2 will
illustrate
this
approach.
equals
For this
table
40
Table
Example Illustrating
Joining
Pattern
First
Occupational
Two
of
PHASES
Approach to the Data:
Groups over the Six Time Periods
OCCUPATION
Unskilled
Labourers
4/1925-12/1927
IA
8.9%
Secondary school
& University
teachers
---
1/1928-12/1930
26.8
2.2%
TOTAL PHASE 1
35.7
2.2
1/1931-1/1933
35.7
17.6
2/1933-6/1934
5.4
44.0
41.1
61.6
7/1934-12/1936
7.1
16.1
1/1937-9/1939
15.4
20.9
TOTAL PHASE 111
23.2
36.3
100.0
100.0
TOTAL PHASE 11
TOTAL
41
)
the two time periods
levels
looked
in
II
Phase
terms of the education
at
are
of
of the joiners.
during
can be seen that
It
the 1931-1933 period,
Table 1.2
37.9% of the applicants
to be elevated
(Volksschule)
school
elementary
officers
the Abitur.
for the period was 71.7%.
with those for the 1933-1934 period,
decrease
in the percentage
SS from the first
first
part
elementary
17.4% for
school
decline
higher
of the phase,
the elementary
group.
however,
school
educational
category.
That is,
Thus officers
of university
the
Duri ng
had dropped to
the secondary
a
registered
is noticeable
an Abitur
in the
increased
to 9.2% in the 1933-1934 period.
graduates
and doctoral
Upward
categories.
in
9.3%
the
from
pre-1933
went up
17-month
time
for
the
16.4%
span after
to
period
The percentage of doctorates
during
respectively.
trend
with
the
had only an
categories
the opposite
into
being taken
the percentages
in the university-graduate
are noticeable
The percentage
education,
the lower educational
from 5.8% in the 1931-1933 period
trends
officers
group and to 24.5% for
for the post-1 933 period,
of non-
If one compares these data
of Phase II.
school
or secondary
While
Thus the total
37.9% and 33% of the joiners
of the period
the second part
33% attended a
is obvious that there is a
it
of non-Abitur
to the second part
school
A further
education.
did
but
school
secondary
not obtain
Abitur
to commissioned rank had only an
in the SS FUhre
Hitler
assumed power.
soared from 9.7% to
27.6%.
It
analysis
will
is by the use of these two approaches
of the social
be undertaken
data of the SS Fbhrerkorps
in this
thesis.
that
prior
the descriptive
to World War II
42
Table 1.2
Second Approach to the Data:
Example Illustrating
Distribution
Educational
of
II
Phase
over
EDUCATION
Level
Joiners
of
PHASE II
1/31-1/33
2/33-6/34
37.9%
17.4%
Secondary School
33.8
24.5
TOTAL NON-ABITUR
71.7
41.9
5.8
9.2
4.3
4.8
9.2
16.4
9.0
27.7
OTAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATES
18.2
44.1
apola
---
---
Elementary
School
Abi tur
Attended
raduated
University
University
octorates
OTAL
100.0,
100.0
Chapter
II
SOMEFACTORSINFLUENCING PROMOTIONIN THE PRE-WARSS
In 1937, the then 42-year-old
to Himmler,
wrote
".
..
besser behandel t wi rd,
(548) ein ständiger
by saying
he felt
".
that
This
letter
11
..
for
als
...
when it
the rank held
He continued
SS Führer
his complaint
Deutschlands
and discriminated
4
evidence,
as well
as Robert Koehl's
SS distinguished
themselves
the rank structure
1
SS ObersturmfUhrer Josef
Personnel File:
in Rehschaln b. Passau. BDC.
born 23.11.1895,
of Dirschl
against
of which the above quoted
to Himmler,
that
statement
in any way
....
of the SS.
in the SS, as is the case in most military
2
Letter
3
SS service.
to investigate
writer
.2
came to promotions
full-time
an example,
ist.
44
70 Altesten
der
einer
very few of the early
led this
und schei nbar meine al te SS Ausweisnummer
kind of documentary
is only
Joseph Dirschl
der nach 1933 zur SS gegangen ist,
Hinderungsgrund
superseded
when he applied
dass jeder,
SS Sturmbannfbhrer
,5
Since
and para-
Dirschl,
dated 2 March 1937.
SS #5489
Ibid.
Ibid.
4
basket-maker,
SS
"old
time"
1934
a
wrote
In June
member,
an
in
terms
SS,
in
the
of
especially
letter
detailed
conditions
about
a
letter
be
the
that
He
passed
on
for
asked
alte
promotions
die
Verantwortung,
dass
Obernehme
ich
"...
to the highest authority,
Himmiler,
letter
the
instance
"
In
reached
this
who
ist die Wahrheit.
in
April
1935.
Personnel
UntersturmfUhrer
to
letter
writer
promoted the
born
27.6-1885,
ýile:
in
SS
#9,699,
Hegele,
Martin
SS Untersturmf0hrer
BDC.
Zettlitz.
5
Koehl,
HLsLq2r s p. 282.
"The Character
"
Journal
SS,
Nazi
the
of
43
of Modern
44
military
organizations,
to function
within
failure
of
success
or
was a symbol
it
who
was in the SS that
failed
to be promoted.
as well
that
question
will
Because great
an early
policy
be of interest
to see
who it
and, conversely,
was that
in the NSDAP
value was attached
a low membership number,
l
because a low
member of the Nazi movement, the first
be investigated
in the SS an important criterion
2
rank or did it interfere
with
from the Bavarian
should
was promoted,
as in the SS to holding
number identified
it
the organization,
of a member
Woods, correct
of the SS discriminated
in this
for
chapter
promotion
promotion?
to senior
Was Dirschl,
he
asserted
when
against
is,
old-timers
was seniority
or general
the alte
K9
that
the promotion
like
himself?
I
In 1943 SS Bri gadef Ohrer Chri sti an Weber, SS #265 902, requested
NSDAP
SS
in
the
the
in
his
lower
#
SS
and
early services
view of
a
(he held party #15). The SS Personalhauptamt replied that the best they
'
SS
File:
Personnel
#65,965.
SS
him
is
do
for
him
give
could
in
25.8.1883,
born
#265,,
902,
SS
Weber,
Christian
BrigadefUhrer
is
be
#
low
important
How
BDC.
Polsingen.
membership could
a
SS
discovered
that
it
1943
In
following
in the
illustrated
was
case.
When
questioned,
ObergruppenfUhrer Demelhuber was not a party member.
NSDAP
the
to
belonged
had
with
he
pre-1925
Demelhuber replied that
leave
Strasser
by
to
but
in
1925
He rejoined the NSDAP
was urged
#4,933.
for
he
1933
After
party
reapplied
the party for tactical
reasons.
When
this
100,000.
was
request
under
membership requesting a number
Himmler
in
the
promised
party.
denied, Demelhuber decided not to enrol
the
to
taken
alte
but
reinstate
was
into
the
look
action
no
to
matter,,
As
NSDAP.
the
the
numerical roll of
on
KAmpfer in his rightful
place
member.
party
SS
a
non-Nazi
high-ranking
remained
general
a result this
SS
#252,3929
Demelhuber,
Karl-Maria
SS ObergruppenfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
Oberbayern.
in Freising,
born 27.5.1896,
2
three
the
in
terms
of
and analysed
The ranks are categorized
Forces.
Commonwealth
by
in
all
use
classifications
major rank
(2nd
lieutenant)
to
UntersturmfUhrer
Junior
category,
1.
officer
SturmbannfUhrer
(captain);
Senio-r
2.
cateqory,
rill
TrIrofficer
Hau tcsturmfbhre5r
ýr'
u ':ý
ut
General
(colonel);
3.
category
==taynLý
officer
Statýk
tr"'T
to
ndartenfUhrer
o
mail
mo
m
(general).
Oberstgruppenfbhrer
to
OberfOhrer (senior colonel)
45
Table 2.1 shows the highest
in relation
officers
rank achieved by the sampled
in which they joined.
to the period
Table 2.1
A visual
it
the exception)
in the junior
ranks
roughly
2/33-6/34)
of the period
regardless
remained
in which they joined;
that
and
are to be found in the senior ranks, while only a seventh
is no systematic
categories
first
senior,
two things.
are in the periods 4/25-12/27
or fewer are to be found in the general
there
shows at least
over half of the commissioned officers
(the exceptions
a third
for the junior,
in most cases (the period from 7/34-12/36
shows that
provides
of the sub-totals
ranks over the time periods
and general
First,
examination
trend
ranks.
time periods
junior
in
a
remained
considered
for
shows that
each of the rank
58.2% of those who joined
That is,
considered.
period
across
Second, it
during
the
rank as did 63% of those
who joined
in the latter
did
56.3% of those
II
Phase
and as
part of
joined
who
in the latter
half
initial
joiners
in the first
reached a general
half
of Phase III
A Chi-Square
2)
(X
there was any statistical
officer
joined
test
rank while
obtained
a slight
14.7% of the
13.5% of those who joined
done
to
independence
see whether
was
of
relationship
beyond the
relationship
Similarly,
one of these ranks.
between the phase in which an
and the rank which he obtained.
41
was significant
of
least
at
III.
Phase
of
The resulting
001 level , indicating
.
between these variables.
Chi-Square
that there was
1
An examination
1
index
is
Chi-Square
the
an
of
Although
value of
significant,
(Cramer's
indicating
0
to
is
Phi)
close
very
relationship
of
strength
is
it
does
between
the
not
exist,
variable
relationship
a
that although
for
Chi1,
254,
Appendix
A,
Table
See
p.
relationship.
a very strong
Phi
Cramer's
calculations.
Square and
46
týo
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lizt
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kz C6 0ý kz
rý C6 Cý
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CD
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SS.(1)
S=3
4-
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(A
S-
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a)
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Sa)
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&=
+j
(n
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(v-0 )
C:
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S=
:=
4-
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c:
co
S.S-
0-0
4- (1)
r-CC$
4-)
(A
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4--)
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C:
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a)
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s- =
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4-
ro
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S-
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4c
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CL
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(1)
C6 Cý
SC)
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==
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(L)
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47
of the major sources of deviation
more officers
statistical
than would be expected
although
stayed
level.
of those who joined
ranks across
deviation
the time periods,
and III.
level
before
That
right.
February
one
1933
number than woul d be
between 1933 and 1934 remained at this
from the expected
Phases II
of these data,
but then not entirely
number of those who joined
There was no significant
deviations
as for
he was right,
on the basis
at the j uni or rank 1evel
an
even
greater
,
expected
senior
a large
fewer men remained at this
statistically.
one were to answer Dirschl
would have to say that
is,
(2)
during Phase II more men remained in
and
ranks while during Phase III
If
(1) in Phases I and III
that
obtained general ranks than would be expected on a
1
basis,
and that in Phase II fewer reached this rank level
than would be expected;
the junior
indicates
from the expected at the
but there
in the general
certainly
ranks,
for
In answer to the earlier-posed
were
Phase I as well
question,
then,
1
is also supported by qualitative
This conclusion
On
material.
30 December 1942 the Chef des SS Personal hauptamtes, Herff,
sent a
communique to Himmler in which he expressed his growing concern about
die 1. der SS
to general rank, "...
the unwarranted promotions of officers
die
Verdienste
SS aufweisen
2.
besondere
kurze
Zeit
un
weder
nur
angehöbren,
Gesinn
keineswegs
Haltung
in
ihrer
SS
3.
Können
und
mässigen
sich
und
...
diese Beförderungen die im
bewährt haben. " Herff asked whether "...
"
In
bedingt
richtig
und
sind?
notwendig
sind
politisch
wesentlichen
..."...
der
Ernennung
bei
Beförderung
Himmler
to
he
und
conclusion
recommended
Masstäbe
Solcher Führer besonders vorsichtig
schärfste
und
anzulegen. "
zu sein
SS
Herff to Himmler found in Personnel File:
Letter of SS Brigadef0hrer
BDC.
Graf Bassewitz-Behr.
BrigadefUhrer
SS
of
officers
Similar
with
concerning promotions
reservations
by
Kaltenbrunner,
to
little
who
general rank were expressed
seniority
dass
SS
Führer
"...
1944,
June
20
verhindern,
ein
müssen
wir
wrote on
dass
ihm
keine
Jahren
jung
später
erreicht,
an
so
seine Endstellung
"
On
28
June
1944
Herff
bleiben.
übrig
wrote,
Aufstiegsmöglichkeiten
mehr
dass
Bedenken
doch
wir unsere
grundsätzliche
"Dann habe ich auch sonst
überziehen
Was
Dienstgrade
hohe
durch
sollen
unsere
zu
Dienststellen
....
in
bereits
Stellen
Sie
nachgeordneten
denn
SS Führer
noch werden, wenn
"
This
SS
der
in
correspondence was
Dienstränge
erreichen?
die höchsten
Wilhelm
Dr.
Harster.
BDC.
Gruppenführer
SS
File:
found in Personnel
48
one can answer that
seniority
promotion to senior
for
did not appear to be a criterion
On the other hand one cannot
or general rank.
conclude from the data or from the analysis
that
it
interfered
with
such promotion.
is interesting
It
to speculate
lead
not
automatically
to promotion.
on the type of man who joined
closer
look at some selected
on this
the infancy
case histories
will
A
stage of the SS.
more information
provide
Joiners
1
Hans Kronwitter,
who followed
formation
elite
established
to reach the lowest
in his personnel
adherent
until
submitted
impossible
it
Ahnentafel
record,
"...
early
"
enquired
joiner
3
An entry
it
of why
some indication
took this
When in 1935 the
Kronwitter
why
had not yet
that
the SS FUhrer had
Schriftungewandtheit
...
die
Danzer.
Franz
Order
Black
the
was
of
1
UntersturmfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
Bayern.
Obersteinhbring,
in
born 13.8.1902,
2
nine years
organization.
the Amt was informed
wegen seiner
2
the newly
took Kronwitter
1934 to become an officer.
zu erstellen.
Another
It
NSDAP.
the
of
in 1935 gives
Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt
his racial
Schreck in 1925 to join
in
that
rank
commissioned
file
the
men
of
one
was
the son of a bricklayer
of Julius
the call
I
found
might focus
One such speculation
point.
The Early
early
during
in the SS did
on why seniority
Hans Kronwitter,
BDC.
3
SS --,488,
Ibid.
UntersturmfOhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDCMUnchen.
in
born 24.2.1900,
Franz Danzer,
it
SS #476,
49
took
Danzer fourteen
labourer,
unskilled
(Landarbeiter)
into
Danzer's
hardly
In addition
officer
discovered
to stand,
and that
the oldest
the children
job with
demanded by the strict
that
child
the German
discovered
from tuberculosis,
a woman who suffered
code of
marriage
When an
her children.
the 15-month-old
daughter
was unable
bore marks of abuse on his bodyl
had
home,
the mother
from
the
removed
ignomiously
camp, and
sent to a concentration
ss.
to place alte
corps of the Nazi elite,
the woman neglected
SS welfare
Himmler ordered
in the officer
common-law with
the specimen of health
SS.
in an effort
found permanent
The Rasse und Siedlunghauptamt
was short-lived.
Himmler's
labourer
He only
gave him a labouring
tenure
The son of an
rank.
agricultural
the SS in 1925.
1933, when the party
Danzer lived
that
Danzer was a drifting
permanent jobs,
post office.
however,
years
when he joined
employment after
K
to reach commissioned
dismissed
Danzer from the
2
Albert
Sýmann,
3
like
Danzer was the son of an unskilled
Samann eked out a meagre living
labourer.
In 1935, ten years
factory.
shoe
In 1939 he volunteered
.
He held this
a private.
1
Report
2
rank until
by the SS welfare
Danzer was dismissed
after
for
in a
the SS, he was promoted
joining
But he was not even suitable
to the rank of Untersturmf0hrer.
material
as a casual
labourer
NCO
the Waffen SS which he joined
1944 when he was committed
officer,
to a
dated 3 June 1940.
Ibid.
on 17 July
1940.
"wegen Ungeeigtheit"
as
Ibid.
3
Untersturmf0hrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Pirmasens.
in
4.1.1905ý
born
Albert
Samann, SS :#'8859
50
1
mental institution.
Christian
Barth
He was a Hilfsarbeiter
drifted
with
2
illegitimate
the
was
when he joined
from job to job until
In 1934 he was commissioned
discovered
that
gewachsen. .3
Barth
in the SS.
assumed, quite
"...
ist
den Aufgaben eines Ablesers
ni cht
of Nbrnberg.
der alten
for
old guard
One day Barth was missing.
ältesten
der
um einen
service
incident.
this
he
SS
the
permitted
was
in
At this
case histories
point
it
the
It was
should
di ese darauf
aufmerksam
SS Männer und um ein
Barth did not remain a member of the
Garde handelt. 4
long following
...
he had to pay for
misreadings
The pol i ce were noti fi ed, wi th the provi so, ".
..
Mitglied
gave Barth
he was somewhere in a drunken stupor.
that
correctly,
In 1936 the party
was soon
Because of his frequent
zu machen dass es sich
he
to provide him
But it
the city
out of his own pocket.
shortages
Like Danzer,
1933 when the party tried
for
of meter reader
the SS in 1925.
Yet he was unable to hold on to a job.
permanent employment.
the task
son of a laundry-woman.
to resign
Only because of his long
5
his commission.
be emphasised that
for
were not unusual
the early
the above-mentioned
There was also
joiners.
1
SS
how
the
took
illustration
is
care
of
a good
Samann's case
dauernd
"...
diagnosed
he
untauglich
as
Although
was
its
members.
of
"...
Samann
that
"
Himmler
Waffen-SS,
ordered
fUr die Allgemeine-SS und
Schutzstaffel
Zugehörigkeit
Seine
ist.
zur
SS
der
zu entlassen
nicht aus
in
kept
Totenkopfrinq
safekeeping
and
"
The
was
lediglich
ruhen.
soll
Oberabschnitt.
Letter
SS
his
home
by
of
taken
of
care
his family was
Ibid.
1944.
20
December
dated
Herff to OA__S_bd-west,
2
ObersturmfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
NUrnberg.
in
born 23.12-1903,
3.
SS Standarte,
Christian
Barth,
dated 5 June 1936.
Ibid.
5
Barth
resigned
22
February
SS
the
from
on
1937.
Ibid.
SS #68,
Ibid.
51
SS Obersturmfbhrer
Heinrich
Bottelberger
1
who committed
in
suicide
1936 when he was
unable to make a go of his business as barrel maker
2
and innkeeper.
Also included in this group is SS ObersturmfOhrer
3
Robert Bednarek who with his frequent public brawls "...
das Ansehen
der Bewegung und der Schutzstaffel
Similarly
SS ObersturmfUhrer
1938 after
it
the criminal
Karl
was shown that
code.
schwerstens
geschadigt
5
Ehmann was released
he had eight
previous
While he was an SS officer
order
to illustrate
behaviour
the social
of the early
under
Ehmann shot blindly
joiners
sentence.
at
6
were presented
in
background from which they came and the
in which they engaged.
1
Personnel File:
SS #753, born 26.11.1890,
from the SS in
convictions
the house of the judge who had handed down the latest
So many case histories
hat. "
4
It
is thus easier
to understand
why
SS ObersturmfUhrer Heinrich Bottelberger,
in Bechtheim, Hessen. BDC.
2
Comments concerning the suicide made by Bottelberger's
SS
comrades were, "Ich habe das kommen sehen. Geglaubt habe ich allerdings
er würde seine Frau und Schwiegermutter mit erschiessen. " Said by
Standartenführer
Ortsgruppenleiter
and former SS comrade, Schickert.
d'Angelo said, "Er hat das einzige getan, was ihm in seiner Lage zu
by Sturmbann 11/33,
tun übrig blieb. " Report on suicide of Bottelberger
dated 12 October 1936. Ibid.
3
SS ObersturmfOhrer Robert Bednarek,
Personnel File:
BDCSchlesien.
in Gleiwitz,
born 16.3.1899,
SS #4679
4
MOnchen. Bednarek was
Report to the Oberste Parteigericht
' and the SS in March 1939. Upon his dismissal,
NSDAP
from
the
released
Golden
Party
that
the
threatened
she,
as
court
Bednarek's
wife
if
but
to
the
left
suicide
commit
holder,
court
choice
no
Badge
was
however,
The
husband.
to
her
refused
court,
reconsider
did not reinstate
Frau
that
Bednarek
to
is
there
suggest
evidence
the sentenceg nor
Ibid.
her
threat.
out
carried
5
Karl
Ehmann,
OberstrumfUhrer
SS
SS
#2,111,
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Augsburg.
in
born 10.12.1898,
6'Ter
Staatsanwalt,
" München, dated 30 June 1934.
Ibid.
52
these men were not promoted beyond the junior
A man like
street
Bednarek was useful
battles
during the Kampfzeit in the numerous
Similarly,
members.
behaviour
was widely
obvious liability
men like
1933 he repeatedly
Ehmann and Barth,
known in their
respective
to an organization
of being the elite
reputation
but
opponents,
with communists and other political
he became an embarrassment when after
party
commissioned ranks.
force
Nazi
assaulted
whose anti-social
communitiesq
became an
1933 tried
to create a
that after
of the new Germany.
While 58.2% of the men who joined
the SS between April
1925
and December 1927 were not promoted beyond the rank of HauptsturmfUhrer,
Table
2.1 shows that
field
rank,
with
26.3% of the early
a doubt,
showed, without
German society,
social
exploited
that
during
embarrassment
lives
the Kampfzeit.
SS FUhrer who received
failed
no further
to be promoted
the flotsam
of
of Germany.
The anti-
group on the other
But once "normal"
if
or
rank.
under normal conditions.
differences,
to see what discernible
senior
lead
to
was unable
times
returned
hand was
and
they became an
of the men persisted,
to the new masters
Hauptsturmfbhrer
that
shown by the members of this
behaviour
the anti-social
general
these men represented
an element of society
behaviour
attained
that
of those officers
and productive
constructive
14.7% reaching
an additional
The case histories
joiners
It
should
be of interest
any, there were between those
promotions
beyond the rank of
did.
those
who
and
Emeran Schmid,
1
the son of domestic servants,
1
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Personnel File:
born 22.12.1901, in MUnchen. BDC.
was raised
in
Emeran Schmid, SS #34,
53
working class surroundings
of elementary
First
school,
in Munich.
he began training
After
as a goldsmith.
World War ended, Schmid was a footlose
had difficulties
in settling
In 1923 Schmid was fortunate
completing
down, he joined
eight
'
years
When the
17,
he
since
and
youth of
the Freikorps
Rossbach.
to be taken into the Reichswehr, but
a few months later "... wurde ich wegen Teilnahme am Putsch wieder
2
.,
Between 1924 and 1927 he was mostly unemployed, and it
entlassen.
3
In
was during this period that he joined the NSDAPand the SS.
1928 Schmid found employment in one of the NS printing
Even after
he reached the rank of Untersturmfbhrer
employee of the Party.
Sturmbannfbhrer,
establishments.
he remained an
In 1936, when he had reached the rank of
Schmid was taken into
the hauptamtliche
SS.
outbreak of the Second World War Schmid was an administrative
in the annexed part of what used to be Czechoslovakia.
At the
officer
But it
soon
dass eine Verwendung des Obersturmbannfbhrers
A
Schmid beim Bodenamt des Protektorates
restlos unerwünscht ist.
became apparent "...
The report
continued,
damit
abfinden
muss er sich
versagte,
zurückzukehren,
SS Fbhrer vdllig
"Da S. als hauptamtlicher
in seinen erlernten
Beruf
jegliche
Anschein
nach
zumal allem
anderwärtige
"5
However, this
Verwendung mangels Kentnisse des S. scheitert.
1
In his "Lebenslauf" Schmid claimed to have learned the trade of
is
learned
trade
the
in
his
recorded
service record
goldsmith,
Ibid.
Werkzeugschleifer.
2
"Lebenslauf"
3
He joined
4
Letter
5
Ibid.
of Schmid.
Ibid.
the NSDAPin April
to SS Personalhauptamt,
1925 with party #5,428.
Ibid.
dated 18 September 1939.
Ibid.
54
done.
than
said
was easier
ObersturmbannfOhrer,
could ill
finally
SS FOhrer in the rank of
Schmid had become accustomed to a life
on the salary
afford
taken
As a full-time
of a printer
Schmid was
or goldsmith.
by the Eher Verlag,
on as a printer
he
style
and received
a
subsidy from the SS.
The SS also encountered difficulties
with the alte KgMDfer
1
Anton Binner.
Binner, the son of a labourer, joined the NSDAPin
August of 1925 and the SS a few months later.
Hitler's
birthday
SS officer,
SturmbannfUhrer,
longer
could
"...
but by 1941, Binner,
cope with
dass eine Weiterverwendung
im Innendienst
Binner
lacked
nicht
the necessary
were essential
in order
among factions
within
tact
to cope with
the SS.
stossen
the
des Sturmbannführers
wird wenn B. seine
2
and manipulative
It
appeared
skills
the ever increasing
commissioned officer
While Schmid and Binner saw their
1
which
competition
to SS Personalhauptamt,
Binner.
Ibid.
to the SS
SS careers cut short
SS SturmbannfUhrer
Personnel File:
in Landshut. BDC.
22.2.1906,
ý'Dienstlaufbahn"of
as a
Thus the one-time Bavarian Schaffler
demoted
and sent as a junior
was
3
"Nord. "
Gebirgsdivision
2
Letter
wrote
verbessert.
wesentlich
In
the demands of the job.
Sbdost therefore
SS Nr. 789 auf Schwierigkeiten
Leistungen
that
no
of Oberabschnitt
officer
Personalhauptamt,
Binner,
on
in 1934, he was commissioned Untersturmfohrer.
1936 he became a full-time
The staff
Nine years later,
Anton Binner,
dated 17 June 1941.
because
SS #789, born
Ibid.
55
to cope with the tasks expected of a field
they lacked the abilities
Jakob Grimmingerl
SS StandartenfUhrer
officer,
Third
in
the
prominence
of relative
a trained
cabinet
Reich by pure chance.
joined
from
Munich,
maker
SS in the summer of 1925.
Although it
incident
the
reach commissioned rank,
his position
obtained
Grimminger,
the NSDAP(#789) and the
took Grimminger until
him to prominence
which propelled
It was in July 1926 that
1931 to
occurred
in 1926.
original
bearer of the Nazi movement's most hallowed symbol, the
Heinrich
Trambauer, the
Blutfahne,
had to give up his job because of poor health.
Grimminger
2
From that time on the stony-faced
took over from him.
ex-NCO of the
spectators,
that
be seen on the screen and before
World War could
First
carrying
years
ein Bestandteil
die die Partei
entwickelte.
Thus Grimminger
der äusseren
of
in Munich on
which Trambauer had carried
day in November 1923.
fateful
"...
the flag
thousands
became over the
innerlichen
und
Symbolik,
3
.,
Whereas Schmid, Binner and Grimminger came from working class
homes,
lower
attended only an elementary school,
class
middle
or
learn
to
a trade,
proceeded
attained
closer
to their
and owed whatever position
following
in
SS,
the
the
membership
look because it
does not fit
the established
1
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
born 25.4.1895, in Augsburg. BDC.
then
they later
case warrants
pattern
a
of the
Jakob Grimminger, SS #135,
2
in honour of Grimminger's 50th birthday, Deutsche
Article
Allgemeine Zeitung (Berliner Abendausgabe), 25 April 1942.
3Völkischer
Beobachter, 24 April 1942, "Jakob Grimminger 50
Grimminger married in 1936 at the age of 44, and worked,
Jahre alt
Blutfahne,
to
the
he
required
a
municipal
as
not
carry
was
whenever
in
charge
of settling
veterans claims.
officer
welfare
56
early
joiners.
StandartenfUhrer
have become a successful
himself
to National
conclusion
that
university
studies.
legal
National
Socialist.
turning
He joined
twenty
SS.
are most impressive.
some
rather
-
La
Between April
senior
later
Machtergreifung
Reich:
Dokumentarische
im
in the pre-1933
1933
1925 and February
appointments
-
in the party.
in 1926, Leiter
He
der Rechtsabteilung
der H. J.
des NSD Studentenbundes
in
In 1932, at the age of 27, he was made a member of the
Hitler's.
Sozialismus
in April
he became a
thereafter
Hessen-Nassau from 1928 to 1931, GaufUhrer
a
and
year
,
the proclamation
for
he was known
the NSDAP (#694)
His activities
fOr Hessen-Nassau in 1931, and ReichsfUhrer
1931 and 1932.2
was a foregone
his studies
- shortly
Ortsgruppenleiter
was stellvertretender
der Gauleitung
it
of Frankfurt.
Ruehle had completed
member of the newly established
he held twelve
father,
professional
In 1928, at the age of 23, Ruehle completed his
month after
Nazi Party
he had not committed
the Gymnasium in preparation
the son would enter
But even before
as an active
man even if
With his doctor
doubt,
would without
He came from a well-to-do
Socialism.
at the University
studies
1925 -a
professional
family.
upper-middle-class
Gerhard Ruehle
1
he was promoted to the Reichstag.
Ruehle compiled
Darstellung
After
the Nazi study Das Dritte
des Aufbaues der Nation,
and after
book
Rasse
brought
he
the
Laws
NUrnberg
the
und
out
of
3 In 1939, by
he
StandartenfOhrer,
then a 34-year-old
-Recht.
1
SS #290,
2
his
Gerhard Ruehle,
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Weinenden b. Stuttgart.
born 23.3.1905,
Ruehle's "Lebenslauf"
contains 4 typed Dages outlining
functions.
Ibid.
numerous party
3
Bracher, Sauer, Schulz, Die nationalsozialistische
p. 46 9 999.
Maq_ýýýýs
57
to the German Foreign Office.
transferred
gives no further
information
Ruehle's personnel file
his post-1939 SS or political
concerning
career.
In January 1942, at the time when Hitler
serious
talked
set-backs
mentioned
Graf and Julius
ready for
knocks. "
inner
about the old days, and
of the men who had been around him some twenty years earlier.
He especially
Ulrich
in Russia, he reminisced
encountered his first
Schaub.
Joachim Fest wrote
circle
during
Julius
He spoke of them as "...
some day things
and knew that
revolution,
1
the names of Emil Maurice,
of these men that
Schreck,
men who were
hard
to
come
would
made up Hitler's
Kampfzeit:
the early
Auch der bevorzugte Spiessgesellen-Typus
in seiner engsten
"Chauffeureska"
die
derbe
Umgebung,
persönlichen
und primitive
der Schaub, Schreck, Graf oder Maurice, spiegelte
forciert
dieses Resentiment /R-itlers
Bürgerhass7-, das ngr von wenigen
jurchbrochen
konnte.
Zeit
werde-n
auf
einzelnen
The men whom Fest referred
Typus, " were also
early
in
SS
the
who reached general rank
of
3
Schaub was the only member of Hitler's
Julius
former
to stay with
circle
German dictator's
on 22 April
1
Bullock,
Hitler,
his
adjutant
ubiquitous
1945 after
Spiessgesellen-
joiners
the corps_ d'elite.
inner
to as "bevorzugte
Hitler
-Fbhrer
only
until
left
the very end.
The
the FUhrerbunker
had decided to stay in the beleaguered
p. 341.
2
1973), p. 426.
(Frankfurt/M
Eine Biographie
Joachim Fest, Hitler:
inner
FUhrer's
Speer,
the
to
Of men like Hanfstaengl
make
and
who were able
"
ist.
die
"Sie
fremd
Welt,
kommen
Hitler
mir
said,
aus einer
circle,
3
SS ObergruppenfUhrer
Julius Schaub, SS #7,
Personnel File:
born 20.8.1898ý in MOnchen. BDC.
58
German capital.
Ulrich
mythology,
Gaf,,
after
of land
first
was Hitler's
was accredited
Graf,, whose father
parcel
2
with saving Hitler's
eked out a meagre living
in Swabia, joined
learning
bodyguard,
the miller's
trade.
city
ranking
of Munich.
met regularly
servant
He remained
he was dismissed
1925, belonging
civil
for
his
army at the age of 18
health,
in the municipal
and given the position
administration
in the employ of the city
involvement
until
in the Novemberputsch.
to the group of former
in the Torbrgu
of a small
He was released from the army in
1904 with the rank of sergeant due to ill
of a lower
on 9 November 1923.3
as a proprietor
the Bavarian
4
life
who, in Nazi
beer cellar
"Stosstrupp
Hitler"
near the Isartor
of the
1923, when
In April
members that
5
in Munich,
'Fest,
Hitler,
p. 1008; see also, Hugh Trevor-Roper,, The Last
(London 1947), p. 111.
Days of Adolf Hitler
In 1938 Hitler
made a
in which he bequeathed on Schaub a legacy of 10,.,000 RM, and an
will
in 1953, was found
annuity of 6,000 RM. The will,
which came to light
by an electrician
who worked on the underground cables of the chancellary
Robert Payne, The Life and Death of Adolf
shortly
after the fall
of Berlin.
(New York 1973), p. 349.
Hitler
2
SS BrigadefOhrer
Personnel File:
Ulrich Graf, SS #26, born
6.7.1878,
in Bachhagel, Schwaben. BDC.
3.
Vblkischer
Beobachter,,
6 July
1938.
According
to the Nazi
story Graf was severely wounded at the Feldherrnhalle
when the police
It was claimed that Graf threw
opened fire on the Nazi insurgents.
himself on Hitler,
thereby getting hit by the bullets
aimed at Hitler.
See also, Payne, Life and Death of Adolf Hitler,
p. 180.
4
In the post-war literature
on National Socialism Graf has
been referred
to as either a butcher or butcher's
consistently
Bullock,
Hitler,
apprentice.
p. 56; Hbhne, The Order, p. 20; Werner
der NSDAP (Frankfurt
1965), p. 357; Fest,
Maser, Frbhgeschichte
In
his
199.
SS
"Lebenslauf"
Hitler,
personnel file
p.
and his handwritten
to Graf ever having learned the trade of butcher,
there is no reference
butcher's
been
having
a
apprentice.
or of
5
Hbhne,, The Order, p. 22.
59
Graf was among the first
founded
to respond to the call
the new Stabswache.
position
of prominence
Ratsherr
of Munich,
as a civil
took over "Uschla"
in Munich,
never again
claim
Reichstag,
for
eligibility
Graf was named assistant
Graf lived
life
a retiring
a civil
service
to Walter Buch when he
in 1926.
at Harthauserstrasse
temporary
94
prominence on special
'
The man who held the coveted
2
Maurice.
Maurice who was described
11
watchmaker by trade
and a cutthroat
SS membership number 2 was Emil
"Saalschlachthero
a
as
by profession
in establ i shi ng wi th Li eutenant Kl i ntzsch the "...
der damaligen
Partei,
He was one of Hitler's
circle
and reinstated
(Untersuchungs-und-Schlichtungs-Ausschuss)
from which he emerged into
anniversaries.
small
rose to any
He was made a
impotent
the
of
a member
In addition
Aside from this,
however,
in the Nazi hierarchy.
so he could
servant
pension.
Graf,
of Schreck when he
aus dem sich
closest
Maurice was the first
secretary
,
was instrumental
Versammlungschutz
dann die SA entwickelt
companions,
of men who addressed
A
Hitler
to Hitler
,3 and a
5
hat. .,
belonged
to
the
extremely
and
with
the familiar
"Du. "
helped
the
Landsberg
and
at
I
in
1938
Press
Nazi
in
the
and
Graf was prominently
up
written
See,
birthday
65th
60th
his
1943 when he celebrated
respectively.
and
1938;
July
9
7
(Berliner
Ausgabe)
also,
Beobachter
Vblkischer
and
Vblkischer Beobachter (Berliner
Schwarze Korps, 10 July 1943.
Ausgabe) 6 July 1943, and. Das
2
born
#2,
SS
Maurice,
Emil
OberfUhrer
SS
Personnel File:
19.1.1897, in Westermoor. BDC.
3
4
Fest,
Hitlere
Payne, Life
p. 199.
and Death of Hitler,
5
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Maurice.
Personnel File:
196.
p.
of Emil Maurice,
dated 15 March 1937.
60
imprisoned
Hitler
refounding
of the NSDAPMaurice
It
the initial
with
was in 1928 that
of Mein Kampf.
once more became Hitler's
between Maurice
of relations
Hitler's
niece
niece with
chauffeur
Geli
Maurice
could
Raubal.
in rather
only
and Hitler
According
to accounts
compromising
save himself
bond of friendship
the height
beside
The reason for the
Hitler
surprised
his
from which the
4
Although
out of a window.
circumstanceS3
by jumping
seems to have prevailed
of the Rbhm crisis,
Hitler.
chauffeur.
appears to have been
the Fbhrer dismissed Maurice from the inner circle
a special
the
dass ich mich wieder ganz meinem
"...
Geschäft widmete, das ich heute noch inne habe. 2
cooling
After
between the two men became somewhat
the relationship
with the result,
strained
typing
some six years
later,
after
this
incident,
between them.
During
Maurice reappeared
He is accused by some of having
been the murderer of
5
Edmund Heines, the homosexual SA Obergruppenfbhrer
from Silesia,
and
6
is,
Mein
Kampf.
the one-time proofreader
There
of Father Stempfle,
of
however, no concrete evidence which links
1
Maurice
held party
2
'Lebenslauf"
#39.
Ibid.
of Emil Maurice.
3
Bullock wrote in his Hitler:
he
fury
himself
beside
when
with
was
his
Emil
Maurice,
chauffeur,
allowed
Payne wrote in The Life and Death of
discovered
in
he
Geli
with rage when
p. 225.
4
5
6
p. 389.
Fest,, Hitler,
Reitlinger,
Maurice with either
Ibid.
A Study in Tyranny, that "Hitler
had
discovered that she /Geli/
rl- p. 342;
her
love
to
to make
....
Hitler,
that "Hitler
exploded
the arms of Emil Maurice
p. 361.
The SS, p. 64.
Konrad Heiden,
The Fbhrer;
Hitler's
Rise to Power (Boston 1944),
61
murder.
affair
'
If
Hitler
Geli
with
to hold
it.
behalf,
thereby
The first
or for
the murder of Father
On the contrary,
Hitler
in which Hitler
either
Stempfle,
intervened
twice
loyalty
showing considerable
instance
Maurice,
held a grudge against
towards
for his love
he did not continue
on Maurice's
his former
companion.
came to the aid of Maurice was at
the time when it
was discovered that SS man #2 was "... ohne Zweifel
2
Abstammung..
This fact was discovered in a routine
nicht-arischer
racia
dismiss
check on Maurice when he married
Maurice
dassi ndiesem
k6nne. ,3
Hitler
from the SS immediately,
einzigen
Ausnahmefall
While Himmler accepted
selbst
Hinsicht
das Recht hat,
bestimen,
zu
SS jedoch
hat heute und in aller
I
Maurice
auch für
Himmler wanted to
but "Der FUhrer entschied,
the fact
" he strongly
in 1935.
...
"...
in der SS verbleiben
dass lediglich
Adolf
die SS eine Ausnahme in blutlicher
emphasized:
Zukunft
"Kein ReichsfÜhrer-
die Berechtigung
in den
"...
Heines
Edmund
that
Reitlinger's
was taken
statement
Weber
Christian
Maurice
into one of the waiting
Emil
and
cars, where
brought
Heines
to
"
disputed
by
Hbhne
is
that
him,
was
who stated
shot
he was
Stadelheim prison in Munich where he was held in Cell 483 until
1934
by
the
30
June
hours
in
the
of
members
of
shot
early evening
H8hne's statement is based on
The Order, pp. 117-118.
Leibstandarte.
1.
Court
State
Proceedings
Munich
the
to
the list
of
prison,
of entrants
held in Munich in July 1956.
Trial
Munich, and the Sepp Dietrich
in
involved
the
Maurice
fact
that
Reitlinger
the
murder
was
questioned
fact
that
by
the
his
He
Stempfle.
Father
viewpoint
substantiated
of
/thaC/
have
"...
the
Hitler
also
took
swine
any action against
never
HTtler
Roffmann,
"
Heinrich
Stempfle.
Father
my
was
my
good
murdered
Friend (London 1955), p. 76. The above statement is found in Reitlinger,
The SS, p. 66.
2
des
Rasse-und
Chef
the
by
Himmler
to
Taken from a letter
written
"
Personnel
"Secret.
dated
August
1935,
31
Siedlunqshauptamt,
and marked
Emil Maurice.
File:
3
Ibid.
62
blutlichen
Forderungen
"1
der SS Ausnahmen zubewilligen.
He, therefore,
issued the order that while Maurice could remain in the SS, none of his
offspring
.42
elite
would ever be allowed
to wear the black
formation.
The second instance
chauffeur
Rally
Maurice,
that
in which Hitler
in September 1935.
occurred
71-year-old
in full
man over the head.
It
became impatient
that
the old man was a party
the incident
the SS Gericht,
Strafverfahren
öff en tlichen
obviously
during
was
appears that
Mercedes fast
and beat the man into
When two months after
justice,
It
promoted to Oberfbhrer
and beat a
trencheon
the old man could
Maurice
a short while
later.
The
of unconsciousness.
the man wrote
on higher
not
Maurice
did
member
not help Maurice's
Intress es von der Staatsanwalts
charges against
the Nurnberg Party
enough.
a state
Maurice
chaft
case.
for
to Himmler asking
authority,
den
SS-Standartenführer
gegen
Not only were all
his erstwhile
protected
took a rubber
uniform,
get out of the path of Maurice's
fact
of Germany's
uniform
wrote,
ist
das
mangels
eingestellt
dropped,
"...
.---
.3
but he was also
4
1
that only
An appendix to the letter
Ibid.
gave instructions
included
be
to
be
that
letter
to
two copies of this
one was
made,
were
in sealed form, and that one was to be
in Maurice's
RuSHA file,
Siedlungshauptamt.
des
Rasse-und
Chef
form,
the
deposited,
in
with
also
sealed
file
in
Maurice's
included
be
marked
to
The third
person
copy was
been
have
the
found
the
The
"Secret"
must
author
copy which
and sealed.
in
Maurice's
The
file.
Maurice's
to
copy
third
personnel
copy, attached
BDC.
file
the
in
the
RuSHA file
at
was not
2
handwriting
in
Himmler's
on a
instruction
This
was written
his
birth
him
the
of
Maurice
to
letter
on
congratulating
sent
copy of a
Ibid.
1936.
4
March
dated
first
son,
3
Ibid.
dated 24 April 1936.
Letter from SS-Gericht,
4"Dienstlaufbahn"of
Emil Maurice.
Ibid.
63
Julius
1
Schreck,
the man whom Hitler
to form a new Stabswache, was little
by Berchtold
in April
would become a tool
Bouhler
heard from after
1926 as head of the infant
Schreck was too easy going and it
was feared
of such powerful
and Franz Xavier
Schwarz.
3
SS.
Schreck lived
he died on 15 May 1936 in Munich.
he was heralded
as the "Begründer
carry
honour the first
the name "Julius
Two other
reached general
unusual
these
was sentenced
of 1951,6 the other
Ruehle,
3
by the Allied
then that
der gesamten ss. "4
They were
chapter.
description
the general
any of the early
and later
to death and executed
a 15 year
Die Nationalsozialistische
H6hne, The Order,
obscurity
was only
murder in the post-1945
war crime
at Landsberg prison
Julius
One SS
in June
in 1961.7
Schreck,
Machtergreifung,
of
SS members
by German courts.
sentence
Personnel File:
SS BrigadefUhrer
13.7.1898,
in MUnchen-Grafeling.
BDC.
Bracher,
in this
Unlike
1
2
It
he
as Philp
in relative
Staffel
who did not fit
of the SS.
received
SS members that
,5
be mentioned
charged with
conducted
appeared that
who held SS numbers under 1000 and who
should
joiner
early
two men were
proceedings
officer
Schreck Standarte.
men, much like
the average
der ersten
It
Standarte of the Munich SS would henceforth
SS officers
rank,
2
bureaucrats
party
1925
he was replaced
by other
from 1926 until
As a lasting
upon in April
called
SS #5, born
p. 837.
p. 26.
4
Himmler's "SS-Befehl, " dated 18 May 1936. Personnel File:
Schreck; see also, Völkischer
Ausgabe),
Julius
Beobachter (Berliner
dated 20 May 1936.
5
Himmler's speech at the funeral of Julius Schreck.
Copy of
the speech is included in the personnel file
of Julius Schreck.
6
Musmanno, The Eichrnann Kommandos, p. 264.
7Hermann
Langbein, Im Namen des deutschen Volkes; Zwischenbilanz
(Wien 1967. pp.
Verbrechen
der Prozesse wegen nationalsozialistischer
156-157.
64
The most unusual
intellectual
sharp-tongued
most of the early
Hbhne described
with
SS officers
'social
the
the necessary
like
Ohlendorf
engineers'
care much for
ideology
Ohlendorf
than that
the Universities
in political
the age of 18 while
Ruehle,
Ohlendorf
of Leipzig
still
farmer.
hard-boiled
.3
The type
did not
realistic,
norms of conduct.
and G6ttingen,
He joined
at the University
a student
or
of power, and was completely
and law.
science
Unlike
the Fbhrer dictatorship
was highly
represented
other
".
typical
as
.-
and organization.
from what one may term accepted
Gbttingen
2
neurotic
lower-middle-class
who provided
veneer of legality
that
attended
a typical
was Otto Ohlendorf .
SS men who came from either
of SS officer
free
know-all"'
"...
homes, Ohlendorf was the son of a well-to-do
working-class
technocrats,
joiners
of the early
from
and graduated
the SS in 1925 at
of Gbttingen.
Li ke
numerous occasions
in the NSDStB, and served on
4
In November 1936
as speaker and Schulungsleiter.
Ohlendorf
a full-time
played
accepted
an important
Ohlendorf
the rank of Hauptsturmfbhrer.
was presented
trial
position
5
role
in the Sicherheitsdienst
The most realistic
by Judge Musmanno who presided
f
a
man
of
orty,
as
The only
blemish
of his personality
SS Gruppenf0hrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Hohengelsen.
born 4.2.1907,
4
Hbhne,. The Order,
Letter
Personnel File:
5
he had
Otto Ohlendorf,
SS #880,
p. 135.
of Ohlendorf requesting
Otto Ohlendorf.
"Dienstlaufbahn"
was that
p. 234.
2
3
Musmannodescribed
" sl ender and wi th del i cate f eatures
in the perfection
Hbhne, The Order,
of Ohlendorf
over the Einsatzgruppen
defendant.
Ohlendorf
the
major
where
was
Ohl endorf
picture
with
of Ohlendorf.
1936.
18
dated
May
SS
#,
old
Ibid.
65
killed
thousand people. "
ninety
their
an air
the Brigadefbhrer
opinion
in charge of Einsatzgruppe
less
personality
dramatic
and Diplom-Kaufmann
from an upper-middle-class
D. "'
Musmanno was of the
former
the
was
police
3
Zenner,
attended
like
Ohlendorf,
in 1932.4
It
came
the Gymnasium and later
his Diplom
he was named
Kampfzeit,
1941
in
that
was
the
For
Gauredner.
became
Reichs
and
and
the early
2
Zenner,
a member
1938, was posted to eastern Europe as SS and Polizeifbhrer
5
Berlin
to
he
1942,
July
By
Minsk.
recalled
was
when
of
SD
the
since
of
the district
Weissruthenien7mit
das Land /5eneral bezirk
Zenner had
lOckenlosen
which praised
senior
In August 1925 he joined
of Cologne.
to the Nazi cause during
Reichstag
the
of
member
he were still
at Nuremberg.
Zenner.
background,
as the Nazi Party,
services
...
in the
of those Nazis tried
personality
Carl
Kaufmann from the University
SS as well
as if
In 1921, at the age of 22, he obtained
the university.
fast
would crane
Hermann
G8ring, Otto Ohlendorf stood
of
that with the exception
Another
officer
and authority
of confidence
out as the most compelling
for
at the trial
necks in order to ". .. get a good look at Ohlendorf sitting
dock exuding
his
Visitors
Netz von Polizeistationen
his services
Oberzogen.,,
Polizeifbhrer
SS
and
as
6
einem
The letter
continued:
"Wenn
1
106.
Kommandos,
Eichmann
p.
Musmanno, The
2
Minister,
Finance
Nazi
the
Schacht,,
Beside Hjalmar
one-time
defendants.
NOrnbert
the
Q.
Ohlendorf scored the highest I.
rating among
Ibid.,
p. 197.
3
born
#176,
SS
Zenner,
Carl
SS BrigadefUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
Saarlautern.
Krs.
Oberlimburg,
in
11.6.1899.,
4
Handwritten
5
6
Ibid.
"Lebenslauf"
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Letter
of Carl
Zenner.
Carl
of
from Generalkommissar
Zenner,
undated.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Weissruthenien,
dated 17 July
1942.
66
während Ihrer
10.000den
After
people
Amtstätigkeit
besonders das uns feindliche
werden konnte, dann ist
vernichtet
the war Zenner was charged with
in the Minsk area while
at Koblenz sentenced
Judentum zu
das auch Ihr Verdienst. "
the murder of several
thousand
he was SS and Polizeifbhrer.
him to 15 years
in the penetentiary.
The court
2
The Later Joiners
Himmler's
Reich is also
to make the SS the true
attempt
reflected
in the rank distribution
of the Third
elite
in Table 2.1.
high percentage
of officers
is between July
1934 and September 1939, and who reached general
raises
the question,
joined
who
who was it
that
and was able to advance to general
have that
attempt
warranted
such fast
to make the SS socially
of attracting
the old elites
the SS during
joined
rank?
promotion?
acceptable
in Germany.
the SS at such a late
What qualities
Himmler tried
First,
to incorporate
whole organizations
rank,
date
out that
in an
various
means
he created
such as the
that
did these men
Hbhne pointed
3
(EhrenfUhrer).
honorary
SS
FUhrer
the
of membership,
tried
Phase III,
The
a new form
Secondly, he
Kyffhauserbund
1
Ibid.
2
The
Langbein, Im Nanen des deutschen Volkes, pp. 156-157.
from
German
Zenner
the
light
court,
received
sentence which
relatively
der
bei
Gerichte
Haltung
"Die
Langbein
to
allgemeine
say.prompted
der Entscheidung über das Strafausmass zwingt zu dem Schluss, dass es
Fällen
den
in
Richtern
deutschen
als nicht sehr
allermeisten
von
die
in
Tausende
der
die
Mordopfer
Zahl
erschwerend angesehen wird, wenn
geht. " p. 81.
3
The honourary SS FUhrer was given an SS rank which corresponded
Along with this came the privilege
in society.
of
to his position
had
The
FOhrer
functions.
during
SS
no
the
official
uniform
wearing
SS
SS
the
function
assigned
an
membership
not
and
was
within
command
in
More
included
FOhrer
this
type
This
study.
not
of
was
number.
51
SS,
in
The
is
found
Reitlinger,
EhrenfUhrer
the
pp.
information
on
113.
and
67
into
the SS in the hope of making the newly incorporated
more favourably
old elite
inclined
organizations
associations,
toward the new regime.
into
SS FOhrer
As part of incorporating
the SS, Himmler took over the equestrian
which automatically
put a large number of socially
prominent members of German society into the black uniform of the new
1
It will be shown repeatedly in this study that the
regime's elite.
attempt to incorporate
members of certain
only in some instances.
Prussia,
Anton Freiherr
SS OberabschnittsfUhrer
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
former elites
For example, the leading
Reichswehr
of East Prussia,
Karl
Deinhard.
Apparently
officers.
comprehended what it
equestrian
officer.
horseman from East
von Hohberg und Buchwald, Rittmeister
2
a. D. and
was shot on 2 July 1934 by
The reason for
Hohberg had made some uncomplimentary
was that
proved successful
the execution
remarks about the SS to
the nobleman from East Prussia
meant to be an SS officer,
even if
had not
only an
3
1
The International
Military
Tribunal
at NOrnberg recognized the
difference
between the regular SS and the equestrian
formations when it
handed down the sentence on the SS. The court labelled
the SS as a
criminal
organization,
units. " IMT, vol. xxii,
except the "riding
p. 517.
2
Personnel File:
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Karl Deinhard, SS #6,520,
born 12.11.1892,
in Bremen. BDC.
3The
letter
Deinhard file
contains an interesting
which the widow
Freiherr
of the murdered Hohberg wrote to SS ObergruppenfUhrer
von
über
die bei uns
".
Eberstein,
Edelmann
Nachdenken
und
als
zum
... in
..
Verwirrung geratenen Begriffe
von
unter hochtönenden Phrasen stark
is a clear example of the fact that the
Recht und Anstand. " The letter
East Elbian Junker drawn into the SS were completely unaware, not only
had
joined,
but also of the true nature
they
the
type
of organization
of
Socialism.
Reitlinger
German
that
the
National
said
quite
rightly
of
"succumbed to the joys of the black uniform and the
higher society
like
Arab
has
that
they
the
realizing
eaten
were
who
not
runes,
silver
The SS, p. 51. The Hohberg
bread and salt with his enemy. " Reitlinger,
for the SS with the result
that
killing
repercussions
created unfortunate
Deinhard had to be released from the SS in 1936. Hohberg's murder was
Bach-Zelevski
discussed during the trial
of the former SS ObergruppenfUhrer
in Die Welt, 24 December 1958. Deinhard was tried for the crime in Munich
in June 1961. SUddeutsche Zeitu_ng, 19 June 1961.
68
Ten years
later
SS Sturmbannfbhrer
was head of the SS riding
Hans-Viktor
school at Hamburg until
Salviati,
prominent
to be taken
requested
3
Schbnhausen.
Chancellor,
the SS, was Gottfried
in the 1944 plot
for
That prominent
with
Edler
is
Graf von Bismarck-
discharged
4
members of the SS FUhrerkorDs could encounter
illustrated
von Daniels.
executed.
to
of havinq been
and dishonourably
He was later
the Reichsfbhrer
5
him he was suspected
Hitler,
against
from the SS in September 1944.
impeccable
who, in 1935,
rose in the SS from Untersturmf0hrer
Unfortunately
difficulties
in the
Bismarck-Schbnhausen, a descendent of the "Iron
" in nine years
Brigadefbhrer.
involved
member of German society
into
who
the outbreak of the
Second World War, was executed because of his involvement
2
abortive July 1944 plot to assassinate Hitler.
Another
1
even though their
own conduct was
by the case of SS StandartenfUhrer
Daniels
joined
the Allgemeine
SS in July
1
SS Sturmbannfbhere Hans-Viktor
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Stuttgart.
SS #277,083, born 23.8.1897,
Herbert
1935 while
von Salviati,
2
found
by
the
The most damaging evidence against Salviati
was
Himmler was so enraged by what he read
SD in his diary after his arrest.
"Ich
discharge letter,
in the diary,
that he wrote on Salviati's
ihn
das
Volksgericht
Wenn
heute
nicht verurteilt,
schon:
erkläre
denn
SS
Mann
treulosen
lasse ich Herrn Salviati
es steht
erschiessen,
als
Eid, der ihn zu besonderer
fest dass S. seinen auf den Führer geleisteten
discharge,
"
hat.
Letter
Zweifel
Treue verpflichtet,
of
gebrochen
ohne
dated 14 October 1944. Ibid.
3
Personnel File:
Schbnhausen, SS #231,947,
4
SS BrigadefUhrer
born 29.3.1901,
Gottfried
in Berlin.
Graf von BismarckBDC.
dated 1 September 1944. Ibid.;
see also,
Letter of discharge,
(Pittsburgh
1933-1945
History
Party,
The
Orlovq
of theNazi
Dietrich
1973), p. 150, n. 213.
5
SS StandartenfUhrer
Herbert Edler von Daniels,
Personnel File:
in
Arolson.
BDC.
31.3.1895,
born
#258,002,
SS
69
he was employed as a senior
In 1939 he enlisted
LeibesUbun2en
1944.
war until
General
Unfortunately
for
the communist-directed
be posted
to the front
der dem Freiheitskommittee
Daniels,
auf die Sippe gebracht
in
for
the sins
to the front.
49-year-old
he
-
out of the
he had a brother,
at Stalingrad
Lieutenant-
and shortly
Freiheitskommittee.
"...
there-
When this
was
um so die Schande, die sein
Generalleutnant
hat,, zu sbhnen. "l
von
That this
was not the slightest
1945 Daniels
bit
dedicated
and
interested
is understandable.
Throughout
manoeuvred to avoid a direct
In the end friends
StandartenfUhrer
for combat.
Daniels
of his brother,
December 1944 and January
posting
of Berlin.
kept him essentially
angehörige
SS FUhrer at the homefront
atoning
the University
of Himmler, he ordered that v. Daniels should
Bruder,
loyal
This
who was captured
drawn to the attention
immediately
with
he
head
des
Amtes
was
made
-
education
im SS Hauptamt.
von Daniels,
joined
after
servant
in the Waffen SS, and because of his profession
in physical
was a specialist
fbr
civil
were able to post him, the
to a Panzergrenadierschule
to prepare
him
2
The determination
members of the old elite
with
incorporate
Himmler
to
proceeded
which
into
groups
the SS, at times even against
the
following
by
illustrated
the
is
Sicherheitshauptamt,
the
case.
advice of
3
lieutenant-colonelg
Ernst von Kretschmann was a retired
a Stahlhelm
1933,
later
1921
from
to
and
member
a Kyffhauserbund
member.
He
1
Letter from Chef des SS Hauptamtes to SS Personalhauptamt,
dated 8 November 1944. Ibid.
2
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of v. Daniels.
Ibid.
3
SS BrigadefUhrer
Ernst von Kretschmann,
Personnel File:
12.11.1874,
in
Seekreis.
Hergisdorf,
Mansfelder
born
#277,320,
SS
BDC.
70
belonged
Freiin
von Esebeck,
had a successful
the former
his wife
military
career.
He spent four
Kyffhauserbund,
the
member of
der
NSDAPnoch irgend
weder
gehört
lengthy
report
innerlichen
concluded
Umstellung
with
as a subaltern
World War.
Kretschmann was absorbed
Er
Deutschnationalen.
an. "
derselben
Gliederung
einer
Kretschmann
informed Himmler that
der Typ des reaktionären
ist
years
during the First
into the SS in 1936, the Sicherheitshauptamt
Kretschmann "...
zu Eulenburg.
Gr8fin
in China, and he won the Pour le merite
When, as a ranking
His mother was the
German nobility.
to the well-established
The
assessment "Von einer
the negative
ist
des v. K. zum Nationalsozialismus
nichts
zu
Weise
ihm
in
keiner
kann
Zuverlässigkeit
Eine
merken.
nat. -soz
1
Himmler
"
the
bescheinigt
In
adverse assessment
werden.
spite of
admitted
Kretschmann to the SS, promoted him three
elevated
him to the rank of Brigadefbhrer
The last
and general
senior
late
five
case histories
date.
have shown who was able to reach
in the caliber
promoted and those who were, was clearly
outlined
On the one hand there
above.
Koehl referred
life
normal
to,
they joined
at a relatively
to be
failed
the
who
men
of
revealed
in the life
"bruisers"
the
were
those who had a difficult
even within
in 1937,2 and
1942.3
in
rank in the SS although
The difference
times
the narrow confines
stories
whom Robert
time in establishing
of the untere
a
Mittelstand
1
27
dated
Kretschmann,
on v.
Report of Sicherheitshauptamt
1937
1
May
NSDAP
the
joined
finally
on
Kretschmann
November 1936.
Ibid.
5,713,240.
with party number
2
1937,
January
30
Obersturmbannfbhrer
on
He was promoted
1937.
November
9
OberfUhrer
1937,
20
April
on
and
StandartenfUhrer
on
Ibid.
Kretschmann.
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of v.
3
Ibid.
or
71
the Arbeiter
milieu,
while on the other hand there were men, who were
families,
members of well-established
that made up the pre-1918 elite
of Germany.
It
is not the intention
some prominent
SS prior
persons
of the Erbprinz
March of 1930, or that
in April
like
phenomenon.
numerous Adolf
background
Beckers,
in their
resulted
- could
with the social
1
For the lone upper class
3a
there
of Freiherr
von Eberstein,
there
of anti-social
Erbprinz
SS ObergruppenfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Arolson.
SS #2,139, born 13.5.1896,
2
were
behaviour
from the SS in 1936.6
1
Pyrmont,
be found in the
in
joined
SS
the
who
2
SS
to
the
von Eberstein
who came
whose long histories
dismissal
that
were several Emil Fausts,
4
For every SS officer
coming
of Koblenz.
the Erbprinz
5
elites
Yet the SS officer
of the Freiherr
man known as the "Schl9ger"
from the social
to ignore the fact
zu Waldeck und Pyrmont
1929, was a rare
representative
writer
former
members
of
-
to the Machtergreifung.
background
of this
SS ObergruppenfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Halle.
SS #1,386, born 14.1.1894,
Karl
zu Waldeck und
Freiherr
Eberstein,
von
3
(the
#2,3
SS
Faust,
Emil
SS ObersturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
3.3.1899,
born
damage),
due
fire
to
and water
next two numbers not readable
BDC.
in Oberlahnstein.
4
by
trade.
blacksmith
1929
April
in
SS
joined
the
a
Faust who
was
but
Kampfzeit
during
the
fights
for
His reputation
was an asset
picking
for
intolerable
became
He
1933.
January
liability
after
proved to be a
Ibid.
1936.
in
both
from
dismissed
SS
the Party and the
and was
5
Adolf
SS ObersturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
Hessen. BDC.
in Friedberg,
born 15.2.1900,
6
Becker,
SS #256005
began
to
He
like
Lebenslauf
17
a novel.
Becker's
reads
page typed
He
in
he
behaviour
traits
school.
primary
still
was
while
show anti-social
lauded
be
lawlessness
to
his
be
came
to
although
misfit,
a
continued
for
1929
1921
he
days.
Between
was convicted
and
during the Freikorps
the
Lebenslauf
his
He
with
concluded
occasions.
several
on
crimes
various
durch
Angst,
die
1935
innere
im
jetzt
Jahre
drückt
"Mich
noch
sentence
Frau
Stellung
und
meiner
mit
und
zu
verlieren,
Vorstrafen
meine
meine
"
Becker
die
Strasse
Sohn
was
gesetzt
zu
werden.
Jahre
auf
2
alten
meinem
Ibid.
he
1935
in
SS
convicted
extortion.
the
of
from
was
when
released
72
The investigation
the time period
in which he joined
between seniority
relationship
were to illustrate
seen that
poses in his
Third
Reich,
analysis
which
VerhAltnis
standing,
used in this
chapter
relationship
between promotion
would suggest
in the SS, than between seniority
SA
von
und
education
and occupation
stratification
of the
factors
and occupational
quantitative
is necessary
question,
the qualitative
there
was a more visible
that
and social
Kater
that
von 1925 bis 1939, "
While further
can be made to answer this
1
Michael Kater,
in der Sozialgeschichte
für
Vierteljahresschrift
ý-1975), p. 340.
was
belonged to
the question
in the social
role
be asked here.
of the educational
an attempt
Therefore,
in social
an important
can also
1934, also
des Nationalsozialismus
the old differences
to play
continued
July
after
"Zum gegenseitigen
article,
SS in der Sozialgeschichte
of whether
From the case histories,
number of the men who reached the general
in German society.
recent
to
the SS, had shown that there was no
and rank.
and who had joined
61ites
in relation
who was and who was not promoted in the SS, it
an overwhelming
rank category
previous
of the rank held by the officer
position
held prior
before
data
to enrolment
and rank.
Verhältnis
"Zum gegenseitigen
von SA und SS
19392'
1925
bis
des Nationalsozialismus
von
Sozial und Wirtschaftsgeschichte,
vol . 62
Chapter III
THE GEOGRAPHICORIGINS OF THE SS FUNRERKORPS
In the literature
to the geographic
origins
on the SS very little
attention
of the SS members.
Where this
SS membership has been discussed at all,
recruits
" um grossen Teil
sich
verleiten
Concerning
Steiner,
liessen
the geographic
town-dwel 1ers;
ing the regional
writes,
5
origin
Hbhne suggests that
mark on the bourgeoisie
Steiner,
after
Holstein,
Steiner,
from the peasantry
the war, went so far
Felix
90% of the Waffen
Totenkopfverbgnde
the
the
of
men of
1
NeusU'ss-Hunkel,
Felix
wrote that
"
officers,
remained an army of peasants and artisans.
the Lander Schleswig
2
2
die
aber auch Städter
of the Verfbqungstruppe
land.
the
on
they came primarily
that
on the land.
it
have been
auf 12 Jahre zu verpflichten.
never made its
VerfUgungstruppe
3
sich
origin
SS commanders were raised
11
...
waren es Bauernburschen,
SS Obergruppenfbhrer,
the erstwhile
aspect of the
Thus NeusUss-Hunkel wrote of the Toten_kop
vague and unsubstantiated.
...
the conclusions
has been paid
the
and the
"
4
Concern-
H8hne
who saw no future
as to claim
Lower Saxony, Frankonia
that
in
Saar,
the
and
Die SS, p. 55.
Die Armee der Ge9chteten
pp. 96-97.
3
(G8ttingen
1963).
German text Hbhne used the term Grosstgdter
In the original
Orden
H6hne,
Der
town-dweller.
translated
Barry
unter
Richard
as
which
1967). p. 413.
dem Totenkopf (Gbtersloh
4
5
Hbhne, The Order,
Ibid.,
p. 447.
136.
p.
73
74
one out of every three farmer's
Statements
to substantiate
as to provide
join
there
statements
on the geographic
origins
between 1925 and 1939.
the SS at different
did recruits
during
times
and the branch in which he eventually
Before
will
from specific
the pre-war
origins
be considered.
regions
in Germany
and second, was
of the SS applicant
however, the general
of the FUhrerkorps
According
of the. SS
to be answered
years?
origin
as well
served?
these questions,
considering
of the geographic
The questions
between the geographic
a relationship
This study
these general
or correct
are first,
chapter
of the. SS Fbhrerkor2s.
information
specific
FUhrer who joined
in this
such as these are not based upon a systematic
of the personnel files
examination
can serve
sons went into the Verfogungstruppe.
1
picture
between 1925 and 1939
data of the sampled
to the birthplace
SS FUhrer,
line,
60.2% came from north of the Main river dividing
and
2
29.7% from south of it.
This division
corresponds to the general
population
distribution
of Germany.
were Germans born in Austria,
A look at the geographic
the Sudentenland,
origins
10.1% of the officers
Furthermore,
in
another
or
of the SS Fbhrer
country.
3
in terms of the
1
Leistungen
"Die
Taken from the article
reformerischen
entitled,
der ehemaligen Waffen SS, " in Wiking-Ru_f, No. 4,1955,
p. 12. Wikingfounded by the former SS Gruppenfuhrer
Ruf is a monthly publication
It soon took on the character as the official
Gille in 1951.
organ of
(Hilfsgemeinschaft
HIAG
auf
the post-war SS veterans'
organization
Kurt Tauber, Beyond Eagle and Swastika; German
Gegenseitigkeit).
347,351,
1,
1967).
(Middleton
1945,2
pp.
Nationalism
vol.
vols.,
since
357.
2
The criteria
discussed in chapter
region
3
SS officers
category.
for the regional
I. p. 17.
division
of Germany were
born in these areas were classified
in the special
75
population
22.4% in towns,
centres,
30.3% of the officers
shows that
centres,
in
37.1%
and
rural
were born in urban
1
areas.
Table 3.1 shows a
Table 3.1
finer
breakdown of the regions
towns and rural
seen that
areas from which the sampled officers
the north provided more officers
Similarly,
south.
of North and South Germany into
was twice
that
the period
it
in this
considered
that
study,
the overall
northern
2 to 1 ratio
contribution
hold throughout
discernible
or are there
delineated
time periods
It can be
to the corps than did the
Does this
of the southern.
in the six
patterns
is apparent
came.
cities,
joining
Table 3.2 shows
earlier?
Table 3.2
during
joined
centered
primarily
this
time periods.
in Bavaria,
period
It
during
was
pattern
rate
II,
Phase
of
prevailed
1
during
North Germans began to come into
than South Germans.
The table
until
the latter
at 2 to 1.
part
during
shows that
Main
the
born
river
of
north
were
It was not until
January 1931, that the ratio
became established
of Phase 1. between
the second part
50% of the sampled officers
southern recruits
Regions who
is seen that
Thus it
it.
born
44%
of
to
south
who were
as compared
beginning
and Special
South Germans outnumbered North Germans
1928 and December 1930, that
the SS at a faster
South,
1925 to December 1927, when the SS was a formation
of 2 to 1.
by a ratio
January
each of the six
April
the period
from the North,
of Fbhrer
the percentage
of northern
the
to
This distribution
of Phase III,
when the ratio
100,000
people,
are urban centres with
In this study cities
100,000,
10,000
between
areas
rural
and
and
towns with a population
17.
I,
10,000.
See
p.
chapter
under
population
a
centres with
was
76
Table 3.1
Breakdown of the Geographic
AREA
NORTH
for
the Total
Corps Sample
TYPE OF COMMUNITY
PERCENTAGE
City
21.2
Town
14.2
Rural
24.8
TOTAL NORTH
SOUTH
Origins
60.2
City
9.1
Town
8.3
Rural
12.3
TOTAL SOUTH
29.7
SPECIAL REGION
10.1
TOTAL
100.0
77
(A
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78
by the influx
somewhat offset
It
can be seen that
the Sudentenland
and other
of men from Austria
the percentage
foreign
and Sudentenland.
born in Austria,
of officers
countries
rose only
from
slightly
3.3% in the 1925 to 1927 period to 8.4% for the years 1934 to 1936.
It
was during
1939,, that
the second part
the percentage
rose to 25%.
Austrians
This
of Phase III,
was undoubtedly
and Sudeten Germans who, since
territories
of independence
test
the areas from which the SS officers
.
001 level
indicatinq
that
variables.
differences
in
joining
the
seen
1
A more detailed
for
of
of their
the SS without
the years
between the three
having
phases and
beyond
came proved to be significant
is a relationship
there
of the Chi-Square
An examination
differences.
due to the influx
to Germany first.
A Chi-Square
the
Region category
the annexation
to the Reich in 1938 were able to join
to immigrate
1937 to September
in the Special
of officers
sudden increase
January
table
between these two
indicates
in Table 3.2 were real
patterns
joining
breakdown of the north-south
1925 to 1939 is provided
the
that
pattern
The table
in Table 3.3.
shows
Table 3.3
the north-south
the differences
marginal
takes
after
place
The information
birthplaces.
the officers'
that
origin
regional
Fbhrerkorps
the
sampled
of
between urban centres,
December 1930.
between North
1
The Chi-Square
The real
3.3
Table
provides
which
towns, and rural
difference
is
areas are
in the joining
and South Germany regardless
tabulations
in terms of
of whether
rate
the
255.
2,
Table
Appendix
A.
p.
are shown,
79
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clý
C)
cy;
CD
4--)
Ln
0
>)
cM
r-
(cs
4--)
>-ý
C:
M
r-
0
:3
4---)
3:
F-
LLI
cr-I
FLLJ
F-
0
-.:3
CD
V)
C)
S-
4--)
0
FI
-0
V)
L)
r-
cli
V)
ca- (31
V) 0-1
M
4--)
0
F--
80
the candidate
rural
was born in a large
district.
This
birthplaces
A Chi-Square test
joined
an officer
lending
examination
of Table 3.3.
always hold true.
growing
increasing
is established
continues
for
until
Germans offset
shown that
extent
Socialism
that
the first
in Germany, as manifested
the SS.
in favour
influx
of Austrian
north-south
It
that
ratio.
influences
It
in
an
is during
of North Germans
of the population
and Sudeten
has also been
the difference
in the north-south
lies
than the size
With the
This predominance of North Germans
time.
1930 the factor
rather
of South Germans.
the 2 to 1 ratio
the established
did not
in September 1930, one detects
at the polls
rate of the officers
birthplaces
born counterparts
phase, 1925 to 1930 the SS
1937 when the large
after
drawn from a visual
of North Germans joining
percentage
the 1931 to 1933 period
joining
the initial
of National
breakthrough
birthplaces.
the 2 to 1 predominance of
southern
was made up to a large
the party's
of their
the joining
proved not to be
centre
to the conclusion
over their
During
popularity
of their
of independence between phase during which
can be said that
born officers
or came from a
influenced
than the size
rather
support
In summary it
FUhr
was the location
and type of population
significant
northern
it
North or South Germany that
of the SS applicants
pattern
in a Kleinstadt,
that
suggests
in either
city,
location
centres
in the
of their
in which they
were born.
At this
Fbhrtný ýrs
will
point
of the study
be looked
1
The Chi-Square
the north-south
distribution
at in terms of the particular
tabulations
of the
branch in which
256.
3.
Appendix
A.
Table
p.
are shown,
81
Table 3.4 shows the north-south
the officer
chose to serve.
in relation
to the branches of the SS.
It
is readily
distribution
seen that the
Table 3.4
north-south
by the Allgemeine
SS and the VerfUgungstruppe,
and Sicherheitsdienst
corps sample.
other
pattern,
Compared to the distribution
the TV had the highest
percentage
percentage
of the
patterns
of southerners
in its
64.9% from North Germany and only
the highest
25.2% from South Germany reflected
lowest
Main
the
the
and
of
born north
between
The SD distribution
of northerners.
hand, with
on the other
from that of the total
shows an almost 50-50 distribution
The TV pattern
lowest
the
ranks and
reflected
the Totenkopf
while
which differ
show patterns
North and South Germany.
Branches,
corps sample is most closely
of the total
ratio
of officers
percentage
percentage
of officers
born south
of the river.
Table 3.4 also
birthplaces
into
fell
the percentage
showed that
Region category
the Special
Whereas 10.1% of the total
branch.
should
be exercised
that
category
mean that
verb9nde.
policies
this
category,
only
fell
from these regions
Rather the difference
in those
branches.
But some caution
of icers.
into
The
distribution.
the Special
Region
does not necessarily
VT
12.8%
the
to
officers
of
compared
as
fewer applicants
5.6% of the Totenkopf
countries5
of this
in the interpretation
5.6% of the TV officers
Austrians,
SD
9.9%
the
to
of
as compared
VerfUgungstruppe
12.8%
the
of
and
officers
fact
into
fell
varied
whose
from branch to
corps sample were either
Sudeten Germans, or Germans born in other
Fbhr
of officers
enrolled
is due to the different
Table 3.2 has clearly
in the Totenkopfpromotion
shown that
the
82
Table 3.4
Distribution
over the Four SS Branches
of the Geographic Regions from which the Fbhrer Came
BRANCHES
REGION
Total
Corps
A/SS
TV
SD
VT
NORTH
60.2
59.4,
49.4
64.9
58.8
SOUTH
29.7
29.9
45.0
25.2
28.4
SPECIAL
REGIONS
10.1
10.7
5.6
9.9
12.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
TOTAL
83
majority
and 1939.
Special
This meant that
Region candidates
commissioned
received
their
commissioned
Austrians
who
the various
test
the Allgemeine
applicants
for
men who
is no doubt that
the
to be
route
than
much quicker
of independence
for
account
for
available
to
the different
than that
rather
fewer
KL guard duty.
between the branches of the SS
SS) and the areas from which they came proved
.
001 level.
(TV).
Most of the variability
That is,
Regions served in this
grounds,
while
there
branch than would be expected.
from the Special
there
avenues of promotion
by the Totenkopfverbgnde
on statistical
to qualify
number of prominent
Region category
beyond the
the North and Special
study the
to become guards in the Q (concentration
elected
in the Special
to be significant
this
than two years
and Sudeten Germans volunteered
(omitting
in this
reach the rank of UntersturmfUhrer
could
A Chi-Square
provided
to be included
on enrolment,
and VerfUgungstruppe
percentages
the SS between 1937
who took the Junkerschulen
applicants
In my opinion,
Toten
had less
SS commissions
colleagues
camp).
in order
joined
Aside from a certain
rank.
VerfOgungstruppe
their
from these regions
of applicants
fewer officers
was
from
branch than would be expected
from the South in
were more officers
The larger
percentage of officers
Regions in the VerfUgungstruppe
(VT) also contributed
to the statistically
significant
relationships
between branch and area
which was found to exist.
The preceding
Germany outnumbered
Furthermore
they
analyses
have shown that
those born in the southern
have shown that
1
The Chi-Square
tabulations
the north-south
officers
part
born in northern
by a ratio
distribution
of 2 to 1.
varied
257.
4,
Appendix
A,
Table
p.
are shown,
84
from branch to branch.
It
remains to be seen whether there was a
between the size and/or location
relationship
in which the officers
centres
were born and the branch in which they chose to
Table 3.5 shows this
serve.
of the population
distribution
of the sampled SS FUhrer and
Table 3.5
the branch in which they served.
TV had the highest
1owest percentage
percentage
of
The SD distribution
it
urban and rural
however,
it
can be seen that
of urban-born
officers
As in the north-south
the total
resemble
If
and the lowest
corps pattern
the lack
milieu
percentage
constant
relatively
of Table
a higher
contributed
verbande
3.5 reveals
percentage
than to the other
SD
officers,
sampled
the A/SS officers
inhabitants.
as
the comparison,
the highest
percentage
percentage
of rural-born
officers.
the A/SS and VT distributions
most closely.
Kleinstgdte
German
the
of
of applicants
to the SS regardless
was attracted
inspection
one continues
from branch to branch.
variation
of notable
and the
branches insofar
between 10 and 100 thousand inhabitants)
centres
the
(35%) who were born in the
distribution,
The absence of any discussion
population
of the other
the SD attracted
regional
(46.7%),
officers
of officers
of Germany.
to note that
(21 0%) of fi cers of any branch.
.
from that
percentage
parts
is interesting
of rural-born
Gross stadt-born
differed
showed an equal
It
that
It
(those
is due to
appears that
born in the Kleinstadt
branch.
the
of
A closer
the German towns and rural
areas
(73.4%) of the FUhrer to the Totenkopf-
branches.
As can be seen only
58.6% of the sampled VT officers,
from
population
came
centres
of less
55% of the
and 60.7% of
than 100,000
a
85
Table 3.5
Distribution
Population
the
of
over the Four SS Branches
Centres
from which the Fbhrer Came
POPULATION
CENTRES
BRANCHES
Total
Corps
A/SS
TV
SD
VT
City
30.3
28.6
21.0
35.1
28.6
Town
22.5
22.4
26.7
20.0
20.6
Rural
37.1
38.3
46.7
35.0
38.0
Special
Regions
10.1
10.7
5.6
9.9
12.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
TOTAL
86
At this
point
a closer
be taken at the population
look will
in North and South Germany in relation
centres
made to the various
to the contributions
branches of the FUhrerkorps,
they
Table 3.6 shows the
Table 3.6
and location
between the size
relationship
and the branches in which they served.
it
be recalled
should
percentage
of southern-born
that
3.6 further
to the total
corps
sample as well
the highest
areas of Germany supplied
in the otherwise
variation
TV distribution
Kleinstadt
shows that
distribution
It
outlined
security
southern
in Table
service
only
part
that,
be recalled
will
In contrast
the death's
3.4 revealed
officers
that
distribution
two thirds
in
the
born
northern
were
25% of the SD officers
of the country.
officers.
urban-born
the SD regional
in this
hand, the TV
compared to the other
of northern
almost
to the high
Totenkopf
the
of
number
On the other
head units
occurred
in the
from
a
coming
in addition
to the TV, a large
a low percentage
attracted
town category
that
the rural
the largest
26.7% of the Q officers
towns.
German
South
from
came
officers
branches
stable
compared
of the men who served
percentage
Table 3.6 reveals
contribution
rural
southern
rather
with
pattern,
milieu.
branches,
Table 3.5 also shows that
in the Totenkopfverbande.
areas.
by showing that,
as to the other
of
Table 3.5 shows
came from rural
these findings
substantiates
percentage
Similarly,
FUhrerkorps.
46.7% of the KL systems Fbhrerkorps
Table
the TV had the highest
and the lowest
officers
in its
officers
northern-born
When looking at the TV figures,
Table 3.4 showed that
that
birthplaces
of the officers'
as
of the sampled
part
of Germany.
in
the
born
study were
Table 3.5 showed an almost
equal
87
Tabl e 3.6
Distribution
over the Four SS Branches of the Population
Centres
in the North and the South from which the Fbhrer Came
REGION
BRANCHES
POPULATION TOTAL
CENTRES
CORPS
A/SS
TV
SD
VT
City
21.2
20.5
12.2
26.6
16.8
Town
14.2
13.9
13.1
13.9
14.6
Rural
24.8
25.0
24.1
24.4
27.4
60.2
59.4
49.4
64.9
58.8
City
9.1
8.1
8.9
8.6
11.7
Town
8.3
8.5
13.6
6.0
6.0
Rural
12.3
13.3
22.5
10.6
10.7
TOTAL SOUTH
29.7
29.9
45.0
25.2
28.4
SPECIAL
REGIONS
10.1
10.7
5.6
9.9
12.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
NORTH
TOTAL NORTH
SOUTH
TOTAL
88
distribution
between urban centres and rural
3.6 further
that
reveals
FOhrerkorps consisted
compared to the total
corps sample the SD
of a higher percentage of northern
the southern population
while
areas for the SD. Table
centres
registered
urban officers,
a slight
under-
representation.
How do these findings
NeusUss-Hunkel
fit
and Hbhne concerning
of members of the SS? Although
to compare the quantitative
on the backgrounds
difficulty
of such a task,
Steiner's
in rural
raised
the other
data.
into
Neusbss-Hunkel
flux,
that
Hbhne
give
nor
then specific
Similarly
If
is difficult
tive
study.
...
to fit
of this
The
in the attempt.
On
of the Totenkopf-
areas is born out by the
however, are not dealt
the results
study.
one attaches
with
statement
Steiner
Neither
nor
as to the time period
aber auch Städter"
of
importance.
a iarge number of
were attracted
the more clearly
to
any credence to Robert Koehl's
are of considerable
that
so
of the published
in
SS
the
a state
always
of
was
time references
into
intention
writer's
by these data.
the recruits
any indication
composition
NeusUss-Hunkel's
Bauernburschen
that
is fitting
the framework
the social
origins
study with more general
not supported
Other statements,
which they are referring.
theory
was this
became apparent
from Germany's rural
The major difficulty
literature
of this
however,
hand, Hbhne's statement
quantitative
it
and geographic
of the SS FUhrer in the literature.
is clearly
areas,
verb9nde came mostly
easily.
initially
made by Steiner,
90% of the VerfU_gungstruppe commanders were
that
assertion
the regional
results
statements
the statements
with
defined
to the Totenkopf verbände
framework of a quantita-
Chapter IV
THE AGE OF THE SS FUHRERUPONJOINING THE CORPS
The emphasis on youth
of National
orientation
in the propaganda and the political
Socialism
is a well
known fact.
The National
Socialist
conquest of power has been interpreted
as an upsurge and victory
1
National Socialist
of youth.
leaders themselves claimed that the Nazi
Party,
more than any other
in contrast
generation
There is no denying
the last
youth
like
the importance
von Schirach,
that
order
had right,
slogans
"the
represented
to the rotten
Hitler
that
"a mission
and crumbling
hoped to destroy
remnants of liberalism,
and democratic
youth
party,
world of yesterday.
with
conservatism,
in the country.
on its
to the Nazi doctrine,
"Make way, You old ones" Gregor Strasser
of youth
during
the early
the Reich Youth Leader,
NSDAP is a party
of youth.
the help of German
age only death.
side,
,2
parliamentarianism,
Thus according
hope, and the future
of the younger
With
already
stressed
3
days of the Kampfzeit.
Bal dur
proclaimed
on several
occasions
A
1
Fest,, The Face of the Third Reich, p. 332. The Daily Mail of
10 July 1933 reported that youth seemed to have taken command in Germany.
2
Ibid.
Lerner in his analysis of the age of the Nazi leadership
poi nted out that the ". .. youthf ul ness of the Propagandi sts suggests
that they must have commenced their Nazi activities
at an early age. "
The Nazi Elite,
Daniel Lerner, I. de Sola Pool and G. Schueller,
with an
by Franz Neumann, (Stanford 1951), p. 11.
introduction
3
Fest,
The Face of the Third
Reich,
4
332.
p.
On the importance of youth in the Nazi movement see also,
Ibid.
in
A
Study_
Cultural
Despair;
the Rise of
Fritz Stern, The Politics
of
Hitler
Youth;
1961);
Koch,
H.
W.
The
(Cambridge
Ideology
Germanic
the
also
(London
ff-e-velopment
1975).
Origins and
89
90
The propaganda directed
the expected results.
at the youth
Inge Scholl,
the sister
who were executed in 1943 for distributing
campus of the University
Hitler
of Munich,
of Germany was not without
of Hans and Sophie Scholl
anti-Hitler
literature
the war, that
wrote after
on the
on the day
assumed power;
for the first
time
lives
politics
entered
our
...
....
We had heard a great deal of talk about Fatherland,
comradeship, community of the Volk, and love of homeland.
1
All this inspired
us ....
In the struggle
generation,
for
pitted
and a ". .. war of the young against
as the mobilization
possibility
was frequently
power, youth
against
the old was as great
of the de'classe against
"...
parents,
looked
on shuddering
In the Schutzstaffeln
early
as 1925 Julius
Stabswache,
clearly
23-35 need apply
in her study
trend
Schreck,
stated
for
too,
service
new elite
leader
in his Circular
force,
only
importance
to the youthful
when she wrote:
1961),
Life
Class and Status
Aus dem Leben eines politischen
From the book by Paul Oestreich,
(Berlin,
Leipzig 1947), in Mosse,. Nazi
Selbstbiographie
Pgdagogen:
brother
her
between
Scholl
the
Inge
275.
struggle
Culture,
recounts
p.
it
'yes'
to
did
happily
".
say
father
proudly
and
their
not
who
and
..
by
through
illusions
Scholl's
one
Hans
one
were shattered
all ."
272
ff.
Ibid.,
Youth.
Hitler
in
the
p.
experiences
4
Hbhne, The Order, p. 25.
As
only men between
4
formation.
NeusUss-Hunkel
Social Revolution,
David Schoenbaum, Hitler's
in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939 (New York 1967), p. 18.
3
3
of the newly created
1
(Frankfurt
by
Scholl,
Inge
Rose
From the book Die weisse
Social
Cultural
Intellectual
in George Mosse, Nazi Culture;
and
,
in the Third Reich (New YoF-k1966), p. 271.
2
"
in silence.
No. 1. that
in the new elite
considerable
"
2
the f ami ly
the emphasis on youth was present.
the first
on the SS assigned
in Hitler's
and lamenting
a
the established.
In the words of Paul Oestrei ch, "The Hi tl er cul t subverted
while
the older
91
Die Tatsache, dass hier jüngeren Jahrgängen, die weder
Teilnehmer des ersten Weltkrieges,
noch selber am 'Kampf
um die Macht' beteiligt
waren, teilweise
sehr rasche
Karrieremöglichkeiten
geboten wurden, ist eines der 1
Strukturmerkmale
des SS Führerkorps.
wesentlichsten
It was5 therefore,
not by chance that out of the ranks of the younger
Waffen SS commanders as Kurt Meyer
generation
such well-known
3
Klingenberg
emerged.
In order
to facilitate
sampled FUhrerkorps,
divided
into
six
2
and Fritz
the study of the age distribution
in the
the age range from under 20 to above 60 has been
Table 4.1 shows the age distribution
categories.
of the
Table 4.1
total
corps
dienst,
with
it
birthday,
before
corps sample shows that
43.5% is that
20-29
the
year olds.
of
the age of 30.
of the 30-39 year olds.
12.2% of the men who joined
of the sampled officers
1
Neusbss-Hunkel,
Personnel File:
23.12.1912,, in Jerxheim.
3
that
The next largest
Again if
to their
forties,
it
20th
became SS members
age group with
one adds to this
the SS in their
age
single
When one adds to
the SS prior
joined
The age
the largest
56% of the sampled Fbhrerkorps
emerges that
reaching
2
in the Schutzstaffel.
of the total
the 12.5% of the applicants
this
the Sicherheits-
The age shown is the age of the
on the day of his enrolment
distribution
that
the Allgemeine_ SS, the Totenkopfverbande,
and the VerfUgungstruppe.
applicant
group,
sample,
28.6% is
percentage the
is seen that 40.8%
that
they
time
49
30
the
between
at
and
were
Die SS, p. 22.
SS BrigadefUhrer
BDC.
Kurt Meyer, SS #17,559,
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
Mecklenburg.
in
Rbvershagen,
born 17.12.1912,
Fritz Klingenberg,
BDC.
born
SS #5194875
92
Table 4.1
Age Distribution
Age Ranges
for
Total
Total
Corps
Corps Sample, A/SS, TV, SD, and VT
A/SS
TV
SD
VT
under 20
12.5%
20-29
43.5
41.0
37.2
51.9
22.0
Subtotal
56.0
46.3
50.0
60.2
88.5
30-39
28.6
33.4
37.2
25.5
6.4
40-49
12.2
16.0
11.7
11.9
1.5
Subtotal
40.8
49.4
48.9
37.4
7.9
2.8
3.7
1.1
2.3
3.2
50-59
over 59
Subtotal
Total
5.3%
12.8%
---
8.3%
1
66.5%
.4
.4
.6
3.2
4.3
1.1
2.4
3.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93
donned the black uniform.
the FUhrer joined
The Table also shows that only 3.2% of
the age of 50.
after
Compared to the total
Allgemeine
SS, shows that
branch of the SS.
branches,
the Allgemeine
joiners.
On the other
percentage
above categories,
For that
SS also
shows the lowest
percentage
in the Allgemeine
recruits
the
of under 30
shows the highest
between the ages of 30 to 49.
percentage
The higher
SS extends to the 50 and
with 4.3% of the sample.
The TV age distribution
20 joiners
of the
compared to the other
matter,
hand, the distribution
who joined
of older
the age distribution
fewer men under the age of 20 joined
part-time
of applicants
corps sample,
resembles
shows, that
the total
while
the percentage
corps representation
most closely,
age groups 20-29 and 30-39 are most heavily
and evenly
indicates
that
attracted
fewer of the 20-29 year old applicants
the KL guard units,
of under
the
This
represented.
compared to the total
corps sample,
and more of the 30-39 year
ds.
ol
The SD relied
Compared to the total
ranks.
the applicants
that
joined
corps sample which showed that
in their
while
twenties,
into
they
came
when
The Table clearly
percentage
shows that
a further
can say without
the SS prior
22% joining
reservation
43.5% of
shows
branch were in their
the SS.
the VT attracted
of the very young candidates.
SS commanders joining
its
the SD distribution
51.9% of the men that went into the security
twenties
with
fill
20-29
to
the
year olds
on
most heavily
that
With 66.5% of the future
to reaching
the SS while
the highest
their
20th birthday,
they were in their
the VerfOgun2struppe
twenties,
Waffen
and
one
was a young man's
94
branch.
increase
slight
This
On the other hand the VerfUgungstruppe distribution
increase
military
in the percentage of officers
undoubtedly
element
expertise.
joined
SS shows that
element.
joined,
that
The distribution
20-29 and 30-39 were equally
joined
by over 50% of its
The VT had the highest
their
twentieth
ss.
were over 40 when they
officers
while
reaching their
the age groups
The SD, on the other
represented.
percentage
after
of the TV shows that
they were in their
who joined
of officers
test
of independence
and the age at which the men joined
different
of the
hand, was
twenties.
prior
to reaching
birthdays.
A Chi-Square
beyond the
men of
branch contained a higher percentage of the
While 15.4% of the sampled officers
birthday.
the
of the sampled officers
20.3% of the Ailgemeine SS FUhrerkorps joined
fortieth
with
branches attracted
the SS between the ages of 20 to 39, the distribution
Allgemeine
older
VerfUgungstruppe
the various
Whereas the majority
age groups.
professional
'
Table 4.1 has shows that
different
of the older
the fledgling
which provided
much needed military
in the 50-59 age group.
the influx
reflected
shows a
001 1evel
.
.
This
between the branches of the SS
the various
statistically
age groups tended to predominate
branches was significant
substantiates
in different
the fact
that
branches of the
2
1
for
An example of a senior aged military
expert who volunteered
former
Lieutenant-General
Paul
the
VerfUgungstruppe
in
the
was
service
He joined the SS at the age
Hausser, later SS OberstgruppenfUhrer.
Paul
Hausser,
SS
#23997955
Oberstgruppenfbhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
54.
of
BDC.
in Brandenburg a. d. Havel.
born 7.10.1880,
2
For the detailed
Chi-Square
tabulations
see Table 5, Appendix
I, p. 258.
95
Table 4.2 compares the age distribution
of the German population
Table 4.2
in 1933 with
that
whereas 31.1% of the German population
the year
party
that
I
2
of the NSDAP, the NOrnberg SA and the SS.
Hitler
fell
shows
was under the age of 30 in
assumed power, 42.7% of the membership of the Nazi
into
that
age group,
the sampled FUhrerkorps
Machtergreifung
the younger
It
did
50% of the NOrnberg SA and 58.6% of
as
of the SS.
This shows that
the SS had been able to attract
in German society.
element
overrepresentation
underrepresentation
begins to diminish,
the SS shows the smallest
to the German population,
by a considerable
margin
In the 30 to 39 age group the
of the SS FOhr
40 to 49 age category
at the time of the
the Nazi party
percentage
and in the
when compared
and the NUrnberg SA.
The
becomes more marked in the 50 and above age
categories.
The age distribution
The first
is,
it
who was
of the new elite
other
words,
as shown in Table 4.1 raises
in German society
that
donned the black
at an age when most men contemplate reitrement?
who were the men that
fell
into
the senior
A/SS
Fbhrerkorps?
4.3%
the
the
sampled
made up
of
into
in
Germany
went
who
the SS, especially
in the SS? An attempt
shall
uniform
In
age category
The other
that
question
the VerfOgungstruppe
happened
to
them
after
and
what
age,
very young
to serve
two questions.
is,
at a
they committed themselves
be made to answer these questions
1
NSDAP
German
the
the
The age distribution
and
population
of
ka;
581_
Swasti
i
Pol
Vi
the
Merkl
ti
Peter
f
ol
ence
under
cal
rom
are taken
,
1975), pp. 12-13.
Early Nazis (Princeton
2
is
from
Eric
Reiche,
Nbrnberg
SA
distribution
the
The age
of
"
1922-1934.
The
SA,
NUrnberg
the
paper presented
Structure
of
"Social
21
1977
is
October
forthcoming
Forum,
History
part
a
of
the Duquesne
monograph.
at
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97
by the use of case histories.
The perusal of the personnel files
joiners
provide some of the more interesting
represent
a highly
This is an interesting
Third Reich's corps d'41ite.
First,
reasons.
personal histories,
SS
and
diverse group of men. It was in the summer of 1936
I
von Maur, General der Artillerie
a. D., joined the
that Dr. Heinrich
elite
has shown that the older
case for two
he was already a respected member of a much older German
group, namely the officer
was only days from turning
73 years of age when he joined,
gave him the dubious honour of being "...
While Maur's joining
Second, he
corps of the German army.
a fact which
der 81teste SS Mann Uberhaupt. .2
the SS was automatic because of his member-
ship in the Council of the Kyffhauserbund which was amalgamated with the
SS in 1936, his enthusiasm for the Third Reich is more difficult
understand.
successful
merite
Born into a traditional
military
in the First
officer's
Maur had a
An officer
since 1881, he won the Pour 1,e
3
World War.
Like so many of his peers, he found the
career.
republican
form of government in Germany after
therefore,
sought refuge in the highly
the Kyffhduserbund.
family,
to
the war repugnant,
conservative
organization,
veteran's
He remained a staunch conservative,
and,
and for that
did not join the Nazi Party until a year after he had become an
5
4
his wife also joined the Party.
If Maur
SS officer.
Soon thereafter,
matter,
1
SS ObergruppenfUhrer Dr. Heinrich
Personnel File:
SS #276,907, born 19.7.1863, in Ulm. BDC.
von Maur,
2
In the recommendation for promotion to ObergruppenfUhrer dated
20 June 1944. At the time Maur was 80 Years of age. Ibid.
3He
was awarded the Pour le merite on 22 May 1917. Ibid.
4
He joined the NSDAPin May 1937 and was given Party #5,890,310.
Ibid.
5
His wife, Elsa Maur, was 63 years old when she joined
Ibid.
with Party #6,101,897.
the NSDAP
98
was not convinced of the justice
open Supporter of it.
to write
letter
für
den Osten war und für
all
erstwhile
army rank a. D.
illustrated
backgrounds
military
Hessian regiment,
year
of the older
and for
regular
consisted
three
Yet Schmidt was also
Wilhelmine
family
career
part
Prussia
and Austria
Schleswig-Holstein
in chemistry.
issue.
during
2
is further
Schmidt.
2
Unl i ke
matter,
one year in a
World War I in the German
during
elite
constitutional
crisis
the
Westphalian
professional
and in the
to wage war on Denmark over the
At the age of 23,, he obtained
German chemical
industry.
his doctorate
The contribution
3 including
brought him fame and numerous awardS5
1
Letter
his
Unti 1 1932 he worked ei ther ina pri vate research i nsti tute
in
blossoming
the
or
the invention
Whether
For that
for
a well-situated
decided
wenn
then with
SS applicants
army officer.
Khan
in his SS commission.
his SS title,
of the established
at the time of the Bismarckian
that
Europa. "'
pride
of serving
years
He was born into
era.
with
"Was Tschingis
of Dr. h. c. , Dr. Albrecht
Maur, Schmidt was not a former
navy.
first
by the case history
entire
für
able
SS" a
unser Führer,
erstrebt
Maur showed great
his correspondence
The diverse
Khan:
humaneren Mitteln
believer,
He signed
to Jenghiz
ihn getan hat,
anderen,
or true
opportunist
Kamerad und Reichsführer
und verehrter
in which he compared Hitler
allerdings
an
At the age of 80, in July 1943, he was still
to "Mein lieber
auch mit
his
of the Nazi cause, he was certainly
of artificial
which
the Dr. Ing. h. c., was
fog.
of Maur to Himmler,
dated 22 July
1943.
Ibid.
Dr. h. c. Dr. Albrecht
SS BrigadefOhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
Westfalen.
in
GrevensbrOck,
3.7.1864,
born
#327,474,
SS
Schmidt,
3
he
Frankfurt,
Berlin
He was named honorary citizen
and
was
and
of
He
Berlin.
the
University
honorary
also
received
at
of
professor
made an
decorations.
Ibid.
military
and
several civilian
99
With all
why Schmidt,
1939.1
the honours bestowed on him it
at the age of 74, decided to join
is hard to understand
the SS in the spring of
At the time of his enrolment he was the second
oldest
He was an active
on record.
for
enthusiasm
the regime,
Hitler,
against
Education
remained
supporter
long after
high.
on the appointments
chemical
the fortunes
Zeit
weiter
of war had turned
He was an advisor
of chemistry
he promised
as an octogenarian,
noch vergönnte
of the Third Reich and his
to the German Four-Year
advisor
One of the most unusual
life
Plan.
"...
is that
here,
Drechsel's
his
reasons
most clearly
the small
founding
life
auch fbr
Dezennium. "
for
joining
of Karl Hermann Drechsel .3
.0
the corps d'elite
in his extensive
stated
Lower Franconian
die mir
2
among the 61 000 personnel
of retiring.
is the most unusual of the three
story
1944,
as July
a man who began a new career in the SS when most men think
While
of
and he was
As late
wie im letzten
histories
fi1 es at the Berl in Document Centre,
to the Ministry
professors,
his Reichsfbhrer
zu wirken
SS member
of Hitler's
Lebenslauf.
Drechsel
presented
Germany are
born
in
was
town of Sommerhausen in the year prior
to the
of the Second Empire.
The son of a Lutheran
devoutly
religious
Drechsel
17, however,
Drechsel
1
He joined
2
3
Letter
(her father
at an early
was entered
decided
that
in a strict
and
Because the mother came from a
home environment.
family
military
prominent
pastor,
he was raised
was a General oberarzt)
the young
At the age of
age in a Kadettenanstalt.
he did not want a full-time
the NSDAP in April
1933 with
party
11
dated
July
Himmler
Schmidt
to
of
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Personnel File:
Unterfranken.
Sommerhausen,
in
born 12.11.18701,
military
#1,830,078.
1944.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Karl Drechsel,
BDC.
SS #27697495
100
career,
and, therefore,
Kadettenanstalt,
left
he also
new life
in the United
he spent
two years
decided
States.
in three
to study
established
law at the University
Tyler
and well-known
The outbreak
an American girl.
family
of hostilities
a
however,
and begun
He obtained
that he
of Georgia and passed bar exams
in Ohio.
in the U. S. National
even served as an officer
After
science and philosophy.
She came from the
From 1894-1901 he
Guard.
in Europe in 1914 changed Drechsel's
1if e.
The event made him aware that he was born a German and, as he
stated
in his
Lebenslauf,
wirtschaftlichen
after
28 years
citizenship
the war caused "...
und politischen
in the United
Abbruch aller
persönlichen,
1
Beziehungen in und zu Amerika. "
Thus
States,
Drechsel
knowledge of English
and the American continent
intelligence
in the German army until
officer
war that
the disullusionment
labourer
in a "...
It
he began to listen
surrendered
he served as an
was at this
It
1918.
Tal. "
point,
was after
Drechsel
For a while
im Tegernseer
Steinbruch
followed.
of unemployment
that
set in.
his American
Because of his detailed
to Germany in 1915.
and returned
However long periods
according
to the propaganda of National
"Lebenslauf'of
Karl
Drechsel,
undated.
the
worked as a
to Drechsel,
Socialism:
der
ihm
die
Über
Erfahrungen
mit
Bitterkeit
Die
des
Nachkriegsdeutschlands
Indifferenz
unverständlichen
Kriegstätigkeit
ihm
ihn
aufgetragenen
seiner
angesicht
gegen
Vermögens,
verliess
Verlustes
amerik.
des
gesamten
seines
und
1
the
By the time
and Marshal College in Pennsylvania.
He also married
states.
in. the U. S.,
he had become an American citizen
his B. A. and M.A. in political
proceeded
to settling
left
to start
boy on an American freighter.
twenties,
at Franklin
But he not only
to leave Germany in order
Prior
as a cabin
he was in his early
his studies
the cadet school.
Ibid.
101
ihn automatisch mit dem Eintritt
in die nationalsozialistische
Partei und in die SA:
Lage
obwohl
seine
wirtschaftliche
...
1
dadurch nicht geringstens
verbessert
wurde.
Here isa
prime exampl e of a pauperi zed and resentf ul i ntel I ectual ,
who found in the fold
His wife,
purpose.
also
joined
of the Nazi Part,,,, his
who also
severed all
the NSDAPbefore
1933.
found employment as a full-time
at the Junkerschule
general
fog.
understand.
SS officer
While Maur's
their
enthusiasm
obvious
Drechsel's
and Schmidt's
The retired
uniform.
spelled
Armies,
his entire
lost
and National
movement that
Socialism
offered
Membership in the SS not only
science
Here
on the
in both the American and German
He felt
fortune.
with
its
but it
resentful
and
be
to
panaceas appeared
the embittered
officer,
are
him.
by
out
political
helped him to regain
commissioned
of
Reich is harder to
the Third
of age, who had once taught
finally
and who
former
of a
for
joining
reasons for
reasons were clearly
college
status
in geo-politics
honour bestowed upon him as the inventor
held
had
level
commissions
who
,
the political
lectures
giving
eventually
quoted above have shown how some members of
as another
66
years
a
man,
was
unappreciated,
Drechsel
leaders
local
council and
of the
2
Schmidt most likely
the SS as a body.
accepted
joined
the SS commission
understandable,
As a 66 year old,
in 1915,
when the central
Kyffh9userbund
artificial
as a new
her U. S. connections
came to wear the black
generation
joined
as well
Tblz.
The case histories
the older
identity
returnee
a way out.
the respect
offered
and
him an opportunity
1
Ibid.
2
the
influx
the
disturbing
of
the
effect which
H6hne described
There
SS.
in
K&mpfer
the
resentment
open
was
the
alte
had
on
old soldiers
General
like
officers
reactionary
well-known
such
of
toward the acceptance
138..
Order,
The
p.
Hbhne5
Reinhard.
102
to perform once more a task which challenged
his intellect
and restored
his self-esteem.
While the incorporation
of the older and more established
to by Himmler as the "gerauschlose
referred
to make the new e0lite respectable,
for the reputation
responsible
fighting
force
Described
and by Stein
men commanded divisions
and were often
during
of the Nazi doctrines
ruthless,
during
responsible
the last
was the young element that was
as "starry-eyed,
as "harsh,
for
" was an attempt
which the SS gained over the years as a
and the enforcer
by Reitlinger
it
Revolution,
element,
throughout
"'
and fanatical,
2
arrogant , ,, many of these
youthful,
and often
in their
the war while
still
the fanatical
resistance
months of the war.
3
Europe.
thirties,
and the terror
Thus SS BrigadefUhrer
Kurt Meyer
he
33,
the
age of
was chosen to
commander at
when
4
Witt
decorated
Fritz
36-yearhighly
the
as commanding
old
succeed
5
Kraas,
Hugo
Oberfbhrer
SS
d"
"Hitlerjuge
Division.
the
was
officer
of
became a divisional
division
he
the
took
over
old when
32 years
missing
in late
in action
1944.6
after
Kurt Meyer was reported
Kraas had earlier
made the headlines
be
to
his
awarded
regiment
of
officer
7
highly
The
French
during
the
Class
campaign.
first
he
1940,
the
in
was
when,
Cross First
the Iron
1
Reitlinger,
2
Stein,
3
The SS, p. 86.
Waffen SS, p. 292.
Ibid.
4
1943,
in
35
the
Witt
at
age
of
Fritz
was chosen
SS BrigadefOhrer
Division.
Witt,
Hitlerjugend
the
of
first
officer
the
commanding
become
to
in
1933,
died
during
the
Stabswache
120
established
man
the
original
one of
Fe-itlinger,
86.
SS,
The
p.
1944.
June
in
invasion
Allied
5
Personnel File:
Witten/Ruhr.
in
25.1-1911,
SS OberfOhrer
BDC.
Hugo Kraas,
SS 74-289,633, born
6
124.
Guard,
Hitler's
p.
Weingartner,
V,
Chapter
7
also,
63;
see
SS,
Waffen
p.
Stein,
p.
103
decorated
SS Standartenfbhrer
1
Klingenberg
had just
Fritz
he was ordered to take commandof the SS Panzergrenadier
von Berlich
"Goetz
and Meyer himself
SS commanders Kurt Meyer was the only one
youthful
to come from a working
class
background.
school.
After
trades
then became a policeman.
National
Socialism.
Youth,
His father
became a "kaufmAnnischer
a miner,
Hitler
Division
' in January 1945.2
Of these three
elementary
turned 32 when
training
Lehrling"
was a factory
after
he worked for
Meyer was an early
worker,
3
completing
a short
time as
to
adherent
By 1925, at the age of 13, he had joined
the
and by late
1930 he had become a member of the NSDAP. In
4
May 1931, when he was 18, he enrolled
in the SS.
In 1934 Meyer
transferred
from the Allgemeine
he was not a graduate
of a Junkerschule
of hostilities
outbreak
leadership
techniques
SS to the ".Leibstandarte,
in 1939.
5
It
he was a Hauptsturmfbhrer
was through
his
and
ruthlessness
that
1
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
born 17.12.1912,
in Rbvershagen/Mecklenburg.
2
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of Fritz
" and although
Klingenberg.
his rather
he won rapid
at the
unorthodox
promotions
Fritz Klingenberg,
BDC.
6
SS #5194879
Ibid.
3
but
in
Meyer
father
Meyer's
that
Reitlinger
miner,
a
was
claims
Fabrikarbeiter.
father
his
"Lebenslauf"
that
his handwritten
a
was
stated
Kurt Meyer.
The SS, p. 86; see also, Personnel File:
Reitlinger,
41bid.
5
leadership
is
Meyer's
combat
An example of
rather unorthodox
Greek
Meyer's
the
During
Grenadiere.
campaign
book
in
his
unit
provided
behind
fire,
heavy
by
pinned
Raked
down.
rocks,
machinegun
became bogged
its
handgrenade,
took
Meyer
pulled
pin,
Thereupon,
a
not a man moved.
"Never
did
I
Meyer
last
again
witness
stated,
man.
threw it behind the
1
The
broken,
that
forward
spel
leap
was
second
at
as
concerted
such a
....
(Panzermeyer),
"
Meyer
Kurt
lameness.
the handgrenade had cured our
64.
(MOnchen
1957),
p.
Grenadiere
6
in
September
1940;
SturmbannfOhrer
Meyer was promoted
in
1943;
June
StandartenfOhrer
1942;
in
November
ObersturmbannfUhrer
1944,
in
November
the
BrigadefUhrer
1944;
at
age
of
August
OberfU-h-rerin
Meyer.
Kurt
File:
Personnel
"
"Dienstlaufbahn.
31.
104
and was awarded the oakleaf
1
German armed forces.
with the swords as the 91st soldier
Hugo Kraas was the son of an elementary
school
in the
He
teacher.
attended the Gymnasiumand obtained his Abitur shortly after Hitler
to power in 1933.
became a reserve
officer
attitude
and aggressive
training
He was 25 years
course,
in the German army.
candidate
VerfUgungstruppe,
and joined
left
unconventional
the reserve
the SS Regiment "Germania"
After
he
But he was more
its
with
Kraas, therefore,
spirit.
old at the time.
was chosen to attend
some time in the Labour Service,
spending
to the newly-founded
attracted
officer
After
came
in 1936.2
spending a year in the ranks,
the 2nd course at the Junkerschule
from which he was commissioned Untersturmfbhrer
in 1938.
he
Braunschweig
Three years
later
he commanded a battalion,
and shortly thereafter
was promoted
3
Division
Sturmbannfbhrer.
By the time Kraas took over the "Hitlerjugend"
4
he had won the swords to the oakleaf and been promoted OberfUhrer.
1
German to be tried
After the war Kurt Meyer was the first
Ibid.
Accused of having approved of the shooting
for war crimes by the Allies.
death
by
Canadian
to
Meyer
Canadian
a
was sentenced
prisoners-of-war,
of
But,
the
1945.
in
December
case with so many other
as
was
military
court
Meyer's
SS
Waffen
sentence was commuted
officers,
sentences passed on
,
in
1954.
September
Bruce
from
He
imprisonment.
prison
life
to
was released
(Toronto
Stein,
202;
1954),
Meyer
Kurt
also,
p.
see
Trial
The
MacDonald,
of
in
1954,
Meyer
Germany
to
his
Upon
277-78.
was
Waffen SS, pp.
return
(Hilfsgemeinschaft
HIAG
in
became
hero,
member
active
an
and
a
as
celebrated
for
the
title
innocent
major
sounding
Gegenseitigkeit),
a
rather
auf
Eagle
Swastika,
Beyond
Tauber,
and
post-war SS veterans organization.
vol. I,, p. 357.
2
Personnel
Kraas,
Hugo
"Lebenslauf"
undated.
of
Handwritten
Kraas.
File:
3
Das Schwarze Korps,
4
"Dienstlaufbahn"
23 December 1943.
Kraas.
Hugo
of
Personnel
File:
Hugo Kraas.
105
Fritz
Klingenberg
was another
commander of the Waffen SS.
and highly
youthful
field
capable
Like Kraas, Klingenberg could have become
in the German army, but he chose the VerfO
ungstruppe instead.
Klingenberg's youth was spent in financially
His
secure surroundings.
an officer
father
owned a dairy
in northern
Germany. After
1931, he proceeded to study
chemistry
and physics
Rostock.
Intresse"
he audited
After
"Aus persbnlichem
four
began at an early
when, as a "Primaner"
VerfUgungstruppe
was established
SS service.
at the Junkerschule
83.3
his
in staff
officer
1936.
low rating
work.
18 years old.
in 1933, that
in National
2
It
in service
General Hausser,
transferred
the first
were rapid,
he showed considerable
the founder
course
19th out of a class
Verfbgungstruppe
writing
the
was after
In 1934 he was chosen to attend
in the expanding
Socialism5
the NSDAPin 1931,
Klingenberg
T61z, from which he graduated
His promotions
despite
later
he was barely
of
to help
ostensibly
He joined
age.
in
a course in Rassenh
he dropped out of university,
1
business.
Klingenberg's
interest
Kurt Meyer's.
to full-time
at the University
semesters
in the family
like
he obtained his Abitur
of the Junkerschulen
of
and
talent
and
commander in the Waffen SS, used Klingenberg as a staff
4
By the outbreak of the Second World War
in his headquarters.
senior
1
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
of Fritz
Fritz Klingenberg.
Personnel File:
2
Master
file
card.
Klingenberg,
dated 17 May
Ibid.
3
from the Junkerschule Tblz shows that
The "Abschlusszeugnis"
in
"Weltanschaulicher
9
7
marks
possible
Klingenberg
out of a
obtained
"
"Reiten,
"
"Exerzierdienst,
"Leibesbbungen.
in
9
"
6
and
Unterricht,
out of
"
"Schreibwessen.
"Zeugnis
in
der
9,
SS
4
lowest
was
of
His
out
mark,
T81z. " Ibid.
"FOhrerschule
11
4
in
1942
"...
ausserlich
Klingenberg
as
Hausser assessed
und
"
He
FUhrers.
SS
the
des
Typ
concluded
beste
der
report with
innerlich
dieser
Beurteilung
Superlative
berechtigt.
"Die
sind
comment
the lauditory
October
14
1942.
dated
Ibid.
Klingenberg,
Hausser report on
11
106
Klingenberg
with
was a HauptsturmfOhrer.
10 men of the division
of Belgrade.
For this
Three days after
fbhrer,
thereafter
elite
"Goetz von Berli
was there
join
to
men
The question
the SS? In other
during
investigation
have shown that the SS was able to
certain
and for
I
absorbing
members of the old
to be answered at this
between the age of the applicant
a relationship
joined
he
which
.2
ages and background,
as the young.
as well
Klingenberg was promoted Standarten-
was named commanderof the 17th SS
The above illustrations
diverse
men of
in 1941, when
he was awarded the Knights Cross in 1941.
his 32nd birthday
and shortly
made headlines
"Das Reich" he brought about the surrender
action
Panzergrenadier-division
attract
He first
older
words, was there
point
and period
a tendency
is,
for
in
younger
14
the
of
year time span under
periods
join
to
men
at others?
Table 4.3 shows the
Table 4.3
age composition
of each of the six
This Table shows that
extent
of young men.
1927, that
the SS during
in
this
used
is the group of men with
study.
Phase I was made up to a large
Almost 75% of those who joined
1
Bericht des deutschen
Beobachter (Berliner
Völkischer
2
time periods
before
December
SS numbers under 1000, were under
Belgrad, "
"So fiel
Militärattaches,
Ausgabe), 17 April 1941.
File:
Personnel
Klingenberg.
Fritz
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of
Klingenberg
But even as successful
Klingenberg.
could
as
a commander
War
SS.
During
the
laws
the
the
of
marriage
stringent
run afoul with
Klingenberg became engaged to the daughter of SS GruppenfUhrer Walter
discovered
the
it
that
investigation
In the routine
KrUger.
was
racial
far
back
jewish
full
had
KrOger
as
SS
GruppenfOhrer
ancestor
a
wife of
his
to
denied
Klingenberg
1711.
marry
Thereupon,
permission
was
as
his
According
143.
to
Order,
The
Hbhne,
fiancee.
impure
p.
racially
'
Klingenberg never married.
personnel file,,
107
CY)
00
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m
C\j
t.0
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C)
I:Ztl
M
LO
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Q- C")
cn
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rI
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Lf)
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C: )
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(.0
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108
the age of 30 when they enrolled
joined
between January
The Table also
shows that
of the applicants
the percentage
fell
into
at the two age categories
be seen that
the percentage
to note that
little
during
regardless
the decline
that
age range.
If
the percentage
of under 20 applicants
fluctuated
the 1925 to 1939 period.
of the political
These results
reflects
which includes
percentage
between 1937-1939.
age, comprise
only
increases
A closer
suggest that
percentage
the age groups 30-39 and
joined
in applicants
between 1937
look at the more mature
in the second sub-total
in the 30-39-year-old
for the 1925-1927 joiners
very
Whereas only 24.6% of the very early
trend.
age bracket.
of SS applicants
in
to the SS.
the increase
the increase
can
is of interest
in Germany a constant
conditions
were between 30 and 49 51.8% of the men that
due to an increase
it
in the under 30 group is due to a reduction
It
age range shows that
look
one takes a closer
in the 20-29 age category.
shows the reverse
declined
when only 40%
of joiners
and 1939 were in that
notable
of under 30 joiners
which make up the under 30 sub-total,
The second sub-total,
joiners
of those who
the 1937-1939 period,
until
of very young men was attracted
40-49,
Two thirds
1928 and December 1930 were under the age of 30.
in each time period,
steadily
in the SS.
1
joiners,
is partly
but more importantly
between the ages of 40-49.
in the 40-49 age group increased
The
from 6.6%
to 21.5% for the group that came into the SS
While the older age groups, those over 50 years of
3.3% of the total
in the years
corps sample, they register
following
the Rbhm crisis.
most
One might
1
Orlov in his study of the Nazi Party and the age of its
1925
in
66%
NSDAP
the
discovered
that
was
membership
of
membership
1,1919-1933,
History
Naz
lhe
the
Orlov,
30.
of
vol.
under
p. 56.
109
assume that
the older applicants
before committing
older
themselves to the new regime's
segment of the total
detail
in later
of independence
test
.
age groups joined
001 level
rank in the Third
age distribution
the officers
can be said that
Reich's
times during
that
the 1925 to 1939
the men who rose to commissioned
eOlite force
of the total
joined
uniform during week-ends or on official
the older
element
than did the other
of under 20 applicants.
percentage
even distribution
could
ages.
of men who wore the black
branches.
It
attracted
more of
had the lowest
also
showed an
The
joined,
20-29
between
they
when
were
claim
to have attracted
the earlier
applicants,
whereas the older
applicants
suggested
that
the older
Socialism
was firmly
the largest
The study of the age distribution
had a higher
showed that
National
men of different
occasions,
percentage of the under 20 age group.
periods
of
The different
between the 20-29 and the 30-39 age groups.
the VerfUgungstruppe.
This
a majority
The Totenkopfverbgnde
SD
the
officers
of
sampled
majority
the SS.
tended to attract
SS, which consisted
The
when they were young.
corps sample showed that
were under 30 when they joined
Thus the Allgemeine
until
the fact
substantiating
at different
branches of the SS. however,
periods.
between Phases and Age Ranges
1
In summary it
while
The
be looked at in greater
corps sample will
beyond the
was significant
peri od.
formation.
elite
chapters.
A Chi-Square
different
the Rbhmissue was settled
waited until
percentage
of young
during
SS
the
to
came
the later
segment in Germany held back
established
before
committing
itself
#1
to the new regime and its
1
For the Chi-Square
elite
formation.
tabulations
see Table 6, Appendix
I,
p. 259.
Chapter V
THE EDUCATIONALBACKGROUND
OF THE SS OFFICERS
In 1939, shortly
before the outbreak of the War, Gregor Ziemer,
President
of the American Colony School in Berlin,
Schirach,
the Reich Youth Leader:
asked Baldur von
"When does the Nazi Party become
interested
it
in the German child? " The instantanious
"Before
reply was,
1
is conceived. "
If one adds to this reply the many pronouncements of
the various
Nazi leaders
the young in the National
re-educating
clear
that
National
Socialism
of the German individual
Mother Service
National
on the necessity
which also
Socialist
the Nazi salute
toys,
is,
taught
Rust,
ideology,
it
and
becomes
life
span
to the Reich
care,
German mothers how to make the proper
obedience.
were taught
where youngsters
Thus the entire
to produce a willing
pre-school
pupil
ready to
level.
higher
on a
The purpose of education
by
Bernard
out
from pre-natal
to the Kindergarten
coordinated
indoctrination
absorb more
Socialist
educating
was concerned with the entire
; that
and absolute
years were carefully
of constantly
in Nazi Germany was clearly
the Reich Minister
for
Education,
spelled
in 1936 when he
wrote:
The chief purpose of the school is to train human beings
in the doctrine
that the state is more important than the
individual,
that individuals
and ready to
must be willin
FUhrer.
for
themselves
and
nation
sacrifice
1
first
incident
77.
The
Education,
German
was
Engelmann,
p.
(Oxford
Death
For
Education
book
Ziemer's
described in Gregor
entitled,
2
1941).
in
the
79.
The
Education,
German
Engelmann,
p.
excerpt appeared
H6heren
in
der
Erziehung
Unterricht
teacher's
to
manual
und
new
a
preamble
1936).
Schule (Berlin
110
ill
All
the school reforms undertaken during
based on Hitler's
1936,1937,
and 1938 were
commandthat
the v8lkisch State
has to direct its entire education
...
primarily
not at pumping in more knowledge but at the
breeding of absolutely healthy bodies.
Of secoydary
importance is the training
of mental abilities.
Thus from pre-Kindergarten
National
Socialist
differentiate
ideological
education"
emerged.
liberal
of
Heidelberg,
Napola,
formative
to play with
were taught to
2
physics , ,, the youth
where students
and "Jewish
years was exposed to a constant
Dobers and Higelke
used as a guide
education
teacher
its
were taught
indoctrination.
Books like
"proper
to university
between German science
of Germany during
widely
toys,
days where children
for
teachers,
along National
Profes: sor
origin,
stressed
Socialist
Kriek,
advanced the idea of creating
which were essentially
4
"nationalrevolutionar"
orientated.
reknown editing
elementary
inherited
Rickert's
the Adolf
Hitler
anti-liberal
Professor
school
chair
at
Schools and
"vblkisch"
and
Baumler, who had gained
Bachhofen and Nietzsche,
1
Engelmann, German Education,
Unterrichtspraxis,
the necessity for the
3
lines.
New prophets in
a one-time
who eventually
schools
considerable
Rassenpolitische
5
took over the
p. 80.
2
in
Professors:
The Part of Scholarship
Hitler's
Max Weinreich,
Germany's Crimes against the Jewish People (New York 19-4-6), p. 12. The
in
Johannes
1919
Nobel
Prize
by
the
physics,
made
winner
statement was
Stark, in the inaugural
at the University
address at the Lenard Institute,
1935.
13
December
Heidelberg,
of
3
Engelmann, German Education,
p. 81. The importance of the proper
Socialist
National
education for the young generation was also stressed
Grundzüge einer politischen
in Gerhard Giese's Staat und Erziehung.
(Hamburg 1933).
Pädagogik und Schulpolitik
4
Machtergreifung,
Bracher, Sauer, Schulz, Nationalsozialistische
p. 308.
5
Hitler's
Professors,
23.
Weinreich,
p.
112
Political
education
Bäumler's
i dea was ".
dass mi t der Schul e di e pol i ti sche Ausri chtung
..
at the University
of students
und die Gewöhnung an das Führerprinzip
It
is not surprising
that
the most devastating
effects
younger
The fanaticism
in their
question,
generation.
teens,
at war's
however,
that
of Berlin
in 1933.
zu beginnen habe. "'
the results
indoctrination
of this
on the development of attitudes
with
which boys fought,
had
of the
some barely
end, is a sad but well-known
2
fact.
The
be asked at this
is not,
how could
should
young boys who had been subjected
all
point
lives
of their
to an incessant
barrage
of propaganda sacrifice
rather,
how could men, some well educated, who were raised in the pre-
1933 period,
Socialist
become ardent
themselves
for
and unquestioning
a lost
cause in 1945, but
executors
of National
policies?
Dr. Elie
as a prisoner
A. Cohen, a Dutch psychiatrist
in Auschwitz,
attempted
after
who spent several
the war "...
with
years
a complete
Bracher, Sauer, Schulz, Nationalsozialistische
Machtergreifung,
in
Germany
For more information
Nazi
the
p. 309.
purpose
on
of education
(London
1971
A
Social
Third
Reich
Richard
Grunberger,
History
the
see,
of
chapter 19 "Education, " pp. 362-385.
2
is provided in the combat
fanaticism
An example of this youthful
1943
"
in
"Hitlerjugend.
Formed
12th
SS
Panzerdivision
the
with
record of
boys born in the year 1926, that is 17-year olds, the division
soon
in
doggedness
fanaticism,
for
brutality,
combat.
and
aquired a reputation
Within the first
ten days of the invasion in 1944, the youthful
soldiers
British
Canadian
division
64
the
of war.
prisoners
and
unarmed
shot
of
"it
that
the
A SHAEF board of inquiry
was understood
after
war established
that a policy of denying quarter of executing
throughout
the division
SS,
"
Waffen
Stein,
The
interrogation
approved.
was openly
after
prisoners
,
"Hitlerjugend"
Gap
Falaise
the
heavy
fighting
the
277.
the
During
at
p.
At the
lost 80% of its combat troops, and 80% of its armour.
division
beginning of 1945 the fighting
amounted to 600
strength of the SS division
fighting
312.
fanatical
On
Meyer,
Grenadiere,
the
tanks.
p.
youths and no
Trial
Kurt
MacDonald,
The
Division
Panzer
SS
12th
also,
of
the
see
of
Meyer, chapter III "The Murder Division, " pp. 15-36; see also, Koch, The
Chester Wilmont recorded "...
the troops of the
Youth, pp. 244-45.
Hitler
fought with a tenacity
and ferocity
seldom equalled and never
12th SS
...during the
"
Chester
Wilmont,
for
Struggle
campaign.
whole
excelled
Europe (London 1952). p. 377.
113
avoidance of emotional
atrocities
bias
to give an explanation
committed during the Third Reich were possible.
foreword to the book, Dr. Carl Binger,
the days that
were sentimental,
great to-do about Christmas
man "...
sentimental
to bring
and took great
of father's
and polite
in terror
a New York psychiatrist,
slave. "
pains
youngsters.
But everyone,
The children
in school,
The wife
to fulfill
over the chilren
of someone else.
of authority
trembled at his frown and rushed
not to anger him. "
"
her husband's
The wife
feared
the teacher.
this
competitive
bullying
concluded
obedient
to Dr. Binger,
the father
lived
and the
The mother took pains not
his foreword
in fear of
by stating,
came the Nazi Schrecklichkeit.
1
Cohen, Human Behaviour
wishes
which produced "...
according
was a
also held the threat
to anger her husband, and the head of the household lived
Dr. Binger
He lived
was described as a
and smoking jacket
She hurried
punishment
his employer.
recalled
good people and who made a
The father
whose children
him his slippers
domestic
In the
he spent as an exchange student at Heidelberg.
with Germans who "...
figure
how the
in the Concentration
"Out of
112
Camp, Introduction.
2
foreword to Cohen, Human
Exerpts quoted are from Dr. Binger's
Behaviour,
The authoritarian
pp. ix-xi.
role of the father in the traditionis dealt with extensively
al German family,
and its effect
on the children
(Stuttgart
in E. Erickson,
1961).
Kindheit
Gesellschaft
Wrote
und
Erickson, Nenn der Vater nach Hause kommt, scheinen sich selbst die
" p. 311. Dahrendorf quotes from Horkheimer's
Wände zusammenzunehmen,
study Autorität
und Familie. "... der deutsche Vater sei gewissermassen
Richter und Staatsanwalt in einer Person. " Dahrendorf, Gesellschaft
165.
Treitschke
Demokratie,
p.
und
wrote during the Wilhelmine era "Schon
Der
in der Familie finden wir das staatliche
Prinzip der Unterordnung.
Vater ist das Oberhaupt er übt das Recht. " Heinrich v. Treitschke,
(Leipzig
1918),
16.
Talcott
Parsons points to
4th
Politik,
p.
ed.,
tendency
to
superiority
and
a
masculine
assume authority
of
a pattern
husbands
the
fathers
German
tend
part
of
on
and
men
and prerogatives
....
to expect subto be dominating and authoritarian,
and, conversely,
dependency
is
the
This
their
part
on
of
perhaps
wives.
and
missiveness
"
"Democracy
the
Talcott
Parsons,
true
middle
classes.
of
particularly
in
Pre-Nazi
Germany,
"
Essays
first
in
1942,
Structure
Social
published
and
(Glencoe,
Ill.
1954),
113.
T,
Social
ed.
rev.
p.
on
114
It
is the contention
begins
personality
as well
as that
individual.
Thus it
"
This
fear
/5re-Nazi
even before
products
normal fear
...
in every growing
in the authoritarian
"'But
overdramatized
system.
an
Socialism
his case when he
Dr. Cohen is of the opinion
that
who grew up during
of a highly
they were shaped in a system that
1
Cohen, Human Behaviour,
the advent of National
school
system of the Nazi era a worthy
life7.
even members of German society
in essence,
of the father,
role
the average German experienced
Perhaps Dr. Cohen slightly
of it
"...
is perpetuated
"Was not the dictatorial
extension
the molding of the
The punitive
produces
be denied that
way of life
in Germany.
the family.
of teacher
cannot
authoritarian
asked,
with
of Dr. Cohen that
authoritarian
stressed
the pre-1933 days were,
2
That is
environment.
.
obedience to authority
more
p. 245.
2
The numerous school reforms undertaken during the Weimar
Republic were to introduce
a less authoritarian
environment in the
But, as Dr. Engelmann pointed out, most teachers who
class-room.
days were themselves products of the pretaught during the republican
1918 system, and that their practises
and attitudes
could not be changed
in a decade.
The concept of the teacher being the drill-master
was deeply
Engelmann, German Education, chapter I,
engrained in many teachers.
"Class Education in the German Empire, " pp. 11-40; see also, chapter II,
"Educational
Engelmann writes
Reforms in the German Republic, " pp. 41-76.
in method
"They were strict
about the pre-1918 schools,
and efficient
and gave the necessary
of teacher-lecture
and student-recitation
"
11.
drill
In
in patriotism,
loyalty
a study of the
p.
obedience,
and
Schaffner,
in
life
German
Dr.
a psychiatrist,
role of authoritarianism
Weimar
Third
Reich.
Republic,
the
German
Empire,
the
the
and
studied
Using the Freudian frame of reference of obsessive-compulsive
neurosis,
Schaffner found that the German child tended to fear authority,
If
the
developed obsessive traits
child
orderliness
and
rigidity.
of
inferiors,
learned
to
he
boy
aggression
on
release
suppressed
was a
"manliness"
of
which meant the suppression
and aquired characteristics
Father
Bertram
Schaffner,
tenderness,
impulses
pity
or
regret.
of
of
(New
1948).
York
in
German
Family
Authoritarianism
the
A
Study
Land:
of
P. 55.
115
than independent critical
thinking.
Because of the important
plays
in the formulation
development
role
of a younger
of his values,
the. SS FUhr
1
the topic
is discussed
5.1 shows the educational
that
the educational
persons attitude,
of education
length
at greater
distribution
of the total
process
and in the
in connection
in this
study.
with
Table
corps sample, the
Table 5.1
Allgemeine
SS, the Totenkopfverbande,
VerfUgungstruppe.
sampled SS officers
f urther
coveted
traditional
From the distribution
the Sicherheitsdienst,
it
is seen that
and the
28.9% of the
had no more than an elementary school education.
27.3% attended a secondary school but di d not obtai n the
,
university
Abitur
entrance
certificate,
requirement,
the Abitur
or Kadettenanstalt
Because of the
,
graduation,
as the
1
Post-1945 research has shown that the majority
of German
parents were of the opinion that the schools should not become involved
in training
"gute StaatsbOrger. " 48% of the questioned parents felt
that schools should stress "menschliche Werte, " and 45% were of the
developing
habits
that
more
opinion
emphasis on
schools should place
The smallest percentage
that would guarantee success in later life.
become
to
thought schools should indoctrinate
good Germans.
children
fOr Bildung und Wissen, Schule und pluralistische
Deutsches Institut
(Frankfurt
1961), p. 568. The role of the school as shaper of
Gesellschaft
167,
is
discussed
by
Gesellschaft,
Dahrendorf,
pp.
values and attitudes
the influence
Caution, however, should be used in stressing
3425 344ff.
institutions
the
German
on
ready acceptance of cruelty
authoritarian
of
SS
It
be
behaviour
by
the
demonstrated
of
many
officers.
should
as
"danger
65%
Milgram's
the
to
the
that
subjects
of
who
pushed
recalled
lever were "normal" middle class Americans who were not raised
life"
The experiment was repeated
German environment.
in an authoritarian
including
Germany, and similar
in several countries,
results
were
obtained everywhere.
116
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117
minimum education
non-.Abitur
for acceptance in the German officer
of the SS will
officers
who had the Abitur.
Third
Reich's
political
elite
requisites.
that
of its
reliability
2
corps,
be examined separately
the
from those
Thus 56.2% of the sampled Fbhrerkorps of the
,
force did not possess the Abitur.
These findings
Hbhne's contention
support
1
the SS placed
FUhrerkorps
greater
emphasis on
than on educational
pre-
Table 5.1 also shows that 8.9% of the sampled FUhrer
gave the Abitur
as the highest
of the officers
claimed
educational
university
achievement, while 30.1%
graduation
with
either
a Staatsexamen
or the doctorate.
If
a comparison
is made between the educational
the sampled SS Fbhrerkorps with that of German society
that
the educated
of society
corps of the Schutzstaffeln
officer
official
only
stratum
survey
conducted
an elementary
school
to have achieved
claimed
an Abitur.
discrepancy
3
When it
was heavily
prior
in 1962,82%
education.
the mittlere
overrepresented
to 1939.
A further
Reife,
of
one must conclude
According
of the German population
comes to the university
between the percentage
distribution
in the
to an
had
13% of German citizens
and only
5% could boast
graduate
category,
of graduates
the
in the sampled SS
1
When a few officer
cadets were admitted to the German army,
1900
Solz
in
had
Abitur,
Kultusminister
Trott
v.
complained
zu
who
no
die
lung
1900
".
FrUjahr
Einstel
Fahnenjunker
he
ab
vom
als
when
wanted
..die das
der
Primareife
Zeugnis
besitzen,
jungen
Leuten
nicht
von
beschr9nkt wissen. " Ten years later the dispensation
given to some
Abitur
highly
in
the
the
criticized
was
without
applicants
officer
in
Karl Demeter, Das deutsche Offizierskorps
Military
Cabinet.
(Frankfurt
1650-1945,4th
1965).
Staat,
Gesellschaft
edition
und
p. 96ff.
2
Hbhne, The Order,
3
p. 446.
(Allensbach
1958-1964
1965).
Jahrbuch
fbr
Demoskopie,
Institut
90%
German
had
the
the
turn
the
Around
of
century
4.
of
population
p.
11.
Engelmann,
German
Education,
p.
only an elementary school education.
118
officer
corps and the percentage of university
German society
is even more starkly
sampled Fbhrerkorps
were university
graduates found in
revealed.
Whereas 30.1 % of the
graduates,
only
2.5% of German
in 1962 had completed a course of studies at
a recognized
1
In the light
university.
of these data one has to conclude that
society
SS during
the pre-war
years
of the educated 'elite
If
was able to attract
distribution
compared to the educational
officers
than the total
of university
branchess
of the other
patterns
The distribution
branch of the SS registered
percentage
that
corps sample is
of the
pattern
SS (A/SS) as shown in Table 5.1 shows that
A/SS had fewer non-.Abitur
part-time
of the total
distribution
are found.
variations
Allgemeine
percentage
of Germany.
the educational
considerable
a considerable
the
the
while
corps sample,, the
with 37.9% the highest
educated officers
of any branch.
This suggests
the A/SS provided for a large number of educated Germans the
necessary
of demands.
society
and 'elitist
political
that
It
from providing
soon became apparent
the privilege
UntersturmfUhrer
respectability
with
the least
to the educated segment in German
least
black
the
of wearing
uniform with at
rank badges opened many career possibilities
social
amount
respectability
in a society
aside
where anyone who
in
have
bed-room
had
the
to
be
to
a
closet.
uniform
somebody
wanted
2
1
für Demoskopie, Jahrbuch, p. 4. See also, Dahrendorf,
Institut
97.
Gesellschaft,
p.
2
by Zuckmayer in Der Hauptmann von KÖpenick,
The view portrayed
"Aber der Mensch fängt erst
beim Leutnant an, " was still
widely
held
in pre-1939 Germany. NeusOss-Hunkel wrote about the Allgemeine SS that
it served as a "Sammelbecken" for various people, one of the most
Ansehen,
Beziehungen
Geld
"Beschaffung
von
und
und
important
reasons
"...
dass
15.
Kater
SS.,
Die
wrote,
p.
Auslesemöglichkeiten
der
der
Anfang
des
Mittelstandes,
Vertreter
gegen
oberen
manch ein
(continued
....
)
119
The Totenkopf
had only
officers
distribution
officers
an elementary
The educational
education.
that administered
that
camps shows not only
almost
men, but also
were non--Abitur
highest
shows that 43% of that branch's
school
of the officers
pattern
concentration
(TV) distribution
that
this
the notorious
75% of the sampled TV
branch contained
percentage of elementary school educated officers.
findings
support
Hunkel,
statements
the previously
made statements
not based on quantitative
of the SS Neusbss-Hunkel
These
by Kautsky and NeusUss-
research.
Kautsky's
agreed with
the
In her study
assessment of the
den stumpfsten
when he wrote that he found "...
1in
11
that branch of the SS. While
und f aul sten Te i1 der Bevb 1kerung
...
concentration
camp guards,
the percentage
kopfverbAnde
of university
sight
it
in that
graduates
in the TV.
the majority
doctorates
The other
to find
fact
branch warrants
analysis
sciences
(23.3%) of university
of these cases revealed
holding a doctorate
doctorates
with
a few
and in anatomy and physiology.
by the distribution
revealed
At first
some comment.
held the Dr. med. degree,
between officers
those graduates without
high in the Toten-
branches of the SS, the percentage
However, a closer
in the biological
large difference
was unusually
such high percentage
of graduates
interesting
doctorates
officers
compared to the other
is surprising
graduates
that
of non-Abitur
(4.4%).
held a Staatsexamen or a
pattern
is the
(18.9%) and
Most of the officers
without
in pharmacology or the
Entwicklung mit Besorgnis verfolgte,
Jahre die politische
dreissiger
der
Mitglied
dass man, um sich abzusichern,
gerade
nicht
vielleicht
äusserlich
der
der
SA,
NSDAP,
wohl aber
weniger noch
egalitären
"Zum
"
Kater,
SS
sollte.
werden
und gut organisierten
attraktiven
des
der
Sozialgeschichte
in
SS
SA
Verhältnis
von
und
gegenseitigen
für
Sozial-und
"
Vierteljahrsschrift
1925-1939,
von
Nationalsozialismus
357.
p.
Wirtschaftsqeschichte,
1
NeusUss-Hunkel,
Die SS, p. 55.
120
biological
officers
little
with degrees.
graduates among the sampled TV
This suggests that
the Totenkopfverbande held
graduates on the whole, unless their
university
had provided
them with skills
which they could put to use
the most macabre experiments on the captive
performing
will
for
attraction
education
pigs.
There were no jura
sciences.
A closer
look at the Totenkopf officers
of non-Abitur
distribution
officers,
for
the SD shows a low percentage
a high percentage
and conversely,
both doctorate
graduates,
and non-doctorate.
branches,
the A/SS and the SD had the highest
graduates
within
a collecting
some time.
their
ranks.
for
point
While
"intellectuals"
many
11
...
qualities:
percentage
That the security
intellectuals
of all
were attracted
service
sorts
of university
of the SS was
has been recognized
for
accepted the fact
to the SD, he, nevertheless,
concerning the officers'
der Intellekt
of university
Compared to the other
Kogon in his study of the SS Staat
expressed scepticism
blieb
who held doctorates
be taken below.
The educational
that
human guinea
real intellectual
der Intellektuellsten
unter ihnen
ganz und gar auf die wirksame Förderung des SS-Staats-Systems
die
Ausführung zweckentsprechender Massnahmenbeschränkt. 111
und auf
Hbhne was of the opinion
intellectuals
that
whose object
the improvement of National
11
the refuge
for
National
the SD attracted
was both "...
Socialism. "
Socialism's
a group of young NS
professional
advancement and
Thus the SD soon became
most intelligent
,2
men.
1
definition
If one accepts Lipset's
Kogon, Der SS Staat, p. 351.
help
but
Lipset,
Kogon.
Said
intellectual,
cannot
one
agree
with
of an
betrachtet,
die Kultur,
"Ich habe als Intellektuelle
alle diejenigen
Kunst, Wissenschaft
d. h. die symbolische Welt des Menschen, einschliesslich
"
Dahrendorf,
Gesellschaft
Religion,
verteilen
anwnden.
und
schaffeng
und
309.
Demokratieg
p.
und
2
Hbhne., The Order,
p. 211.
121
The military
different
branch of the SS, the VerfOgungstruppe,
distribution
educational
branches of the SS.
the VT contained
pattern
The major differences
compared with the other
are, that the FUhrerkorps of
the lowest percentage of officers
Volksschulb
Only the fact
the total
of the other branches.
Other notable differences
VerfUgungstruppe
contained
degree,
university
by far
Another
The subject
was raised
after
in its
of the educational
rank in that
advocating
branch.
an Abitur
criterium
category
education
trained
some
warrants
from the recently
Fbhrerkorps.
standards
senior
in the VerfOgungstruppe
Waffen SS officers,
for selection
Thus, whereas the regular
for
a
of university
According to these two high ranking Waffen SS officers,
education
of Abitur
holding
Paul Hausser and SS Obergruppenfbhrer
important
was not an
the
was the only branch of the SS that
the war by two former
OberstgruppenfUhrer
percentage
having graduated
to have these graduates
claim
officers
achievement,
percentage
educational
the VerfUgungstruppe
created
occur in the Abitur
2.1% of the officers
With 7.6% of the officers
comment.
up to the level
With 34.6% of its
the highest
With only
had attended a
officers
educational
the VT hadthelowest
of any branch.
officers
could
as the highest
of any branch.
officers
of non-Abitur
graduate categories.
the Abitur
claiming
with only a
that more officers
secondary school brings
and the university
shows a
their
officer
Felix
SS
Steiner.
formal
to commissioned
armed forces were still
candidates,
1
the newly
1
like Generaloberst
Ritter
Some senior army officers,
v. Leeb,,
des
"Verw9sserung
Offizierskorps"
because
they
the
complained about
in the
felt
that more importance was placed on political
conviction
than
Wehrmacht
rather
standards.
on
educational
officers,
of
selection
Der Zweite Weltkrieg
in Chronik und
Hans Adolf Jacobsen, 1939-1945:
(Darmstadt
04.
1961
Dokumenten
122
created military
branch of the SS waived this
long as the potential
prowess'
officer
and was politically
formal requirement,
could demonstrate above average physical
2
reliable.
The statement
in November 1937 that
over 40% of the pre-war
had not matriculated,
3
study,
is in essence borne out by this
It
that
is the author's
contention,
50% of the sampled VT officers
deviation
from accepted
an equally
important
of the VT officers
the Abitur.
fact
practices
made by Himmler
VerfUgungstruppe
however, that,
had no Abitur
quantitative
while the fact
in the process of officer
the rigorous
look at the officers
officers
was a significant
which must not be overlooked
who completed
A closer
as
officer
selection,
is that
training
1/3
over
did have
of the VerfUgungstruppe
will
be taken below.
At this
point
the study
intends
to look at the educational
levels
1
Steiner described how he created a force of military
athletes,
in 20 minutes,
that could, for instance,
soldiers
march three kilometers
Steiner,
Wehrmacht officers.
Die Armee der
a feat that even surprised
Geachteten, p. 92.
2
Paul Hausser, Soldaten Wie Andere Auch (OsnabrOck 1966), p. 22.
had abandoned many of the traditional
That the VerfUgungstruppe
army
H6hne
Heinz
in
by
Steiner
with
a
conversation
ways was also emphasized
446.
The
Order,
1966.
Hbhne,
28
January
p.
on
3
Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 13. When Himmler stated in November
he undoubtedly
had no Abitur,
1937, that some 40% of the VT officers
have
but
Abitur
included in this all those officers
may
who
without an
interprets
in
his
book
this
Stein
Gymnasium.
statement as
attended a
1938
had
before
"...
40%
the
candidates accepted
officer
of
meaning
hand,
"
Hbhne,
the
states
other
on
only an elementary school education.
German version of Der Orden unter den Totenkop
in his original
11
...
kein
412.
"
der
Abitur,
40%
Junker
besassen
1938
p.
vor
This
his
interpretation
Hbhne's
has
quantitative
evaluated
and
accepted
writer
findings
accordingly.
Stein's
do
this
The quantitative
agree
with
study
not
of
results
had
VT
the
40%
that
officers
only an elementary school
of
statement
17.7%
VT
that
the
5.1
Table
officers
only
of
sampled
shows
education.
further
32.4%
had an elementary school education,
attended a
while a
secondary school.
123
of the SS officers
the SS.
in relation
to the time period
Table 5.2 shows that
the non-Abitur
in which they joined
officers
predominated
Table 5.2
in the pre-1933
officers
gradually
those officers
who joined
that
Although
declines
the percentage
between 1925 and 1933, (from 91.8% for
with an SS number under 1000 to 71.7% for those officers
had the most noticeable
effect
could
not only
officers
took place
in the university
of non-Abitur
dropped from 71.1% for
post-Machtergreifung
graduate
while
after
change
to this
study's
to 41.9% for
in the university
sample,
the immediate
graduate
The distribution
categories
thus
in Table 5.2 suggests that the educated stratum of German
refrained
Hitler
from committing
itself
to National
Socialism
until
had achieved power.
The trend
after
of
Thus the percentage
the SS, according
the 1931 to 1933 period
period,
dramatic
categories.
the percentage increased from 18.2% to 44.1%.
society
in January 1933.
the SS, but an equally
joining
officers
the Machtergreifung
of the
quality
be measured in terms of the percentage
joining
non-Abitur
on the educational
effect
doubt,
was, without
outlined
of non-Abitur
the SS between January 1931 and January 1933) the event
FUhr
Its
intakes.
of thousands
of Germans rushing
January 1933 is a well-known fact.
to join
the NSDAP
The number of "Mdrzgefallene"
in
imposed
May
be
had
Aufnahmesperre
to
that
a general
was so great
1933.1
The fact
that
National
Socialism
was so readily
embraced by
1
from
1933
1
1933
May
NSDAP
January
the
30
grew
Between
and
Der
Broszat,
1.6
Martin
members.
million
850,000 to approximately
Verfassunc
Entwicklung
Grundle
un und
seiner inneren
Staat Hitlers;
(Nbrdlingen
1969), P. Zbj.
124
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F-
125
Germany's Akademiker has been
commented on by Joachim Fest.
In The
Face of the Third Reich Fest
expressed genuine amazement at the success
that such a "... blatently
anti-intellectual
movement"' as National
Socialism enjoyed among German intellectuals.
As far as the SS
membership was concerned, it
for
recruitment
for
the SS, and that
2
reasons,
various
Table
Abitur
officers
percentage
5.2 shows that
remains
of officers
with
that
the years
joined
January
after
Reich held a university
a university
the first
it
Ka
such alte
1920.
studied
comes as no surprise
Boepple,
as Dr. Ernst
1
Fest,
the
to 44% during
at about 34% during
off
seventeen months of the Third
should
be of interest
at this
point
who some of these men were.
to find
among the joiners
of the SS
3a
Boepple,
member of the Party since
who came from an upper middle
modern languages
rises
of non-
Since 44% of the sampled officers
to demonstrate through case histories
It
education
and then levels
degree,
1933 the percentage
around the 40% mark, while
1934 to 1939.
the SS during
60,000 SS men were dismissed
eventually
constant
the 1933 to 1934 period,
Phase III,
is no secret that Himmler had to stop
and history
The Face of the Third
class
home background,
at the Universities
Reich,
of Tbbingen,
p. 376.
2
Hbhne, The Order, p. 142; see also, John Steiner,
Power
Politics
in National Socialist
Germany; A Process of
and Social
(Atlantic
Escalation
into Mass_C_hange
Distruction
Highlands, New Jersey 1976)
Lehrgang der Wehrmacht
p. 67. Said Himmler to the Nationalpolitischer
in January 1937, "So hatte ich im April /1933/ die SS wieder so weit am
Zügel, dass ich sagte:
es wird niemand mehr aufgenommen, und wir haben
dann von Ende 1933 bis Ende 1935 von den Neuaufgenommenen wieder alles
In diesen Jahren habe ich etwa
das herausgesetzt,
was nichts taugte.
60.000 Männer herausgesetzt. " IMT, vol. xxix, doc. 1992 (A)-PS, p. 210.
3
SS Oberf0hrer
Personnel File:
in Reutlingen.
BDC.
born 30.11.1887,
Dr. Ernst
Boepple,
SS #16698389
126
Paris,
Oxford and London.
The First
he completed in 1919 in Munich.
into
contact
War interrupted
his studies,
It was in 1919 that
Boepple first
the DAP (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei).
with
which
came
With the decision
to i oi n the party
in November 1919, he became one of the ".
91testen
..
des FUhrers. "l
Due to his long-standing
party affiliation
Gefolgsleute
his
in the civil
rise
Although
he only
OberfUhrer
service
joined
in April
2
seemed imminent.
the SS in February
1935.
beim General gouverneur
But it
an investigation
him dealing
heavily
Boeppl e.
instructions
this
the 55-year-old
into
in the local
4
ei ne ausgesprochene
Although
"den Fall
entries
file
1
Official
Letter
die SS
enquiry
beim Reichsführer-SS
against
was,
pol i ti sche Entschei dung des
...
Scherff
.5 there
of Boepple which suggests
At any rate,
of "Staatssekretgr
biography
and found
in the sale
especially
Boepple im Auge zu behalten
in the personnel
administrator
In 1942 the
of Boepple,
Himmler gave Gruppenführer
matter was not prusued any further.
2
Kampfer.
the activities
black market,
to SS Brigadefbhrer
of a senior
alte
The assessment of the SS-Richter
Reichsführer-SS.
further
the life
appeared that
Staatssekretar
Although Himmler "...
h9lt B. fbr
gasoline.
3
.. he was unwilling
launch an official
to
...
thi s was "...
that
1934, he was promoted to
in Polen, " and his promotion
SS launched
ungeeignet
1933 was rapid.
In 1940 Boepple was made "...
in Poland was too good for
of illegal
and in the SS after
the tide
that
of the
Beopple. "
Ibid.
dated 8 October
1941.
Dr. Ernst
to. Chef des SS Personalhauptamtes,
are no
Ibid.
3
"Vermerk
Betr.:
SS-Oberführer
Boepple, " dated 21 July
1943.
Ibid.
4
23 July
Letter of SS-Richter
Ibid.
1943.
5Ibid.
to Chef des SS Personalhauptamtes,
dated
127
war had turned,
his Position
and the approaching Russians would soon cancel forever
as ,Staatssekretar
Another
FUhrerkorps
educated
Kolb was also
born into
was a successful
and obtained
his Abitur
He was commissioned
experience
the outbreak
activity
philosopher
of National
to join
in 1912.
the regular
of the First
the Gymnasium
however, not to go to
army as an officer
in August 1914, just
War.
Kolb.!
his father
environment;
Kolb attended
He chose,
entered
It
cadet.
in time to
the war,
was only after
Kolb undertook
university
studies.
began in 1922 when he met Rosenberg, the hazy
Socialism,
the Party.
row of the Putchists
class
businessman.
the army,, that
His political
induced
an upper middle
the
of power, was Richard
seizure
Second Lieutenant
he had left
and after
Hitler's
and well-to-do
and instead
university,
Kampfer who found his way into
alte
of the SS after
beim Generalgouverneur. "
2
and through
him were dropped.
press and radio,
describing
was
On 9 November 1923 he walked in the front
and was briefly
3
his influence
In the late
1920's
imprisoned
before
charges against
Kolb worked actively
his work "Mein Kampf galt
1
Personnel File:
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
SS #60,827, born 29.6.1891,
in Bamberg. BDC.
for
the Nazi
besonders den
Richard
Kolb,
2
Kolb wrote a highly dramatic version of the events on 9
An example of his writing.
November 1923 and his role therein.
"Vor
der Postenkette
lagen Tote und Verwundete, mitten unter ihnen mein
der Diener Ludendorffs,
Bruder
Ich erkannte Bauriedl,
von
und
....
Scheubner-Richter.
Einer presste sich an den Randstein, wurde aber
der
bei
jedem
Körper
Treffer
anderen
zuckte
eines
mehrmals getroffen,
das
"
der
"Lebenslauf"
Auf
Strasse
Blut.
schwamm
of
von neuem empor ....
Richard Kolb, Ibid.
3
Harold
475.
p.
later
dropped
Indictments
against Kolb and his brother.
were
(Princeton
Beer
Hall
Putsch
1972),
the
Gordons Jr. , Hitler
and
It
128
klerikalen
Einflüssen
where he became "...
"1
Rundfunk.
am
kommisarischer
In 1932 Kolb was called
Intendant
der Berliner
to Berlin
Funkstunde. ,2
In 1934 "...
schied ich aus dem Rundfunk infolge persönlicher
3
Meinungsverschiedenheiten
ý,
it
aus ,
and
was from then on that he began
to devote
dividends,
rich
for
himself
to the study
someone to fill
the chair
Kolb was found to be
Science
to the army with
4
Kolb
in
1941
Cross.
Knights
the
and
was awarded
Kampfer to reach senior
of being one of the few alte
decoration
army and earn a
in
the regular
rank
bravery.
it
While
should
National
Socialists,
SS after
January
to find
not come as a surprise
a sound educational
with
1933, what is surprising
is the number of educated
prior
or affiliations
5
Calliebe,
One of these men was Otto Calliebe.
his father's
occupation
"
"Kaufmann,
obtained
as
to study
He then proceeded
Berlin
Marburg,
at
lost
quite
interests
have had any political
foreign
and Greifswald-
languages,
archeology
"Lebenslauf"
2
of Richard
not to
openly
to their
joining
described
who
his Abitur
in 1912.
and religion
In the Great War he was a flier,
East.
Middle
in
down
the
he
was shot
an arm when
1
long committed
background in the
1934
in
1933
SS
to
the
claiming
and
men who came
date.
looked
Jena
at
Universitat
In 1939 Kolb returned
the rare distinction
had, therefore,,
for
of Military
candidate.
the rank of major,,
This soon paid
science.
in 1936 when the Schiller
for
the most suitable
of military
Kolb.
Personnel
File:
After
and
his return
Richard
Kolb.
Ibid.
31bid.
4
Korps,
Schwarze
Das
5Personnel
born 15.5-1893,
1 June 1944, "TrAger
des Ritterkreuzes.
SS Oberf0hrer Otto Calliebe,
File:
BDC.
Randow.
Krs.
Z011chow,
in
11
SS 1111276,650,
129
from the war he completed
Calliebe
his Staatsexamen and the Padagogische
entered the teaching
days and was a Studienrat
gives
no indication
National
Socialism,
Unterrichtslektor
by the time Hitler
how he came to be attracted
itische
die
National
pol
an
His sole
politischen
Partei
political
statement
3
angehört.
a reputation
Soon after
acquired
quite
released
from the SS in 1934 ".
as an ardent
the rank of Oberfbhrer
"
Erziehungsanstalten.
1933 wurde ich als
"Vor 1933 habe ich keiner
was:
1933, however, Calliebe
Nazi
and
although
,
he was
he re-applied
der National pol iti schen
"Vizeinspektor
was
Thus the man who claimed
affiliations
I
K8slin
Erziehungsanstalt
ist"A
C.
einarmig
weil
..
Calliebe
5
to
By November 1944, when he was promoted to
in 1936.
and was re-admitted
Calliebe
came to power.
"Im Juli
he merely stated
berufen. .2
any political
during the Weimar Republic
profession
in his Lebenslauf
Prbfunq.
1
in 1933 not to have had
had come a long way in the political
of the Third Reich.
hierarchy
Rudolf
to no party
6
Bbhmer also
prior
to 1933.
the Gymnasium and obtained
1
Handwritten
stated
in his Lebenslauf
that
Born the son of a bookkeeper,
the Abitur
"Lebenslauf"
in 1930.
he had belonged
he attended
He participated
of Otto Calliebe.
in no
Ibid.
21bid.
3
#2,652,486.
1933,
in
May
NSDAP
party
joined the
Calliebe
Calliebe.
file:
Master card personnel
4
Personalhauptamt,
SS
to
Schulpforta
A.
E.
P.
Letter from N.
Ibid.
1936.
dated 22 April
5
Letter
to Chef des SS Personalhauptamtes,
dated 9 October 1944.
Ibid.
6
Bbhmer,
Rudolf
Dr.
SturmbannfOhrer
SS
Personnel File:
BDC.
Frankenthal/Saarpfalz.
in
9.5.1910,
born
SS #156,386,
130
Political
during
activities
the final
did he belong to any political
indication
Weimar
Republic,
the
of
years
The first
student organizations.
of his willingness
to accept National
Socialism
occurred in
1934 when he became a student of Karl Alexander von MUller,
of history
at Munich and President
a man described
as "...
Hitler
"'
power.
for
attained
a leading
After
of the Bavarian
long before
his Dr. phil.,
completing
a professor
Academy of Science,
historian
pro-Hitlerite
nor
Bbhmer worked
a few years
as a secondary school teacher, before becoming a full2
time. SS FUhrer in the SD.
In the SD B8hmer supervised the political
teaching
in the secondary
schools,
"Chef des Amtes Erziehung
in the SD, the erstwhile
and was liaison
officer
,3
im Erziehungsministerium.
disinterested
politically
11
weltanschaulich
that
he was recommended for
positiv
the
By his superiors
B8hmer was considered
in his work
" and so successful
gefestigt,
promotion
with
to StUrmbannfUhrer
at the age of
33.
joined
As a final
educated person who
example of an apolitical
5
be
Gritzbach
Erich
Dr.
1933,
the
should
the SS after January
case of
mentioned.
during
Gritzbach
the last
few months prior
years that
to the outbreak
First
the
of
World War.
a
In the four
Cross
Iron
the
he
Front
was awarded
he fought at the Western
2
Handwritten
Bbhmer.
3
secure surroundings
Abitur
his
Wilhelmine
decade of the
era, completed
1
Weinreich,
Rudolf
who was raised
in financially
"Beurteilung"
Hitler's
Professors,
"Lebenslauf"
45.
p.
of Rudolf
B8hmer.
Personnel
1943.
27
March
dated
Bbhmer,
of
File:
Ibid.
Ibid.
5
Erich
Dr.
OberfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Forst/Lausitz.
in
born 12.7.1897,
Gritzbach,
SS #885174S
131
and was given
a battle
the Grenzschutz
Dr. sc. pol.
field
in 1919, Gritzbach
from the University
1932 he served
Lebenslauf,
as a senior
became interested
Reich is:
civil
servant
"
2
Gritzbach
of the Third
in 1924.1
From 1924 until
3
(Regierungsrat).
In his
The first
when he first
reference
mich Ministerpräsident
ernannte
his
and obtained
gave no indication
Socialism.
Referenten
zu seinem persönlichen
a few weeks with
spending
university
of Tbbingen
in National
"Am 24.3.1934
Staatsministerium.
entered
in 1935,, Gritzbach
written
After
commission.
und Pressechef
to the Third
General GÖring
im Preussischen
remained on Gbring's
staff
until
the
"...
das
out
A
Buch Hermann Gbring, Werk und Mensch,
vielgelesene
and
an unquestioning
5
flattering
biography of his boss.
After the war Gritzbach found a job
collapse
with
Reich,
the Internationale
Montanunion
at a monthly
/ýritzbach7muss er
Since 1955, however,
From the above histories
the SS shortly
after
salary
von einer
1,60ODM.
of
'mageren'
leben. .6
Pension von 1.300DM monatlich
joined
in
1938
brought
and
it
Hitler's
was seen that
seizure
the educated men who
from
alte
ranged
of power
1
joined
the
Gritzbach
Ibid.
Gritzbach.
Erich
"Lebenslauf"
of
file:
Master
#3,473,289.
1933,
card of personnel
NSDAP in April
party
Erich Gritzbach.
2
his
in
Mosley
Leonard
Ibid.
Gritzbach.
"Lebenslauf"
of Erich
Dr.
Gbring
"For
his
chose
Gbring
staff
own
biography
states,
of
recent
151.
(New
1974),
York
Marshal
p.
Erich Gritzbach. " Leonard Mosely, The Reich
3
4
Berliner
Völkischer
5
Z9
14 September 1956.
Beobachter
(Berliner
"Ohne Kommentar. 11
Ausgabe),
6 March 1938.
(München
1938).
Aufsätze
Reden
Göri_ng;
Hermann
und
Gritzbach,
Erich
_
6
Berlin
When
1956.
the
14
September
courts
Zeitung,
Berliner
in
failed
he
to
Gritzbach,
appear
against
initiate
proceedings
to
tried
to
he
had
lawyer
prove
his
that
evidence
through
new
He
announced
court.
(Entlastungsmaterial).
his innocence
132
Kdmpfer,
whom one would expect
interests.,
Political
party.
Yet it
interests,
if
received
their
to join,
or who could
has also
to men who had shown no previous
not claim
been shown that
the men served their
membership in a political
regardless
of past political
and faithfully,
new masters well
they
due rewards.
The Eins_atzgruppen
Officers:
In the autumn of 1947 Brigadier
General Telford
Taylor,
the
US Chief Counsel for War Crimes, stated:
These defendants are not German peasants or artisans
drafted
into the Wehrmacht. They are not uneducated
juveniles.
They are lawyers, teachers,
artists,
and
They are, in short, men of
a former clergyman.
education,
who were in full
possession of their
faculties
and who fully
understood the grave and
sinister
significance
of the program they embarked upon.
They were part of the hard-core of the SS
They were
....
hand-picked fanatics,
everyone of them an officer
of the
1
SS.
General
Taylor
Einsatzgruppen
made this
trial
were charged with
averaged
at the opening proceedings
statement
SS
in
former
23
the
NUrnberg
members of
which
at
the murder of 1 million
Einsatz_gruppen
the
which
search for
This high number
persons.
day
for
1,350
to
a
murders
out
about
in constant
of the
the two year period
of the SD raced across the eastern
new victims.
The fact
that
during
territories
the men who headed
from
"...
in
the
Kommandos
majority
the Einsatzgruppen
came
and
2
Hbhne,
According
to
longer
..
is
intellectual
a secret.
no
professions
"The Jew liquidators
in fact
were a curious
academics, ministerial
qualified
officials,
collection
of highly
lawyers,
and even a
1
93-94.
Kommandos,
Eichmann
The
pp.
Musmanno,.
2
H6hne, The Order,
p. 357.
133
Protestant
and an opera singer. "
priest
The role
extermination
be looked
process
early
It
is,
age of 24.3
and the year
himself
strictly
to join
he felt
the elimination
in the Lutheran
to be relieved
prosecutor
his Dr. jur.
at the
take-over
of power,
the
educated middle
faith.
class,
1931, as a
In July
the Nazi party,
and in 1934
in the SS, and later
he was 32 he already
4
the SD, was
held the rank of
in 1947 Braune stated
At his trial
inferior
of the racially
immediate
at times
eastern
residents,
but that
Although he was on good terms with Otto
superior
of his awful
that
demanded
FUhrer
the
order which
about
misgivings"
he could do nothing about it.
his
Dr. Werner
Braune was born into
Wilhelmine
of
and was in command of an Einsatzkommando in the
some "inner
Ohlendorf,
the SS.
His rise
18 of the 23
that
was the 38-year-old
he had obtained
of the late
the SS.
Obersturmbannfbhrer
area.
fact
shall
in Nbrnberg were graduates
at the age of 22 he joined
By the time that
Simpferopol
trial
that
he joined
surroundings
and was raised
he decided
a disturbing
undesirables
That was in the year of Hitler's
before
comfortable
rapid.
indeed,
in the vast
played
and racially
One of the defendants
who prided
law student
SS officers
of politically
at the Einsatzgruppen
universities.
Braune,
the educated
at next.
defendants
2
that
1
duties.
he
never requested
why
officer,
Braune never once requested
To the question
a transfer,
by the American
Braune replied
"Herr
I
Ibid.
2
Werner
Braune,
Dr.
Obersturmbannfbhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
in
Mehrstadt/Thbringen.
11.4.1909,
SS #107,, 364, born
3
143.
Kommandos,
Eichmann
The
p.
Musmanno,
Ibid.
134
Ohlendorf
would have considered me a shirker.
testified
at the same trial
sufficient
order
occasion
in their
inner
the executions
that
in "
...
"
Thus,
on the part
In his opening
Ohlendorf,
however,
two and a half years I had
to see how many of my
opinion.
1
did not agree to this
I forbade
the participation
in
of these men and sent them back to Germany. ,2
statement
Ferenz spoke of the killing
to the tribunal
the US Chief
Prosecutor
of 33,000 Jews in Kiev in two days.
Ferenz
this
act an amazing feat "...
even among the ghastly records of
3
the Einsatzgruppen. "
This act of mass murder was carried out under the
called
general
direction
Brigadefbhrer
'C, ' the former SS
of the commander of Einsatzgruppe
4
Dr. Dr. Otto Rasch.
This senior SS officer
who held a
Dr. phi 1. in economics as well
Wittenberg.
as a Dr. j ur. , was the one-time
Rasch was considered
Hitler's
extermination
I
Ibid.,
one of the most brutal
programme, who frequently
mayor of
executants
of
appeared at the execution
p. 144.
2
It has been demonstrated on several occasions that it was possible
to avoid transfer
Professor Six, on trail
to an Einsatzkommando.
at Nbrnberg
from an
that it was possible to request a transfer
after the war, stated,
Einsatzkommando, "At least no one was ever shot for doing so. " Robert
(MUnchen 1964), p. 284. According to Robert
Kempner, SS im Kreuzverhbr,
Weida, refusal
to obey the order to shoot innocent people had no more
demotion
front.
Robert
to
transfer
the
than
or
serious consequences
in polizeilicher
Sicht, "
Gewaltverbrechen
Weida, "National sozial istische
329-335.
On
1966,
the subject of refusing
Kriminalistik,
vii,
pp.
vol.
in mass executions,
to participate
see also, Herbert Jgger, Verbrechen unter
GewaltStudien zur nationalsozialistischen
Herrschaft:
totalitarer
See also, Hans
(Freiburg
1967), pp. 64-67,68-71,152-157.
kriminialitat
Wochenschrift,
Welzel,, "Gesetzmassige Judent6tungen, " Neue Juristische
19 March 1964, pp. 521-568; also, Konrad Redeker, "Bewaltigung der
Wochenschrift,
11
"
Juristische
der
Neue
Justiz.
Aufgabe
Vergangenheit
als
hanged
Landsberg
Braune
1951,
Werner
June
8
On
at
1964.
prison.
was
June
264.
Kommandos,
Eichmann
The
p.
Musmanno,
3
4
Ibid.,
241.
p.
SS BrigadefUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in
Friedrichsruh.
7.12.1891,
born
Dr. Dr. Otto Rasch, SS #10791005
135
sites
to direct
financially
a tile
the operation
secure
and brick
at great
length,
defendants.
a fact
At the trial
in a
was the owner of
Rach reminisced
about his youth
which made him one of the more interesting
taught
him to love his country,
care to point
one had to show "respect
last
statement,
1
for
how everyone
knew that
yet
hunting
the Creator
his father
that
was not just
took
killing,
.2
and His creatures.
in the courtroom,
who heard
he was charged with
75,000 people,
asked himself,
of his father,
"to respect the Creator and His creatures"
how could this
and
to love and respect
Rasch stated
out to him that
Judge Musmanno described
Rasch's
His father
environment.
and how to hunt properly.
particular
and that
factory.
He was born and raised
He recounted how he was educated as a devout Christian
how his father
nature,
and stable
in person.
the murder of
the teachings
man reconcile
with the
Everyone waited for an answer.
murderous acts committed in the east.
3
But no answer was forthcoming.
Since the war Rasch suffered from
Parkinson's
Disease,
Einsatzgruppen
it
decided
was
which by 1947 had virtually
commander.
He was too ill
to postpone
trial
crippled
to give further
proceedings
against
the one-time
evidence
Rasch.
and
He died
1
Musmanno, The Eichmann Kommandos, pp. 243-44.
2
of hunting Rasch
Asked what he meant by the moral principles
individual,
the
demanded
that
German
in
the
even
"Hunting
sense
replied,
his
in
his
obligations
area, realizes
if he is completely
unobserved
from
is
he
to
that
everything
which
refrain
toward the creatures,
and
it
is
that
during
time
the
instance
prohibited
for
these,
shooting
violates
her,
her
only
shooting
and
need
ones
the
young
when
mother
shooting of
"
it.
Ibid.
for
to
passion
deliberation
ones
satisfy
not
on careful
3
during
Rasch
that
trial
by
the
brought
was,
One item not
out
home
to
Ukrainian
home
at
girl
who
was
work
servant
a
the war had brought
local
the
later
at
time
A short
complaints arrived
for his wife.
the
Rasch's
the
mistreating
that
severely
were
to the effect
Arbeitsam
the
that
the
such
proportions
reached
girl
of
The
maltreatment
girl.
File:
Personnel
the
take
intervene
away.
girl
to
had
and
Arbeitsamt
Otto Rasch.
136
from the effects
of the disease on I November 1948.
Regardless
SS StandartenfUhrer
executions
with
Biberstein,
4
executions,
his
of their
background or education,
Paul Blobel
2
who actually
carried
be it
out 33,000
3
Komando, or the SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
who as a former minister
insisted
and still
the architect
Ernst
supervised thousands of
at Nbrnberg that
he "did not sin against
the Commandmentsof Love, 115or the SS Sturmbannfbhrer Waldemar
Klingelhoefer,
Russia ordered
had left
all
6
who had been a professional
and who in
the immediate
the ghetto
execution of 30 Jews simply because they
7
they
at Tatresch
and gone home to their families,
showed a remarkable
charged with.
opera singer,
callousness
concerning
Judge Musmannostated that
the acts which they were
he had no difficulties
in
1
Musmanno, The Eichmann Kommandos, p. 245.
2
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
born 13.8.1894,, in Potsdam. BDC.
Paul Blobel,
SS #29,100,
3
Musmanno, The Eichmann Kommandos, p. 156. Blobel was hanged
264.
Ibid.
8
1951.
June
Landsberg
p.
prison on
at
5
4
Ernst Biberstein,
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Hildenbach Krs. Siegen.
SS #272,692, born 15.2.1899,
5Musmanno,
The Eichmann Kommandos, p. 207. Although sentenced
S.
U.
by
the
imprisonment
life
to
to death, the sentence was commuted
264.
Ibid.,
McCloy.
for
Germany,
p.
High Commissioner
6
Klingelhoefer,
Waldemar
SturmbannfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDCin
Moscow.
4.4.1900,
born
#52,704,
SS
7
Klingelhoefer's
210.
Kommandos,
Eichmann
The
p.
Musmanno,
S.
by
High
U.
the
imprisonment
life
to
death sentence was commuted
death
That
264.
Ibid.,
McCloy.
so
many
Germany,
p.
to
Commissioner
due
the
to
put
on
pressure
was
reduced
sentences were eventually
German
such
Adenauer
groups,
by
pressure
other
McCloy
and
Commissioner
and
politicians.
academics
organizations,
dignitaries,
women's
as church
),
(New
208.
1961
York
Nazis
Old
the
p.
Germany
New
and
The
Tetens
T.
.
Adenauer's
to
be
death
out,
carried
were
the
sentences
before
The night
Mr.
Speidel
to
Heusinger
see
Generals
came
and
the
advisers,
military
Thayer
Mr.
to
They
diplomat.
a
convey
liaison
S.
asked
U.
Charles Thayer,
hanged.,
Landsberg
"If
the
were
McCloy,
at
prisoners
Commissioner
to
message
The
Thayer,
"
illusion.
Charles
East
the
an
was
against
ally
Germany as an
233-34.
(New
1957),
York
pp.
ýaqRýiet Germans
137
a decision
reaching
11
or innocence of the accused, but
on the guilt
me as a human being was the question as to how and
what troubled
men should have strayed so far and so completely
why such well-schooled
from the teachings
of their
which many defendants
education
received,
out the murder of thousands;
carrying
Not only did the good
childhood-"'
made them more capable of carrying
not prevent
them from
their
on the contrary,
out their
education
tasks in a more efficient
manner.
The Concentration
CampDoctors:
der
War man einmal in die Behandlungsmaschinerie
Opfer
jederzeit
konnte
Reviere geraten,
ein
man
so
Der
"Forschungs"
vorhaben werden.
ehrgeiziger
Schlimmste in dieser Hinsicht war im Lager Buchenwald
2
Eisele.
Dr.
Zweifel
ohne
While one shares Judge Musmanno's thoughts
have strayed
men could
their
childhood"
concentration
and so completely
the
is
saddest chapter
perhaps
camps
in the administration
How a medical doctor
like
those prisoners
doctors
in the
in the role
and execution
which
of Hitler's
depot at K. L. Auschwitz
and
from
those
immediately
be
who
to
gassed
who were
1
246.
Kommandos,
Eichmann
p.
Musmanno,. The
2
of
3
Dr. Josef Mengele was able day after
day to stand on the ramp of the train
select
from the teachings
shown by some medical
the barbarity
educated men played
1aws.
so far
"how
to
such well-schooled
as
Staat,
SS
Der
Kogon,
p. 146.
3
Mengele,
Josef
Dr.
Hauptsturmfbhrer
SS
Personnel File:
BDC.
in
Gunzburg/Schwaben.
16.3.1911,
born
SS #317,885,
138
were to be worked to death,
Mengele was born into
Mengele studied
stable
spending
Erbbiologie
After
to Kassel.
SS-Standortarzt
Mengele was known to be particularly
who worked at the unloading platform,
quick
to one side.
1
5
It
research
instructions
When these would tell
zum Dr. med. .2
Institute
Mengele was posted as
Mengele versieht
seinen
3
Auschwitz. ý, At Auschwitz
and who were familiar
interests,
to children
Mengele that
fUr
severe in his selections
methods,
4
Prisoners
to the gas chambers.
sending whole transports
to whisper
at the University
at Frankfurt,
He
zoology and
ich in Frankfurt/Main
Since May 1943 "...
racial-biological
was
his Abitur
(Universit8tsinstitut
Race
Research
and
bei der Dienststelle
Mengele's
completing
his father
of Munich, Bonn and Vienna.
promovierte
und Rassenhygiene)
frequently
surroundings;
some time as an "Assistent"
Biology
"Truppenarzt"
"
to comprehend.
from Munich in anthropology,
In 1938 "...
of Hereditary
Dienst
financially
at the Universities
his Dr. phil.
physiology.
After
indeed, diffucult
and a "Fabrikbesitzer.
an engineer
obtained
is,
1
that
sometimes found time
looked somewhat alike.
they were twins,
was one way of escaping
with
he would put them
the gas chambers.
How many
his
his
Mengele
the
that
praise
of
severity
was
earned
ihm
"Mit
hat
Umsicht,
Ausdauer
Energie
superiors.
er alle
und
Aufgaben oft unter schwierigsten
Voraussetzungen zur
gestellten
Auf
Zufriedenheit
Vorgesetzten
vollkommensten
erfüllt
seiner
....
das
ihm
Kriegsverdienstkreuz
Grund seiner besonderen Leistungen,
wurde
dated
19
II.
"
"Beurteilung"
Mengele,
KI. /Schwertern
verliehen.
of
August 1944.
Ibid.
It
2
Handwritten
3
"Beurteilung"
4
Weinreich,
5The
"Lebenslauf"
of Josef Mengele.
Ibid.
1944.
19
dated
August
Mengele,
Josef
of
Hitler's
Professors,
Ibid.
p. 198.
in
Nazi
Crimes
Chief Commissioo for the Investigation
of
Poland. Concentration CampOswiecim-Brzezinka (Warsaw 1957), p. 88.
On Mengele's role as a concentration camp doctor, see also, Dr. Filip
(Warsaw
1945), pp. 61-62.
Oswiecim
Friedman, To Jest
139
real
twins there were among Mengele's research subjects,
of course, no
one knows.
Dr. Hannes Eisele'
whom Kogon described as "den Schlimmsten"
2
in Buchenwald, was raised as a devout Catholic.
of the SS doctors
After
his Dr. med. in 1935 Eisele worked for a while in a
obtaining
hospital.
His career
camp doctor
as a concentration
summer of 1940, when he was posted to Buchenwald.
Buchenwald Kogon wrote:
jede andere von SS-Arzten
Eisele
performed
tea with
prisoners
starben
the sick
them.
chloralhydrate.
Doctors
like
the former
at
Kremer, who obtained
wohl
conducted
to Kogon,
on prisoners
for
no
he would feed the
"Die
Herzschwachen
was
5
er /Eisele7
ab. "
The result
SS Obersturmfbhrer
to the noteriety
contributed
Eisele
According
operations
bay was too full
den Rest 'spritzte'
Johann Kremer
camps.
and other
sofort,
6
,4
begangene Gemeinheit.
amputations
or if
reason at all,
Of Eisele
"Seine Taten von 1940 bis 1943 übertrafen
on humans, and then killed
vivisections
3
began in the
his Dr. phil.
Dr. Dr.
(habil)
SS
doctors
the
of
in zoology
at the
in 1914, his
1
Dr. Hanns Eisele,
SS HauptsturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Donauschingen.
SS #237,421, born 13.3.1912,
2According
to his personnel file there is no recorded
his
Eisele
This suggests that
Kirchenaustritt.
severed
never officially
connection with the Catholic Church.
3
4
5
6
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Eisele.
Hanns
of
Kogon, Der SS Staat,
Ibid.
p. 146.
Ibid.
(habil)
Johann
Dr.
Dr.
SS ObersturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
b.
K81n.
in
Stellberg
26.12.1883,
born
#262,703,
SS
Kremer,
140
Dr. med. in 1919 and his Dr. habil
in 1929, was a physician
at camp
J.
Oswiecim_from 1942 on.
Professor
After
at the University
the war this
triple
doctor,
and a. o.
of Mbnster since 1936, was charged with
conducting 15 "Sonderaktionen"l
meaning selections in Auschwitz
2
jargon.
In addition to the "Sonderaktionen" Kremer was charged with
conducting
several
"Xrztevorstellungen,
those of the sick patients
or,
in camp jargon,
" which meant that
who were to be given the fatal
3
who were going to be "abgespritzt..
he selected
injection,
1
The Polish War Crimes Commission found the diary which Kremer
kept during his Auschwitz days.
Excerpts from the diary may shed
some light on what kind of a man he was.
2.9.1942.
5.9.1942
8.11.1942
At 3 o'clock,
time present at a special
was for the first
(Sonderaktion).
Compared with it, Dante's hell
operation
seems almost a comedy. No wonder Oswiecim is called an
(Umsonst
extermination
camp.
wird AusEhwitz nicht das Lager
der Vernichtung genannt).
Today, Sunday, an excellent
dinner:
Tomato soup, half
chicken, with potatoes and red cabbage, ... and a lovely
ice cream. At 8 p. m. was again present at a
vanilla
Sonderaktion.
Another Sonderaktion this afternoon,
the 14th which I have
In the evening pleasant company in the
attended here.
FUhrerheim.
The
Bulgarian red wine and Croatian slivovitz.
qhief Commission for Nazi War Crimes in Poland.
Camp
Oswiecim. pp. 83-84.
C
21n
1960 a West German court found it difficult
to establish
the exact number of people Kremer had sent to the gas chambers. The
files at Auschwitz showed that in 9 Sonderaktionen Kremer selected
7,735 people for the gas chambers. No records were available for the
If the number of victims for each
remaining 6 Sonderaktionen.
Sonderaktion was roughly the same, then Kremer could have selected an
the
Since no exact figures were available,
excess of 12,000 people.
court charged Kremer with the death of 5,000 people. Langbein, Im
Namendes deutschen Volkes, pp. 45-46.
3
According to witnesses Kremer selected between 20 to 60 sick
be
killed.
Since
be
the
to
could
not
ascertained,
exact number
prisoners
"Arztevorstellungen,
it
to
the
establish
number of
nor was
possible
the court declared that Kremer be charged with conducting 3 PYztevorstellKremer
The
3
killing
court
sentenced
prisoners on each occasion.
ungen
5 years loss of civil
to 10 years penitentiary,
and it revoked
rights,
178-179.
Ibid.,
titles.
his Doctor and Professorial
pp.
141
Gerald Reitlinger
in his history
of The SS recounts how one
day Himmler heard of a woman, who, married to a man 15 years her
junior,
sons.
and who herself
1
The Reichsfbhrer-SS,
join
constantly
interested
to three
in improving the
of men and women "of pure blood, " sought out
2
wonder woman, and asked her husband, a Dr. Sigmund Rascher, to
3
This started the career of one of the most notorious
the SS.
reproductive
this
had passed the age of 48, gave birth
capabilities
SS doctors
and experimenters
uneventful
youth.
on human beings.
As the son of a medical
Rascher had a very
doctor
he enjoyed the
comforts of an upper middle class home. According to his father,
home life
was a stable
to Stuttgart
later.
one and financially
The family
moved
at the end of World War I, and to Constance a few years
Here Rascher completed
to Freiburg,
secure.
the
his Abitur.
The young Rascher then went
4
It was at this time that
where he took his Vorphysicum.
1
Reitlinger,
The SS, p. 260.
2
Personnel File:
SS HauptsturmfUhrer
Dr. Sigmund Rascher,,
SS #347,142, born 12.2.1909,
in MUnchen. BDC.
3
The SS personnel file
of Rascher does not support Reitlinger's
It shows that Rascher married Nina Diehl nee Wiedemann, a widow,
story.
on 16 July 1941. At the time she was 39 years of age. She was, therefore,
6 years Rascher's senior.
According to Rascher's Lebenslauf,
written
on
6 January 1944, there were three sons, which he claimed were the result
Nina.
The
birth-dates
of his relationship
of two sons were,
with
November 1939 and April 1941. This would make Nina 37 and 39 when two
of her sons were born.
In her book, The Guest House; The Witnesses at Nuremberg, the Countess
Kalnocky, who ran the quarters where the IMT witnesses were housed, recalled
that one day an elderly
giving his name as Dr.
gentleman registered,
father.
Rascher.
It turned out to be the Dachau doctor's
The father told
15
Sigmund
had
Rascher,
His
the following
a
married
woman,
son,
story.
When
had
his
been
Himmler's
time
at
one
mistress.
years
senior,
who
Himmler objected to the marriage on the grounds that, because of the
Frau
it
Rascher
any
not
produce
offspring,
pretended
could
age
woman's
"robbing"
The
illegally
by
children
obtained
were
several pregnancies.
Through these children
them from orphanages.
she hoped to show Himmler
Ilona Kalnocky, The Guest House; The Witnesses
how wrong he had been.
1974),
222.
York
Nuremburg_(New
p.
at
4
"Lebenslauf"
of Sigmund Rascher. Personnel File:
Sigmund Rascher.
142
his parents
1
obtained a divorce.
separated and later
was awarded the Dr. med. from Munich.
In 1936 Rascher
His Lebenslauf omits the years
between 1936 and 1939, at which time he claimed to have become
a
to Ahnenerbe, a journal devoted to the racial study of the
2
Germanic heritage.
He joined the SS shortly before the outbreak of
contributor
the Second World War.
In 1941 this
member of the Luftwaffe
and a serving
temperature
to Field
für
The experiments
costly
began his high altitude
notwendig-,
...
of Liverpool
were called
die auf keinen Fall
which habe been described
in human lives'
camp Dachau.
in 1942 the experiments
Milch
die Luftwaffe
a member of the Allgemeine SS
at the concentration
experiments
Marshal
Lord Russell
unknown doctor,
by Kogon,
length,,
at considerable
and low
In a letter
"...
gerade
dürfen. "
unterbleiben
4
Reitlinger,
5
3
and
were extremely
-7
and were assessed after
the war in the following
terms:
1
2
Kalnocky,
The Guest House, p. 221.
"Lebenslauf"
of Sigmund Rascher.
Personnel
File:
Sigmund Rascher.
3
Letter to Generalfeldmarschall
Milch, dated 2 November 1942.
Ibid.
When asked about Rascher's experiments after the war, Milch denied
any knowledge of them. He only heard that Rascher was conducting
"standard physiological
volunteers. " David
experiments on Luftwaffe
Irving,
The Rise and Fall of the Luftwa? fe; The Life of Fieldmarshal
Erhard
Milch (Boston 1973)', pp. 304-305.
How Milch could deny knowledge of the
The letter
true nature of the experiments is, indeed, hard to understand.
that the experiments "Onnen bei uns
of 2 November 1942 stated clearly,
deswegen mit so besonderer Wirkung vorgenommen werden, weil der RFSS
übernommen hat, für diese Versuche todeswürdige
die Verantwortung
persönlich
Asoziale und Verbrecher aus den K. L. zur Verfügung zu stellen. " Personnel
File:
Sigmund Rascher.
4
Kogon, Der SS Staat,
5
Reitlinger,
180-183.
pp.
The SS, pp. 260-261.
6
History
The Scourge of the Swastika;
Lord Russell of Liverpool,
(New
York
1954),
175-177.
Crimes
War
Nazi
pp.
of
7
Kogon Der SS Staat,
183.
p.
A Short
143
Zur Entscheidung über ärztliche
Massnahmendie zur
Lebensrettung in Seenot Erstarrter
notwendig wurden,
waren die ersten 57 Versuche Holzlöhners und Raschers
Narkoseversuche an Freiwilligen.
Auch
ausreichend:
bei diesen waren bereits 13 Tote zu Beklagen, sodass man
es vorzog selbst diesen Teil der Luftwaffe vorzuenthalten,
Alle weiteren Versuche und Opfer waren gänzlich überflüssig.
But Rascher's
experiments
He was arrested
to her children,
by illegal
the children
with
not by the Allied
Himmler discovered
appears that
birth
were terminated
that
she had faked the pregnancies,
means from orphanages.
experiments
given
and obtained
Himmler charged Rascher
Sie gemäss Nr. 2 und 3 der SS-D. B. 0. zum SS-Mann und
life
the Rascher's
It
zwischen den Jahren 1939-1944, " and
Sie aus der SS aus. .2
schliesse
but by the SS in 1944.
Frau Rascher had not really
that
"4 Kinderunterschlagungen
degradiere
forces,
sooner than he had anticipated.
Mrs. Kalnocky wrote
became a capital
earned him praise
crime,
and honor. ,3
while
"...
that
the doctor's
According
part
of
heineous
to Reitlinger
the war, young Rascher
4
Frau
killed
liberated
Dachau,
before
Allies
the
while
shortly
was
5
Rascher was last seen at the concentration
camp RavensbrOck.
and the senior
1
Ibid.
Dr. Rascher's
testimony
after
182. note, 4.
p.
,
2
" dated 14 FebruarY 1944. Personnel
"Disziplinar-StrafverfUgung,
Once Rascher was arrested on the orders of
File:
Sigmund Rascher.
Himmler, the camp commandant of Dachau, and the senior medical officer
Rascher
launched
the
a
calling
at
camp,
a series of complaints,
261.
SS,
"
The
Reitlinger,
"dangerous" and "incredible
p.
person.
3
Kalnocky,
The Guest House, p. 222.
4
The SS, p. 261; Kalnocky, The Guest House, p. 222.
Reitlinger,
intelligence
Captain Payne-Best, the British
captured at
officer
bunker at Dachau.
Venlo in 1939, was with Rascher in the political
he
had
fact
that
boasting
the
"garrulous"
described
Rascher
Best
of
as
Captain S. Payne-Best, The Venlo Incident
invented the gas chamber.
(London 1950), p. 227.
5
Reitlinger,
The SS, p. 261.
144
The Verfbgung_struppen
After
Officer:
the war the former
and SS Obergruppenfbhrer
the FUhrerkorps
SS Obers gruppenfbhrer
Paul Hausser
2
Steiner
stated that in the creation of
Felix
of the VerfOgungstruppe
Wehrmacht's ways.. '3
the Abitur,
physical,
racial,
selection
importance,
34.6% of the sampled VT officers
percentage
the VerfOgungstruppe
branches.
of officers
Abitur
the
gave
who
however,
the relatively
high percentage
graduates of the
the future
fact
interesting
.
leaders
7.6% of the officers
as the final
Third
the
of
who joined
to the large
who claimed
4
it
Felix
Personnel File:
SS ObergruppenfUhrer
BDC.
Stallupbnen/Ostpreussen.
in
born 23.5.1896,
4
Social
that
with
between January 1937
Paul Hausser,
2
Hbhne, The Order,
an Abitur.
to have been
be
said,
may
the VerfUgungstruppe
1
SS Oberstgruppenfbhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Brandenburg/Havel.
born 7.10.1880,
3
percentage
stated aim to educate and
was their
Reich,
obtaining
from the
by Table 5.1 is
is
revealed
which
Since it
officers
significantly
school without
of VT officers
educational
of non-Abitur
is due primarily
a secondary
who attended
Conpared
the highest
did
differ
corps
not
officer
This,
Another
train
the Abitur.
percentage
may not
shows that
nevertheless,
held at least
In terms of the total
achievement.
other
Table 5.1,
requirements
branches of the SS, the VT had by far
of officers
selection
but who lacked the
standards,
While the educational
away.
have been of primary
to the other
they were abandoning the
No candidate who met the rigorous
was waived.
and political
was turned
"...
In the process one of the traditional
criteria,
Abitur,
1
Steiner,
SS #239,795,
SS #25393519
446.
p.
96;
Education,
German
p.
see also,
Engelmann,
376-77.
Reich,
pp.
Histo
Grunberger,
A
145
and September 1939 claiming
National
Socialist
With all
and political
to be graduates of these schools,
were beginning
schools
the talk
assets,
about ignoring
requirements
may not have been stressed
Wehrmacht, that
formal
the VT, nevertheless,
background
educational
is revealed
The two factors
ObersturmfUhrer
of the officer
2
officer
they become highly
Waffen SS during
the War.
to become a law clerk.
in the VT officer
leaders
combat
successful
This
a secondary
attended
after
1
SS
Kuhlmann3
they
sample,
of the
housekeeper,
a
mother
was
whose
Berufsschule
to
a
going
a law office
Herbert
had in common was, that
Hans Becker,
his father)
He entered
4
category
and second, that
tellter.
Hans Becker,
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
belonged to the non-Abitur
mittlere
to the
attention
cadets or Junker.
SS Sturmbannfbhrer
that
Hans Dorr
before
as much as they were in the
paid considerable
and SS ObersturmbannfUhrer
Reife
educational
of the SS Junkerschulen.
Bruno Beeck,
(he never mentioned
while
of some of
in the assessments made by regimental
again and again
commanders or in reports
in favour of physical
education
shows, that
officers
function.
their
look at the case histories
a closer
the young VerfOgungstruppe
to fulfill
that the
to train
he completed
He gave no political
school
until
the
as the Büroanges-
his training
reasons for
entering
in order
the
1
Hans Becker,
2
Bruno Beeck, SS #28890249
SS SturmbannfUhrer
Personnel File:
in PeenemUnde. BDC.
born 5.11.1911,
SS ObersturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
born 25.8.1916,, in Hamberge. BDC.
3
SS ObersturmbannfUhrer
Personnel File:
in Harburg/Wbrtt.
SS #118,826, born 7.4.1915,
4
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
Sontheim/Alg8u.
in
7.4.1912,
born
Herbert
BDC.
SS 247,838,
Kuhlmann,
Hans Dorr,
SS
146
VerfUgungstruppe,
and merely
ich bis zum Eintritt
verblieb
the SS on 30 June 1934.
as having
"...
of the War.
gute Lehrfähigkeit.
Cross "...
"l
As an officer
Fähigkeiten
gute geistige
company commander with
Knights
in die Leibstandarte.
the law officeT
Becker joined
but advanced
he was commissioned Untersturmf0hrer
the outbreak
und ausgesprochene
/in
He did not attend a Junkerschule,
through the ranks until
weeks before
"Dortselbst
stated:
"
the Leibstandarte
wegen höchster
he was judged
Bestimmtes auftreten,
...,
2
a few
In 1942, when he was a young
in Russia he was awarded the
Bewährung bei der Einnahme von
3
Charkow..,
Hans Dorr was born to parents whom he described as Erbhofbauers4
After
completing elementary school he learned the trade
eheleute.
of a butcher.
In 1932 he made his "Gesellenprbfung
then went to work in the local
a "Feinwurstspezialist.
.5
In April
in January of the following
Bereitschaften.
until
meat packing
There he soon became
plant.
1933 he joined
the Allgemeine
SS and
to the Politische
year transferred
He advanced through
im Fleischereigewerbes"
the non-commissioned
rank structure,
in 1937, a few months after
he was promoted to ScharfUhrer
6
he was sent to the SS Junkerschule at Tblz.
The Junkerschule
(sergeant)
assessment stated
sein Auftreten
"Oberjunker
vor der Front
Dorr ist
ist
1
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Personnel File:
Hans Becker.
2
3
Vblkischer
bestimmt
Beobachter,
4
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Hans Dorr.
Personnel File:
und sicher.
Becker,
Hans
of
Becker,
Hans
of
"Beurteilung"
"Dienstlaufbahn"
"
It
concluded:
dated 2 April
dated 21 June 1944.
1939.
Ibid.
31 March 1942.
of Hans Dorr,
Ibid.
6
bescheidener Mensch,
ein stiller
of Hans Dorr.
Ibid.
dated 10 June 1937.
...
147
"Ich
habe den Eindruck,
Schulbildung
Zugführer
und Aneignung von Kentnissen
wird,
Vorgesetzten
"Trotz
zu erringen.
Fächern ziemlich
he had only
Although
Beweglichkeit"
of Dorr stressed
".
his
..
continues:
had a most remarkable
sicheres
geistige
in July
Cross in September 1941,
1944.
A final
"Beurteilung"
him as
3
his
from
assessment
überhaupt
assessment
described
and
.. ."
Auftreten
Braun
They were
instructors.
" and
...
differenziert
wenig
an geistiger
"Er denkt ganz anschaulich
sagt alles
to
in November 1943, and the Swords
Kuhlmann was "geistig
that
in
fast
in the SS.
career
"mittelmassige
and
denkt,
so, wie er es
Kultur.
lebensnahe,
"
The
er ist
wobei er allerdings
SS
Junkerschule
by
the
Dorr
Hans
of
Dorr,
Hans
"Abgangszeugnis"
of
Ibid.
dated 26 October 1938.
3
Fleiss
und eisernen
Kuhlmann was at the SS Junkerschule
ihm an Sprach-wie
2
Beweglichkeit
geistiger
Führerpersönlichkeit..
the following
of the opinion
1
stated:
112 Once war broke out the
gute Leistungen.
as the 77th soldier,
ausgesprochene
unbelastet,
seiner
of Dorr's
report
He was awarded the Knights
When Herbert
report
gesunden Ehrgeiz
as the 327th soldier,
to the Oak Leaves,
"Es fehlt
ein guter
he advanced in six Years from Untersturmf0hrer
the Oak Leaves,
he received
The graduating
a Volksschul
Obersturmbannfbhrer.
a ll ...
1
11
Feinwurstspezialist
erstwhile
und Erfahrungen
und mittelmässiger
durch
er
seinen
Dorr bei weiterer
bemüht sein wird die Zufreidenheit
und stets
Volksschulbildung
schafft
allen
dass der Standartenoberjunker
Tölz.
from the SS Junkerschule
oft
Ibid.
Tblz,
1
1944.
The
dated
July
Hans
report went
"Beurteilung"
orr,
of
1e
1e
f
Auf
"
Kl
had
schnel
Dorr
assungsgabe,
are,
schnel
that
to
say
on
...
ist
"Er
the
nach
sentence
and concluded with
Entschlusskraft
Fähigkeiten
hervorragenden
Veranlagung
seinen
und
ausgezeichneten
seiner
"
Ibid.
Truppführer.
der geborene
148
die Gefahr läuft,
da wenig selbstkritischg
zu verfahren. "
unkritisch
As far as his education was concerned5 the instructors
Kuhlmann, who had attended
that
opinion
very hard "...
tried
Fehlen einer
geistigen
so dass er oft
the redeeming factors
deficient,
schooling
discipline.
to military
11
as a ...
ist
geistig
robuster,
2
... 9
lückenhaft
Junkerschule.
Thus, although
in early
years,
into
went
same year
In the heavy
commander.
"Bauernhof"
owned a
the "Real -Gymnasium" after
Cross.
the Hitler
attending
it
" Psychologische
four
for
Youth where he soon found himself
"Gutachten des Prüfungsausschusses.
Herbert Khulmann.
Personnel File:
3
in northern
Lehre. 114 The year was 1933.
1
vi.
readily
assessed him
1944, he was awarded the Knights
a "kaufmdnnische
he joined
he submitted
Bildung
Mensch," whose ".
..
and regimental
Bruno Beeck, whose parents
Germany, and who left
Kuhlmann
ObersturmfOhrer;
Kuhlmann
the
was an
war
of
By the outbreak
in Russia
were that
Kuhlmann was allowed to graduate from the
by 1944 he was a SturmbannfUhrer
fighting
and his
qualities
the psychiatrist
etwas kleiner
daraufarbeitet.
ziellos
Empfinden, " and that
deep
"soldatisches
possessed a
sich das
zeigt
While the board found Kuhlmann's intellectual
formal
2 years,
durch Bereicherung
"...
work
In his practical
Ausrichtung,
for
a Mittelschule
seine fehlende Schulbildung
des Wissens nachzuholen. "
were of the
In the
in the
Prüfstelle
21bi'd.
3
Das Schwarze Korps,
4
1 March 1944.
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Beeck.
Bruno
File:
Personnel
10
January
dated
Beeck,
Bruno
of
1937.
111
149
1
rank of Jungbannfbhrer.
senior
He was so successful
in the HJ that
with the age of 18 he was asked to become a full-time
1935 he became an SS recruit
joining
1935.
for
date coincided
Once again
in early
graduation
the leadership
decision
qualities
from Braunschweig
report
Schulbildung
2
erreicht.,.
and found him "...
laufbahn
with Hitler's
"Germania. "
durchaus
"Trotz
"
3A
Braunschw
seiner
few months before
George Stein
sich
in allen
in his
history
the main problems which the pre-war
lack
the
was
of experienced
sein
reliability
fbr die SS Fbhrer-
einwandfreiund
Beeck was killed
in Russia at the age of 25, he was lauded as a "guter
dessen Weltanschauung
His
nicht
und Energie
commended his political
weltanschaulich
Beeck's
in Beeck were soon recognized,
hat der durch Fleiss
The instructors
geeignet.
stated
In
to rearm Germany in March
1937 he was sent to the SS Junkerschule
abgeschlossenen
Ziel
in the SS Standarte
HJ FOhrer.
National sozial ist,
A
seinen Taten äussert.
of the Waffen SS wrote that
VerfOgungstruppe
officers
5
and NCOs.
one of
had to cope with
The few professional
dly
j
1i
ke
SS
Hausser
Stei
the
rapi
oi
rose
and
ner who
men
ned
mi 1i tary
in the hierarchy.
necessary
military
But not too many officers,
expertise,
joined
who possessed the
the VerfUgungstruppe.
It was,
1
background
As far as education (non-Abitur)
Ibid.
social
and
(small peasant proprietor)
is concerned Beeck was the typical representative
1936
leader.
It
that
the
Youth
Hitler
the
more
after
was
of
pre-1936
leader
"...
Youth
Hitler
leaders
the
more
position of
made
educated
107.
Youth,
Hitler
"
The
Koch,
'socially
p.
acceptable'.
2
dated
"Abgangszeugnis" of the SS Junkerschule Braunsc
Bruno Beeck.
31 January 1938. Personnel File:
31bid.
4
"Beurteilung"
5
Stein,
of Bruno Beeck, dated 14 November 1941.
The Waffen SS, p. 11.
Ibid.
150
therefore,,
decided
former
to attract
army NCOs into
regular
the FUhrerkorps
.1
of the VerfUgungstruppe.
were the former
Hoschke.
Two men who followed
Feldwebel
(sergeants)
of the army Willi
completing
Lehre. "
allowed
At the age of 18, however, he joined
Germany under the Versailles
before he received
instructor
on a jr.
This was the first
organization
it
took him until
(Unteroffizier).
NCO course when he was called
as "Kurs-und
time that
veteran
to train
he was appointed
.5
Bereitschaft.
of the Reichswehr,
1
Personnel File:
in Metz.
born 20.5.1908,
came into
It
contact
SS StandartenfUhrer
BDC.
2
SS SturmbannfUhrer
Personnel File:
born 25.5.1902,, in Schlossrippach/Thbringen.
3
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Braun.
Willi
Personnel File:
4
5
Ibid.
Ibid.
of Willi
A
He was an
upon to apply
he worked with a National
his
sergeant
"...
Willi
In
(Unterfeldwebel);
SS Manner vom Abschnitt
was here that
with
Braun, the 7-year
the SS.
Braun,
His leadership
SS #214,175,
Hugo Hoschke, SS #160,914,
BDC.
Braun,
4
Socialist
sense of comradeship.
June 1933 Braun was promoted to the rank of jr.
XI und der Politischen
1930
in der SA Gruppe SUdwest. "
PrOfungsleiter
and he was impressed with their
thereafter
Braun was sent
Bef6rderung zum Gefreiten. "3
vorzeitige
he was promoted to corporal
expertise
Although
and senior NCOcourses,
a "...
by an aunt.
the 100,000-man army
Treaty.
year later
shortly
and Hugo
he went into the "kaufmannische
elementary school,
to attend the junior
military
Braun
1
the SS
2
Braun was orphaned at the age of 11 and raised
After
to join
the call
dated 7 May 1934.
151
and potential
as a teacher was recognized by the army for,
he given another "...
transfer
to the infant
poignant
observation
in the regular
Bef8rderung zum Feldwebel" but he was
vorzeitige
also recommended for officer
At this
training.
in his Lebenslauf that,
because he felt
his social
that
SS on 1 May 1934, and was commissioned
The army supported
Dienstleistungszeugnis
schule Abschnitt
the transfer
"Braun
sich
dabei
ist
against
I
He transferred
Untersturmfbhrer
eine Stelle
to the
and his years
origin
and stated
to the
1
August
on
in the
als Leiter
der SS-Führer-
in sich
auf allen
schliesst.
Gebieten
.
Fähigkeiten
und Leistungen
dass eine Lebens, zum mindestens
Angebot,
3
., The report
1auded "...
seine
" and assessed him as a
...
Mensch, der immer bemüht ist
strebsamer
him.
um ein seinen
sehr günstiges
eine Dauerstellung
...
he were commissioned
XI angeboten worden, wo B. schon einen Kurs geleitet
Es handelt
Leistungen
even if
he spent as an NCO. He transferred
as an other rank would not be held against
entsprechendes
Braun made the
army, he would always have been discriminated
VerfUgungstruppe
hat.
Braun decided to
point
VerfUgungstruppe of the SS.
because of the time that
1934.2
not only was
sich weiter
zu bilden.
5
By 1935 Braun was a company commander and in 1938 he was
dat
Sol
descri bed by hi s superi ors as a"--.
mi t ausgezei chneten
geborener
6
The fact that the report also stressed that
FUhrereigenschaften. "
1
Ibid.
2
"Dienstlaufbahn,
" of Willi
31
Dienstleistungszeugnis
dated 11 April 1934. Ibid.
Braun.
Ibid.
über den Feldwebel Braun,
Ibid.
5
6
of Willi
"Dienstlaufbahn"
"Beurteilung"
n,,, -, nkor
IqIR
of Willi
Thid
Braun.
Ibid.
Braun by the 11. Standarte
"Germanja,,"
152
Braun was an officer
shows that
...
der immer bemüht ist
the VerfUgungstruppe
furthered
officers
"
their
placed some value on the fact
After
education.
campaigns Braun was assessed:
the Polish
"Er geniesst
crumbling eastern front,,
3
NCOwas promoted to StandartenfUhrer.
Socialist,
National
it
point
the fullest
that
he would never be able to exercise
the NSDAP in May 1933, no mention
his Lebenslauf,
saw obvious
advantages
reliability
on him.
in joining
The case of Willi
a successful
VerfUgungstruppe
Reichswehr
a young,
them to
he joined
in
attitude
to in any
Braun was a man who
aggressive,
social
and traditionless
devote
to
stigma
trade.
to the military
transition
Although
ever referred
Most likely
force which would permit him without
military
himself
written
army.
is made of his political
nor is his political
8eurteilungen
the
of
the erstwhile
man who possessed leadership
a military
in the tradition-bound
extent
Braun was leading
may be asked whether Braun was a convinced
or merely
but who felt
qualities
and French
1945, while
a regiment on the fast
At this
that their
im ganzen Offizierskorps
Ruf. ý2 On 30 January
einen ausgezeichneten
sich weiterzubilden"'
Braun shows that
former
from NCOto senior officer.
army NCOs could make
The small
in the pre-war era depended on such men to supply it
with the much needed military
that
hand,
the
shows
other
on
leadership.
no all
The case of Hugo Hoschke,
men were successful
in their
new
1
Ibid.
2
"Beurteilung"
dated 3 October 1940.
3
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of Willi
Ibid.
Braun by the SS Regiment "Germania, "
of Willi
Braun.
Ibid.
153
roles
Hoschke, who came from working class background,
as officers.
began his trades training
as a tool
and dye maker.
The revolution
of
1918, however, interferred
with his training
at the Rheinische Metall
'
He was laid off.
Hoschke never returned to
und Maschinenfabrik.
complete the course,
even after
remained an unskilled
labourer
Reichswehr as a private
had returned.
For the next 8 years Hoschke was a conscientious
1933 he was released
had expired,
leadership
with
from the army after
the rank of sergeant.
his 12-year
3
as Braun had, he was not an idle
Hoschke took up trades
service
4
"Maschinenbauer..
course as
interest
for very
Lichterfelde.
important
,5
long,
He
in a tile factory until he joined the
2
in 1921.
He was trained as a communications
in the army, and was promoted lance corporal
specialist
1925.
normal conditions
training
Civilian
factor
soldier
enlistment
in
and in
period
While Hoschke did not display
soldier
either.
In the
once again and completed a
life,
for he soon joined
The political
(Gefreiter)
however, did not hold his
the "SS Sonderkommandoin
does not seem to have played an
for Hoschke did not join the NSDAPuntil two years after
6
he joined the SS.
Four months after joining the SS Hoschke was
7
it
By
1938,
had
become
however,
Untersturmf6hrer.
clear
commissioned
role,
1
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Hugo Hoschke.
Personnel File:
2
Ibid
3
4
5
dated
1934.
6
Hoschke,
December
Hugo
of
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
6
Although he
The date Hoschke joined the NSDAPis uncertain.
behind
his
joining
is
there
#3,601,622
question
mark
a
received party
Ibid.
Master
1935.
April
1
card.
date of
7
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Hoschke.
Hugo
of
Ibid.
154
dass SS Hauptsturmführer
wie als Arbeiter
als Führer
im Stabe des Sturmbannes bewiesen habe. "'
The report
by the then BrigadefUhrer
was written
general,
Hoschke seine Ungeeignetheit
who was then "Inspektor
of the opinion
".
that
..
sie werden durch seine
ausgeglichen.
2
Hoschkes geistige
Hausser concluded
als
Hausser was
Befähigung
Soldat
and therefore
113
Hoschke
werden.
was released
from the VT in December 1938, but the outbreak
prompted his
recall.
He was, however,
further
one
received
The fact
VerfUgungstruppe
in their
schools
was not without
in
Hitler
the
and
SS was seen as the elite,
physical
caliber.
"
cause.
to an incessant
of easily
calculable
3
4
size
and hand-picked
Ibid.
Hoschke.
Hugo
of
5
Education,
German
Engelmann,
The Waffen SS, p. 13.
p. 87.
Ibid.
had
highest
the
manpower of
dated 23 July
Ibid.
6
Stein,
'
,5
The
mass reaction.
The VT also had an advantage insofar
"Dienstlaufbahn"
all
of National
the Verfbgungstruppe
1
To the Chef des SS Personalamtes,
2
to the
propaganda
There the virtues
Youth.
and especially
of small
6
flocked
".
fi
tti
1
every
ng
and earni ng was aimed at
..
into the same pattern
the advantage
the Abitur
One has to remember that
had been subjected
Soci al i sm were extol led,
student
given no combat command and only
so many young men with
the young Abiturienten
of the War
4
promotion.
that
nicht
Erprobung bei
zwecklos"
gekündigt
aus;
nicht
gedienter
"Eine weitere
der SS-VT scheint
11... muss ihm wegen mangelnder
"
Gaben reichen
12-jährig
that
lieutenant-
the one-time
der Verfbgungstruppe.
Erfahrungen
einem anderen Truppenteil
Hausser,
that
1935.
it was
Ibid.
155
for
possible
the volunteers
that of the regular
to obtain
a level
of training
In view of the prestige
army.
branch of t he SS enjoyed it was easy for the
frequently
secondary school graduates,
army which accused the SS of snatching
The VerfOgungstruppe
prior
the opinion
exemplified
these youngsters
of the Waffen SS" young men "...
blind
obedience
highest
of all
orders
aims were loYalty
completed
(Reichsarbeitsdienst).
"...
emanating
teacher
spending
Junkerschule
After
SS OberfUhrer
Ibid.
spirit
and whose
completing
Hugo Kraas,
his labour
service
"Germania. ,5
rank,
from where he graduated
as Untersturmfbhrer
all SS infantrymen
Commandosand United
Hugo Kraas,
Kraas5
Hugo
undated.
of
After
Kraas was sent to the SS
291-292.
pp.
,
5
"Lebenslauf"
the
But ten months after
to the SS regiment
SS OberfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Witten/Ruhr.
born 25.1.1911,
4
he joined
12.
p.
4
to the
to the Labour Service
1
Stein stated that up to 1938 "...
nearly
British
to
troops
trained
similar
as assault
were
States Army Rangers. " Ibid.
3
...
is of
In 1933 Kraas
from the Ruhr.
time as an other
at Braunschweig
21bid.,
Stein
themselves
from the FUhrer
and went straightaway
the army he transferred
his obligatory
commanders
the real
who had consecrated
the Reichswehr as a Reserveoffizieranwgrter.
joining
ablest
and toughness. .3
school
his Abitur,
young
to September 1939.
One such young man was the former
son of an elementary
to attract
to the chagrin of the regular
2
the best applicants.
from among the young Abiturienten
that
which the armed
some of its
recruited
to
superior
Ibid.
SS #28956335
156
in 1938.
The Junkerschule
geistiger
1
Mensch. "
11
wurde als
In the spring
his actions
assessed him as a "...
Führer
erster
seines
Regiments mit dem E. K. I.
of 1943 Kraas was decorated
3
the Knights
with
In January
commander in the "Leibstandarte,
375th soldier
und stark
During the French campaign the 29-year old Kraas
in the Kharkow sector.
regimental
sensibler
und Tapferkeitsleistungen.
the then 33-year-old
In the final
Cross for
1944, Kraas,
by now a
" was decorated as the
with the Oak-Leaves for his "...
A
ausgezeichnet.
hervoragende Fbhrungsof the war,
major offensive
Kraas commanded the 12th SS Panzerdivision
"Hitler
Jugend. .5
August Dieckmann
6
was the son of a junior
official.
In spite
of his lower middle
financial
handicaps,
he was determined
he obtained
that
other
his Abitur
he could
students
only
in 1932.
afford
1
"Abgangszeugnis"
August 1938.
Ibid.
background,
railway
and severe
to go to the Gymnasium from where
in his Lebenslauf
Dieckmann stated
his secondary
and found additional
class
ranking
school
work after
of the SS Junkerschule
fees because he tutored
school.
A grant
Braunschweiq,
gave
20
2
in the
Ibid.
Stein wrote that Kraas was the first
officer
French campaign to receive the E. K. I. The Waffen SS, p. 63. Hbhne,
The
Order,
Stein
his
the
statement.
as
same
who uses
source, makes
p. 460. Kraas' personnel file makes no such claim; it merely states
Iron
Cross
his
to
the
that Kraas was the first
of
regiment
win
officer
in the French campaign.
3Das
Schwarze Korps, 23 December 1943.
4
"Pressenotiz"
Eichenlaub für Re imentskommandeur in der LSSAH.
He was awarded the Oakleaves on 25 January 1944. Personnel
Kraas; see also, Das Schwarze Korps, 29 January 1944.
5.,
Personnel
Di-enstlaufbahn"
of Hugo Kraas.
Hitler's
Guard, p. 124.
Weingartner5
see also,
6
File:
File:
Hugo
Hugo Kraas;
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
August Dieckmann,
Personnel File:
in
Cadenberge.
BDC.
29.5.1912,
born
#183,917,
SS
2
"
157
him a "Schulgeldermassigung.
"
1
Thus the years in sedondary school
were not easy ones for the young Dieckmann.
in his life
in the following
einer
ernsten
Karakters
Entbehrungen eine frühe Bekenntnis zu
Lebensauffassung
aufrichtigen
zur Folge. "2
Dieckmann's entry
not have been due to any inner political
in his Lebenslauf:
wenig Gelegenheit.
"Zur politischen
ich in ihr die grösste
Vaterlande
und eine Festigung
individuelle
widmen zu k6nnen.
May 1937 by which time
A
fand ich als Schüler nur
not boast of any political
his entrance with "...
Möglichkeit
graduated
the NSDAPuntil
from the SS Junkerschule.
Dieckmann
the successful
made
which
demonstrated
during
he
became
the
commander
early
war, were
The fact
that
to earn money to pay for
he was forced
at a time when it
education,
was not customary
degree
high
of tenacity
work, showed a
Junkerschule
Willenskraft
1
1935.
mentioned
und Lebenseifer
Handwritten
Ibid.
2
3
4
for
Murch
Gymniasasten
and perseverance.
....
"Lebenslauf"
praktische
Er will
to
trait
in
gehärtete
Fälle vorwärts
dated
8
Feburary
August
Dieckmann,
of
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
5
"Dienstlaufbahn"
school
At the
Lebenserfahrung
auf alle
in his life.
his secondary
assessment emphasized this
the psychological
Dieckmann when it
weil
sah mich meinem
Dieckmann did not join
he had already
The personal qualities
for he stated
convictions,
Tätigkeit
he justified
meines
into the SS in 1933 could
113 Since Dieckmann could
involvement as a student,
period
"Diese Lebensführung hatte durch
terms:
die Ertragung von mancherlei
He described this
of August Dieckmann.
Ibid.
5
158
kommen."i
Dieckmann did turn out to be a determined and tenacious
He reached the rank of Obersturmbannfbhrer
officer.
SS
by June 1943.
He
earned the Knights Cross in 1942; he was awarded the Oakleaves as the
of the SS Division
3
posthumously.
.2 and the Swords to the
second officer
Oakleaves
The fact
that
Kraas and Dieckmann had received
around 1933 is revealed
made no political
that
in their
biographical
he had no time to become involved
struggling
student.
that
evidence
In the Lebenslauf
he went not only
under the influence
of National
had actually
attended
in Italy
a number of years,
father
claimed
for
through
Dieckmann openly admitted
in politics
a school
for
he could
Brand attended
not deny the influence
r der NSDAPin Italien.
he came ".
..
frbh
BerUhrung. .6
He expressed
1
"Gutachten
verhaltnismassig
considerable
des Prüfausschusses,
pride
he
but that
some time,
"Landesgruppenleite
who was
that
had been
system that
Although
one of the Napolas.
he was a
4
Brand,
one finds
while
of Heinrich
Socialism
While Kraas
sketches.
in his Lebenslauf,
statements
Abitur
their
"5
school
of his
He also
in
der
Bewegung
mit
in the fact
" dated 15 April
he was
that
1935.
The
following
in
the
Dieckmann
Junkerschule
the
assessed
at
psychiatrist
Willenseinsatz
"Ausreichende Intelligenz,
terms.
zielbestrebter
...
"
the
Zähigkeit,
fanatischer
Seine Ziele verfolgt
concluded
and
er mit
die
bis
kann
"Für
Aufgabe
an
er sich
eine
report with the sentence:
letzten Grenzen seiner Leistungsfähigkeit
und ohne Rücksicht auf sein
"
Ibid.
Wohl
einsetzen.
persönliches
2
3
Das Schwarze Korps,
"Verlustmeldung"
10 June 1943.
22
October
dated
Dieckmann,
August
of
4
SS HauptsturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
in Spandau. BDC.
born 11.10.1916,
1938.
5
Handwritten
Ibid.
6
Ibid.
"Ein Wikinger. "
"Lebenslauf"
of Heinrich
Heinrich
Brand,
1943.
Ibid.
SS #313,052,
Brand., dated 11 December
159
told
by the Reich Youth Leader in September 1934 "...
Schulbildung
auf einer NPEAbeenden. 111 He further
summer of 1935 he travelled
Hier lernte
to "...
Auslandsdeutscher
commented upon, but unlike
leadership
Grenze.
Standartenjunker
"...
But not all
kennen. 2
Weltanschauung" was
gefestigte
der wenig hervortritt.
the young men that
the aggressive
nor were all
the fanatical
Kurt Meyer.
Alfred
definite
.3
were attracted
the rigorous
leadership
qualities
National
Socialist
Graf zu Dohna-Schlotbitten
Prussian
Junker family.
The young count
had a private
to the Verfbgung-
of the Junkerschulen
4
which Stein commented on,
training
by
type as examplified
5
came from a well-known
As such he was brought
National
the
to
of
most
unknown
surroundings
At the Junkerschule,
Kraas and Dieckmann who demonstrated
and who passed through
and established
hatte,
at the SS academy, Brand was assessed as a
abilities
officers.
Ostpommerman die polnische
Intresse
he
which
attended in 1938, his "...
portrayed
described how in the
ich in Deutschland den Volkstumskampf, an dem ich als
ehemaliger
struppe,
ich k6nnte meine
tutor
Socialist
until
leaders
up in
and SS
the age of 15, at
he was sent to the "Realsymnasium des Landschulheimes
6
Neubrunnen, " wherehe obtained his Abitur in 1936. After fulfilling
which time
1
2
3
his
Ibid.
Ibid.
"Abgangszeugnis
der SS Junkerschule
Tblz, " dated 15 August 1939.
Ibid.
4
Stein,
The Waffen SS, p. 12.
5
Personnel File:
SS #279,993,
Schlobitten,
1938.
6
Handwritten
Ibid.
Alfred Graf zu DohnaSS ObersturmfUhrer
BDC.
in Danzig.
born 20.9.1917,
"Lebenslauf"
of Dohna-Schlobitten,
dated 21 February
160
Labour Service,
obligatory
joined
and studying
the VerfOgungstruppe
Dohna-Schlobitten
in April
had difficulties
applied
1937.
"Forstwirtschaft"
But from the beginning
to the environment he
adjusting
encountered in the SS.
The fact
Protestant
he was commissioned was a point
As late
church
as 1943 a "Beurteilung"
D. noch kirchlich
Festigung
felt
after
nicht
"Es fehlt
gebunden ist,
gesprochen
of Dohna-Schlobitten
of contention.
".
..
nat. soz.
At the Junkerschule
die Härte und Bestimmtheit
" Da
stated:
kann von einer restlosen
werden.
assessment was that
concluding
he remained a member of the
that
2
he
his instructors
der Meinung .3 and the
,
Dohna ist
nach dem Ablauf
des
Lehrganges
in
keine
nur zum Führer geeignet,
wenn er
verantwortungsvolle
A
kommt.
From the above comments it is clear that the young
Stellung
Dohna, whose family
produced a number of well-known
w as not the type required
This
by the elite
has shown that
chapter
between (1) the education
in,
to join
segment was considerably
members of this
Ibid.
has also
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of Hitler's
relationship
in
time
the
period
which
and
been shown that
the educated
in the Fbhrerkorps
overrepresented
hesitate
did
group
not
in the execution
1
It
Reich.
and the branch he chose to serve
of the officer
the SS.
of the Third
discernible
was a
there
(2)
the education of the officer
and
he decided
skills
formation
figures,
military
to apply their
racial
policy
of Dohna-Schlobitten.
and that
knowledge and
once war began.
Ibid.
2"Beurteilung"
of Dohna-Schlobitten,
dated 21 May 1943.
3
"Beurteilung"
of Dohna-Schlobitten,
dated 14 December 1938.
4"Beurteilung"
of Dohna-Schlobitten,
dated 25 February
Ibid.
1939.
Ibid.
Chapter VI
OCCUPATIONSOF THE SS OFFICERS AND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC
HOMEBACKGROUNDS
As early
mUssen die
as 1922 Hitler
Kampfer kommen."l
bard of National
"...
stratum
biography
Socialism,
der sich
of Hitler,
Alfred
the German Mittelstand
Rosenberg,
dem Weltbetrug
as the only
habe. 112 Fest,
widersetzt
out that
the dictator
the "...
auf diese
Weise eine nur sehr schwer zu erschütternde
von ebenso grosser
Opferwilligkeit
More recent
studies
of the NSDAP have shown that
Partei
des unteren
bedrohten
Mittelstand
...
und hat sich
Anhängerschaft
und zäher Kampfbereitschaft
which have dealt
with
the social
gesichert.
1,5 Broszat
stated
A
composition
the Nazi Party was in essence "...
Mittelstandes.
in his
with
mobilized
vom Untergang
social
his emphasis on
3
Lueger
Karl
of
who
the techniques
copied
the hazy philosophical
the Mittelstand
praised
pointed
"Aus den Reihen des Mittelstandes
stated;
in 1970 that
eine
National
Socialism's
die
Formeln,
der
neue
sämtlich um den wagen Inbegriff
nationalen
und sozialen Erneuerung kreisten,
waren
Widerspiegelung
der Richtung und Motivierung
der
1
Völkischer
2
Fest,
Hitler,
Beobachter,
30 August 1922.
213.
p.
3
Karl Lueger was the well-known anti-semitic
mayor of Vienna around
have been described as "...
His politics
the
the turn of the century.
built
into
the
transformed
phantasy,
upon
politics
of
reason
politics
of
"
Allan
Janick
Stephen'Toulmin,
&
blight
of anti-semitism.
social
(New
York 1973), p. 50. Lueger's anti-semitic
Vienna
Wittg_enstein's
policy
Antidescribed in P. G. J. Pulzer, The Rise of Political
is further
(New
Austria
York 1964)_. See esp. chapter 18, pp. 162-70.
in
Germany
Semitism
and
4
5
Fest,
Kater
Hitler,
p. 213.
"Soziographie.
" p. 159.
161
162
sozialen Dynamik der Mittelschichten,
Massenbasis der NSDAPbildeten. 1
Peter
Strachura
in his recent
die die soziale
study of German Youth in the Weimar
Republi c wrote that
it had been established
beyond
doubt
in
previous
. ý.
w rks on the rise of National Socialism that the NSDAP
gathered a great proportion
of its support from that
section of German society that had been most devastatingly
by the economic dislocation
crippled
and financial
vissisitudes,
namely the lower middle and middle middle
2
class.
David Schoenbaum in an earlier
1933 workers,
in the NSDAPwhile,
roughly
to the total
relative
"...
white
population,
collar
workers
research
more precise
were underrepresented
by
were overrepresented
NSDAP" that
der der Facharbeiter
that
if
Handwerker,
untere
Kaufleute
und
could
composition
of the NSDAP
"Soziographie
in
his
say
to the pre-1923
der ungelernten
ist,
one included
of the social
Thus, Kater
according
der Prozentsatz
method in historical
use of the quantitative
estimates
have become available.
verhältnismässig
in "...
den unteren Mittelstand
Angestellte
und mittlere
alle
1,5
hundert.
62.6
von
so ergeben sich schon
3
Schoenbaum, Hitler's
Kater, "Soziographie,
Ibid.
Facharbeiter,
Landwirte
Beamte,
sowie
und
des
Führerbindung
und
No. 4,
Zeitgeschichte.,
Nazi Youth in the Weimar Republic
Peter Strachura,
& Oxford 1975), p. 57.
5
niedrig
114
höchsten.
Kater
found
Handwerker
am
und
2
4
der
membership list
party
Arbeiter
1
"Soziale Motivation
Martin Broszat,
für
" Vierteljahreshefte
Nationalsozialismus,
October 1970, p. 396.
Barbara
in
of Germany found that
65%. .3
With the increased
frbhen
history
social
Social
"p.
153.
Revolution,
72.
P.
(Santa
/
163
In 1972 Heinrich
certain
occupations
He found,
that
they comprised
Winkler
force
Winkler
private
25.6% and 8.3% respectively
2
On the other
hand,
who made up 12% of the work
5.1% of Germany's labour
force
made up
of the Nazi membership just
prior
to the
3
Machtergreifung.
Table
those
made up 45.9% of the German work force,
Angestellte
and Beamte who comprised
of
1
found in the NSDAP.
28.1% of the NSDAPmembership.
only
distribution
the nation-wide
and compared them with
although Arbeiter
found that
listed
6.1 shows the occupational
distribution
of the total
corps
Table 6.1
The occupational
sample.
that
the untere
the untere
FUhrer
breakdown of the total
corps sample shows
is overrepresented.
When the occupations
Mittelstand
Mittelstand
belonged
are added up one finds
to that
stratum
that
of society.
4
1
"Extremismus der Mitte?
Heinrich Winkler,
Aspekte der national sozial istischen
Machtergreifung,
fUr Zeitgeschichte,
No. 2, April 1972, p. 181.
of
58.7% of the sampled
Not surprisingly,
Sozialpolitische
" Vierteljahreschefte
2
is of the opinion that the high percentage of
Albrecht
Tyrell
Arbeiter
in the NSDAP (28.1%) was faked so that the NSDAPcould call
34,000
discovered
that
Tyrell
itself
there
Arbeiterpartei.
were
an
in the party prior to September 1930. Only by averaging this
Arbeiter
total with 121,000 members, which was an "imgingre Bezugszahl, " instead
had,
Nazis
the
the
300,000
the
able
were
party actually
members which
of
379.
FUhrer befiel
Tyrell,
p.
to claim a 28.1% Arbeitermitgliedschaft.
...,
3
Winkler,
4
"Extremismus der Mitte, " p. 181.
Kater's
Mittelstand
the
In the classification
untere
of
der
"Soziographie
frbhen
in
his
found
as
categorization
occupational
following
Therefore
the
to.
occupations were
NSDAP" was closely
adhered
(skilled
Facharbeiter
Mittelstand:
in
the untere
included
workers);
(lower
llte
(tradesmen);
Angest
and middle
Handwerker
untere und mittlere
Beamte (lower and middle level
level employees; untere und mittlere
(military-NCO's
Mannschaften
Militar-Unteroffiziere
und
servants;
civil
(small
(peasant
Kaufleute
Landwirte
proprietors);
ranks);
other
and
half
in
(elementary
teachers);
Vokksschullehrer
addition
school
businessmen);
Mittelstand.
included
in
Schankwirte
the
untere
as
were
such
the
entrepreneurs
of
164
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165
since
the study
finds
the Arbeiterschicht
that
deals
exclusively
highly
9.5% of the pre-1923
in the Fbhrer
If
untere
the officer
with
Nazis were Arbeiter,
the percentage
of Arbeiter
was a mere 1.1%.
one compares the percentage
of Arbeiter
found in the officer
accepted distribution
Whereas Kater found
underrepresented.
of the Schutzstaffel
Mittelstand
corps of the SS, one
and members of the
corps with
in German society,
the generally
the under and over-representation
of the two social
groups becomes all the more apparent.
Regardless
1
it is generally
of the model used,
accepted that between 40-50% of
the German labour
force
falling
into
percentage
the sampled officers
representation
are Arbeiter,
the untere
belonging
of this
Mittelstand.
With only
with
59% of the sampled officers
into
the untere
holding
revealed.
Similarly,
which place them
occupations
the overrepresentation
1.1% of-
the under-
is clearly
of society
the same
approximately
to the Arbeiterschicht
stratum
Mittelstand,
with
of this
group is
demonstrated.
Equally
obere Mittelstand.
interesting
results
According
to a number of sociological
between 5-10% of Germany's work force
as the obere Mittelstand.
of the officers
1
belonged
2
has occupations
In the pre-war
to that
stratum
For the various sociological
100.
Demokratie,
Gesellschaft
p.
und
2
are found when one considers
of society.
models,
that
Fbhrerkorps
3
the
are categorized
of the SS 33%
Especially
the
models used, see, Dahrendorf,
Ibid.
3
The following
occupations were placed in the obere Mittelstand:
(military-officers);
(artis-t-s-T;
Kbnstler
h6here privat
M-ilitgr-Qffiziere
(senior
(senior
h8here
Beamte
Angestellte
private
employees);
servants);
civil
(students);
(jurists);
(professionals);
Studenten
Juristen
Akademiker
(Secondary school and university
Professoren
teachers).
(continued)
---und
166
Akademiker (Freiberufliche)
11%
jurists
the
of
sample
and
-
of the sample - are most noticeably
Table 6.2 illustrates
10.7%
-
overrepresented.
the rates at which men from the various
Table 6.2
joined
occupations
corps sample, it
greatly
the SS.
is readily
Compared to the joining
seen that
during
overrepresented
19301,35% of the ungelernte
By the time of the Machtergreifung
The overrepresentation
Phase I.
It
the period
Arbeiter
were
By the end of Phase I.
in this
study had joined
the percentage
of the untere
is during
the ungelernte
Phase I.
Arbeiter
rate of the total
Mittelstand
had risen
December
the SS.
to 70%.
is also seen during
January 1931 to January
1933 that
all
lower
Mittelstand,
the
the
and
of
untere
exception
occupations of
with
1
40%
Whereas
level
civil
servants,
middle
were overrepresented.
of the total
the skilled
middle
civil
level
1933,60.8%
by
in
SS
January
the
corps sample was
workers,
private
servants,,
school teachers
Hitler's
been a watershed
63.5% of the tradesmen, 48.9% of the lower and
employees,
34.6% of the lower and middle
43.1% of the former
landed proprietors,
of
NCO's and soldiers,
level
44.4% of the
54.1% of small businessmen, and 40.8% of elementary
had donned the black uniform.
seizure
have
to
1933
30
January
appears
of power on
in the joining
pattern
of the various
occupational
groups.
Students
in
included
this
category.
were
Also half of the entrepreneurs
Abitur
the
had
and
them
obtained
because
either
included
of
all
were
they
SS
full-time
attending
still
were
or
officers,
embarked on careers as
university.
1
likely
is
caused
the
joining
most
servants
civil
rate of
The slow
join
to
forbade
servants
Government's
civil
which
edict
Prussian
by the
Mit
Reich;
im
Dritten
Beamtentum
Mommsen,
Hans
KPD.
NSDAP
the
or
either
Schriftenk_ý
h
iti
ik
1
1n
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i
Lt11at
ten
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ol
nýýaLm
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e
sc
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sl
sti
soz
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iat
ti
11
Que
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zur
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196
itgeschichte
Stuttg
t
Ze
Or
te
fte
art
geschichte
Zei
t
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ff
V
der
e1jahresche
rt
reiihe
167
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169
Officers
drop off most dramatically
of the Arbeiterschicht
Machtergreifung
the exception
The occupations
era.
of former
school teachers
fall
in the post-
of the untere Mittelstand,
non-commissioned
military
hand, professions
of the obere Mittelstand
overrepresented.
While the joining
and elementary
personnel
below the sampled corps joining
On the other
rate.
are, for the first
rate for the total
with
time,
corps sample
between February 1933 and June 1934 was 29.5%, 38.5% of the senior
employees entered the SS during this
private
the Akademiker
jurists.
42.6%
the
and
of
17 months of the Hitler
9.0% for
corps,
teachers
to 27.7% for
and university
Hitler
in the realm of art
analysis
44% of the sampled secondary
between February
joined
"conversion"
the
sudden
aware of
Socialism,
those who "suddenly change their
as though nothing
the 1933 to 1934 period.
in the occupational
professors
was well
to National
intellectuals
that
from
rose
doctorates
with
of officers
are substantiated
demonstrates
which
June 1934.
all
the percentage
it
the
the
officers,
of
education
with
the 1931 to 1933 period
These findings
of the
percent
regime.
In the chapter dealing
was shown that
Forty-four
teachers entered the SS during the
secondary school and university
first
time, as did 46.9% of
and issued a stern
flag
had happened in order
and cultural
policy.,,
2
of the
school
1933 and
of the
warning
against
into
the
new state
and move
have
to
a main say
once again
3
IA
between
the
independence
social class of
test
of
Chi-Square
the
SS
joined
the
in
they
substantiates
the
which
period
the officers
and
Table 6.2. That is, there was a statistically
from
drawn
generalization
between social class and
level
001
the
beyond
relationship
. For the detailed Chi-Square
significant
joined.
the
officer
in
which
period
260.
I,
Appendix
7,
Table
p.
see
tabulation
2
124.
5.2-3,
p.
See Table
3
Fest,
Face of the Third
Reich,, p. 382.
170
Aside from the senior civil
still
of the obere Mittelstand
22% joined
the SS between 1925 and 1933, and only a
between February 1933 and June 1934.
join
pure transfer
absorbed
senior
the German police
natural
But the third
military
Hitler
bearer
military
January
regular
almost
nucleus
regular
their
after
these officers
to join
establishment
demonstrated
of arms'
in the new state.
establishment
of this
should find
3 million
strong
SA, advocated
Rbhm, of course,
army was totally
the SS.
June 1934 was the fact
it
was still
that
the 'sole
the German
of Rbhm. Between
took place which made the
friend
closest
of a new German army and that
forces.
into
way
their
handling
was Hitler's
which would control
from the army, it
The event which convinced
Rbhm, Hitler's
acquired
reason for members of the former
army that
1933 and June 1934 developments
army uneasy.
on a
1934 that Himmler
release
the SS after
to the regular
such as
Since a number of officers
and perhaps most important
be established
military
that
it was after
in a number of officers
was also after
forces.
in the police
positions
was only
Second, it
First,
veteran organizations
This move brought
basis.
date.
this
rate after
Himmler absorbed several
the Kyffhauserbund.
Why did so
June 1934? There are several events which
after
account for the high joining
June 1934 that
group
which held back was that of former officers.
Only 22% of them had joined
many officers
point were
to come into the SS, the only other occupational
reluctant
further
servants who, at this
that
para-military
of Defence should
and regular
was to head the new ministry.
opposed to this
of an
the SA should become the
a new Ministry
all
leader
and
idea.
I
The
When Rbhm was finally
1
The SS, p. 55; see also,, J&n
Reitlingers,
in
The
Army
Politics,
German
Power;
Nemesis
The
of
-p-.
308.
1954T,
W. Wheeler-Bennett,
1918-1945 (London
171
by Hitler
eliminated
and was henceforth
in June 1934, the army breathed a sigh of relief
1
more prepared to cooperate with the Nazi regime.
The general easing of tension
between the regular
in Germany and the new Government most likely
retired
officer
It,
corps.
one of the para-military
therefore,
formations
of the Third
joined
officers
31.2% joining
between July
became quite
also warrants
civil
servants
assumed power.
immediately
June 1934, only
itself
caste unto
and cared
the joining
little
rate
1
Ibid.,
rate
an additional
2
of the war.
of the senior
Table 6.2 shows that
had come into
that
civil
servants
only 17% of the sampled
the SS by the time Hitler
25.6% that
the Machtergreifung,
is true
The most
was that 23.6% of the former
42.6% of the sampled civil
While it
uni f orm.
to join
and most prestigious
1937 and the outbreak
With an additional
following
in the
1934 and December 1936, with
slow joining
some comment.
felt
appropriate
of the new regime.
The result
between January
The unusually
senior
Reich.
establishment
made itself
obvious choice was the SS, the most disciplined
formation
military
it
joined
had
in the period
can be seen that
servants
by
had donned the black
the h8here Beamtentum in Germany was a
".
did
the
admit
outsiders
not
on
whole
which
..
.
for
political
of this
3
.,
it
values,
professional
must be pointed
out that
distorted.
is
somewhat
group
The
p. 325.
2
became
for
officers
that
The fact
more career opportunities
1934,
June
VerfUgungstruppe
contributed
only
in
the
after
available
during
Phase
this
joining
high
sample
study's
the
of
to
rate
marginally
joining
the
with
because
satisfied
is
were
This
most officers
III.
in
the
fraction
careers
military
new
SS
seeking
a
only
Allgemeine
with
ýofthe
SS.
13-r-a'nn-ch
3
Practice
National
Structure
The
Behemoth:
and
of
Neumann,
Franz
1942,
373.
(New
first
1963),
York
p.
published
1933-1944
Socialism,
172
distortion
is unintentional
been included
because
the jurists
and occurs
in the h6here Beamten category.
the sampled jurists
were civil
Since a large number of
and since 42.6% of the jurists
servants,
rushed to the SS during the 17 months period following
the joining
Machtergreifung,
rate
for
the senior
civil
would undoubtedly have been higher had the jurists
A closer
look at the jurists
will
have not
Hitler's
servant
category
been included
here.
now be taken.
The jurists:
In his book Gesellschaft
und Demokratie
in Deutschland
Dahrendorf
jurists:
German
the
wrote about
deutschen
der
innerhalb
die
Juristen
Jedensfalls
sind
durch
die
Klasse
ein
grösste einzelne,
politischen
Merkmal
bedeutendes
gemeinsames
wahrscheinlich
Eine Wanderung über einige
herausgehobene Gruppe.
kann
Gipfel der Macht in der deutschen Gesellschaft
Bereichen,
in
dass
Juristen
allen
uns zudem zeigen,
der
Konzentration,
in
an
unterschiedlicher
wenn schon
1
Spitze stehen.
The question
that
arises
again Dahrendorf
supplies
profession
opposed to a more specialized
Wunsch nach einer
a law student
.3
zu werden.
2
Ibid.,
that
"
2
which qualifies
receives
If,, therefore,
1
Dahrendorf,
answer.
jurists?
of
In his discussion
many young men study
because of a "...
disciplines
Eliteausbildung.
does
the Fbhrerkorps
why
high percentage
a suitable
he states
is,
point
inordinately
an
such
the SS contain
German legal
at this
It
is the general
of
Once
of the
law, as
konsequenten
training
which
him "Experte des Allgemeinen
"Wunsch
the
nach
a young man expressed
Gesellschaft
Demokratie,
und
262.
p.
p. 265.
3
Dahrendorf explains
for
more specialized
studies
Fbhrungspositim
in
a
career
that those students who gave up their
for
studies also gave up expectations
Ibid.
law
a
173
einer
Eliteausbildung"
the elite
formation
is it
so illogical
of the current
for him to desire to join
regime?
Johe in his book Die gleicKgeschaltete
1933 "...
January
offen
bekannten
zur NSDAP.'11 This
of the jurists.
Table
the SS prior
however,
Socialism.
is also noticeable
trend
6.2 shows that
1933 were sincere
say.
Johe questions
were convinced
conservative,
that
The fact
of this
A perusal
\ range of reasons
2
Ibid.,
jurists
they were more
days more
university
2
One cannot deny that
partially
sympathetic
42.6% of the sampled jurists
entry
into
jurists
the
shows a wide
of
3
Dr.
UntersturmfOhrer
the SS.
Arnold Bacmeister4 was one of the oldest
1
Johe,
is hard to
group.
"Lebenslgufe"
the
of
their
in
1933 and June 1934 demands a closer
occupational
for
to the Nazi Party
that
anti-semitic.
joined
toward National
many of the "Marzgefallene"
that
pattern
of power,
aloofness
least
at
views would make many
the SS between January
examination
seizure
and from their
and basically
Socialism.
in the joining
flocked
He is of the opinion
and nationalistic,
these political
to National
that
Staatsanwälte
und
and how many were pure opportunists
the fact
Nazis.
orientated
Hitler's
before
stated that
13.2% of the jurists
to abandon their
How many of the jurists
vblkisch
only
to the Machtergreifung.
early
entered
nur wenige Richter
sich
caused many jurists
Justiz
Die gleichgeschaltete
National
Justiz,
Socialist
jurists
in
197.
p.
198.
p.
3
Such
in
this
jurists
wellstudy.
Only lesser-known
are examined
dealt
in
been
Best
have
Werner
Dr.
considerable
jurists
with
known
as
142-152.
Heydrich,
Reinhard
Aronson,
pp.
in other studies.
detail
4
Arnold
Dr.
SS
Untersturmf0hrer
File:
Personnel
BDC.
in
N.
Heilbronn
13.11.1907,
born
a.
SS #277,480,
Bacmeister,
174
the sample.
The son of an Oberstaatsanwalt,
the Universities
from Berlin
Berlin.
and
of Thingen
in 1931.
After
Hitler
by this
fällt
der dargelegten
task
...
for
him to write
es mir schwer,
Feststellung,
his career
alter
den schwarzen
mein Reichsführer,
auf Grund
zu müssen mich in
background,
in the Propaganda Ministry,
was released
however, did not
he
continued
where
to
film
censor.
a
as
function
1
Master Card.
1937.
"Als
vortragen
A
Bacmeister
zu entlassen.
racial
übertrat.
...
3
ý,
been
have
an
must
to Himmler:
die Bitte
Ehren aus der Schutzstaffel
5
His spotty
three weeks later.
it
in der 8. Generation
Stolz
der
SS
Führer
mit
und als
Ihnen,
,2
in
a routine
when
it
and
revelation,
by
His life
the Schutzstaffel.
system seemed secure,
was shattered
Nationalsozialist
affect
der Filmprbfstelle.
Leiter
habe ich den Ahnen meiner Mutter
difficult
Rock trägt,
to Berlin
der im Jahre 1725 vom Judentum zum Christentum
festgestellt,
extremely
stellv.
Socialist
"...
check
Bacmeister
law degree
of the Stuttgarter
assumed power he was called
Bacmeister decided to join
in the National
racial
became editor
Bacmeister
Goebbels who made him "...
was then that
his
His affiliation
from university,
NS Kurier.
He obtained
law at
with the NSDAPwent back to 1926
1
the party a few months after his Abitur.
Upon
when he joined
graduation
Bacmeister studied
2
Handwritten
Ibid.
He obtained party #38,455.
"Lebenslauf"
Arnold
of
3
Letter of Arnold Bacmeister
Ibid.
dated 2 December 1937.
4
Ibid.
Bacmeister,
to "ReichsfUhrer-SS
dated 22 February
Himmler, "
"Wie
Ihre
letter
the
the
sentence,
with
Bacmeister concluded
ich
Reichsführer,
aufhören
nie werde
Entscheidung auch ausfallen mag, mein
hoch
ihre
Ideale
fühlen,
SS
der
stellen
zu
dem
Geist
zu
verbunden
mich
"
Ibid.
Tugenden
ihre
nachzueifern.
und
5
Master Card. Ibid.
175
Obersturmbannfbhrer
Lutheran pastor,
early
teens
his
where
Abitur
but he was also raised
the family
father
took over a larger
to Munich,
his law degree in 1933.2
Munich where he was active
at the univeristy
that
in National
in the NSDStB.
3
the SD, and remained with
the collapse
of the Third
des Reichssicherheitshauptamtes
sich
schaft
bannführer
..
the intelligence
branch until
he was "Verbindungsfbhrer
" he was described
Parteikanzlei,
zur
als ein alter,
juristische
was in flay 1934 that
It
bew9hrter
appears
of the NS journals
Nationalsozial
lange Jahre vor der Machtübernahme innerhalb
bereits
für
".
began in
" but it
sozial istische
In 1944, while
Reich.
he
he remained
graduation
Hilfsarbeiter,
Recht. 4
Beyer joined
later
Socialism
In June 1934 he was editor
"Jugend und RechC and "Deutsches
by his superiors
After
"national
head
to
a
was
his main function
"
Two years
to Jena where he obtained
that
as a "wissenschaftlicher
Arbeitsgemeinschaft.
In 1928 Beyer passed his
at Marburg.
His interest
In his
Pomerania to Thuringia
parish.
and a year after
the son of a
was not only
as a devout Lutheran.
moved from his native
and began his law studies
transferred
Beyerl
Dr. Justus
ist,
der
der Studenten-
hat. 115 He was promoted Obersturm-
die Bewegung eingesetzt
1944.6
June
21
on
1
Beyer,
Justus
Dr.
ObersturmbannfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Pommern.
Stolp,
Krs.
in
Schurons,
16.4.1910,
#107,138,
born
SS
2
Handwritten
3
4
"Lebenslauf"
of Justus
Beyer,
undated.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
5
"Beurteilung
Ibid.
7 May 1944.
6 "Dienstlaufbahn"
des SS Sturmbannfbhrers
of Justus
Beyer.
Dr. Justus
Ibid.
Beyer, " dated
176
In 1971 Simon Wiesenthal,
the renowned Nazi hunter and director
of the Dokumentationszentrum
in Vienna, wrote to the then Chancellor
the Federal
Willy
German Republic,
German chancellor's
Dr. Ludwig Hahn.
attention
'
Brandt,
a letter
of
in which he drew the
to the case of the former Standartenfbhrer
It appears that
the case of the one-time "Chef der
Sipo und SD in Warshau" between 1941 and 1944, had been under
'investigation'
in Hamburg..
for
2
been responsible
and other
for
the state
Wiesenthal's
camps.
attorney
was propelled
urgings.
was the cause of all
Pawiak prison
the transport
concentration
a case that
years
by the "Staatsanwaltschaft
Hahn was charged with causing the death of numerous
in the notorious
prisoners
that
the past twelve
4
3
in Warsaw, in addition
of 5000 Polish
It
was only with
in Hamburg proceeded with
into
prominence
Who was this
the furor
prisoners
great
to having
to Auschwitz
reluctance
the case against
Hahn,
by the German press at
erstwhile
Standartenfbhrer
in the German press?
who
In his meticulously
1
Dr. Ludwig Hahn, SS #65ý823s
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Eitzen,
Krs. Uelzen, LOneburger Heide.
born 23.1.1908,
2
Letter
of Simon Wiesenthal to Chancellor
10 January 1971. Wiesent-hal Archive.
3
"Zwölf
2 May 1972.
Jahre Ermittlungen
für
Willy
Brandt,
dated
NS-Prozess. " Süddeutsche Zeitung,
4
"Der
Allgemeine Zeitung of 5 June 1972 wrote:
The Frankfurter
Fall 'Hahn' wir schon vor Prozessbeginn der Fall 'Hamburger Justiz'
in
jüdischen
Dokumentationszentrums
des
der
Leiter
Erst
als
geworden ....
Wien in einem Brief an Bundeskanzler Brandt fraaete,
weshalb sich
NSErmittlungsverfahren
Hamburger
schwerwiegender
wegen
zahlreiche
die
kam
Jahrzehnt
ins
Gewaltverbrechen
schleppten,
zweite
mittlerweise
1972
15
June
"
in
Vorwarts
Gang.
der
Hansestadt
Justizmaschinerie
of
left"
More
"unbegreiflich.
in
Hahn
the
found the progress made
case
27
December
Report
German
Democratic
the
of
such as
wing publications
"
Konkret
"public
Hahn
of
the
labelled
1972
scandal.
proceedings as
,
Hahn
was
10 June 1972 openly asked whether the fact that the SS officer
had
Steinhoff
Nato
Johannes
the
anything
brother-in-law
general
of
the
German
the
justice?
The
post-war chief of
to do with the slow progress of
trial.
during
for
Hahn
the
air force appeared as a character witness
177
handwritten
"Lebenslauf"
bewirtschaftete
Realgymnasium zu LOneburg. "
to study law at Jena.
"'
genutzt wurden.
how he grew up on the family
and then nine years "Gymnasium und
In 1927 he passed his Abitur
He remained at Jena until
exams in 1932 "...
mit dem Pradikat
and proceeded
he had passed his
2
From
cum laude.,,
...
1930 to 1931 Hahn was a member of the SA, but as he explained:
preussischer
Refendar musste ich den SA-Dienst
man mich sonst
aus dem Ausbildungsdienst
26 September.
succession.
4
sicherheitshauptamt
Warschau" in 1941.5
and SD officer
holding
After
1934. His promotions
1
August,
on
several
and Sturmbannfohrer
appointments
During
he committed
the period
that
the crimes with
"Dienstlaufbahn"
20
April
dated
Hahn,
Ludwig
of
Ibid.
Hahn.
Ludwig
of
Sipo
in
he
was charged
which
Ibid.
5
on
in the Reichs-
he served as senior
21bid.
4
in the
he was named "Kommandeur der Sipo und SD in
1
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Ludwig Hahn.
Personnel File:
3
aufgeben, weil
3
hätte. "
He joined
In 1938 he was promoted ObersturmfUhrer
HauptsturmfUhrer
on 30 January,
"Al s
leider
entfernt
the SS in March 1933, and the SD in early
SD came in rapid
who
German, which betrayed the SS
Hahn described
training,
farm, how he attended "Vorschule"
doctoral
"Landwirt"
as a
une 75 ha forstwirtschaftlich
and somewhat stilted
legal
officer's
his father
bis 1927 einen Bauernhof von 150 ha, von denen 75
ha landwirtschaftlich
In a precise
Hahn described
Ibid.
1934.
178
1972.
The one factor
was
that
each had been an active
Of the following
Party
which Bacmeister,
case studies
or in any affiliated
ObersturmbannfUhrer
disinterested
graduating
with
Until
Socialist
organization
Upon his
return
to January 1933.
prior
to the Machtergreifung.
prior
2
Zimmermann had been a politically
at the University
of Marburg.
a law degree in 1933 he joined
the SS at the same time,
America.
National
not one could claim membership in the Nazi
Dr. Herbert
law student
Beyer, and Hahn had in common
after
the NSDAP. He joined
and then took a six months'
he continued
Shortly
to train
trip
to North
as a "Geri chtesref erenda r.
he joined
the Gestapo in 1937, he worked as an "Assessor bei der
3
Provinzialverwaltung
in Marburg.,.
As a full-time
in the Gestapo
officer
Zimmermann was employed first
as "Leiter
des Sachgebietes
fOr
AusbUrgerungen
Pass -und Hei mats ac hen
1939 wurde er zur Stapostel le
,
. ...
A
In 19439 by then Sturmbannführer,
Münster versetzt.
Zimmermann was
as "Kommandeur der Sipo und des SD" to Bialystock.
transferred
he was in Bialystock
carried
5
out.
Zimmermann ordered
several
mass executions
1954 Zimmermann was cleared
In July
having
the
on
charge of
ordered
executions
While
to be
by a German court
in Freiburg
im Breisgau.
In
1
Hahn was asked by the German judge whether he
During the trial
legal action against him after
feared that German courts might initiate
dachte
ich
Aber
"NatOrlich.
Hahn
jurist
the
the war, to which
replied,
dann
das,
kann
dann
beruhigt
Jahr
und
sich
vergehen,
mir, es wird ein
lived
1949
Hahn
"
leben.
After
Mensch
openly
man wieder als normaler
"Vor
deutschen
for
he
in
West
Germany,
his
stated,
own name
under
Gerichten hatte ich keine Angst. " Vorwärts, 10 June 1972.
2
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Personnel File:
in Eisleben.
BDC.
SS #118,240, born 22.8.1907,
3
October
Handwritten
Ibid.
1938.
4
"Lebenslauf"
"Dienstlaufbahn"
5Ibid.
of Herbert
of Herbert
Dr. Herbert
Zimmermann,
Zimmermann, dated 16
Zimmermann.
Ibid.
179
November 1959 he was tried
by a court
in Bielefeld
on the charge of
1
in Bialystock.
He was cleared
having ordered several mass executions
in both instances,
in the second because Zimmermanncould no longer
2
having
remember
given the orders for the executions.
Hermann Langbein,
Auschwitz
Committee,
the general
wrote
that
in twenty-three
conducted by West German courts,
were charged,
only
on three
Bbhme, the son of a "Mittel
of Halle
and Rostock.
StaatsprOfung.
Gestapo.
A closer
his decision
Third
.5A
schul lehrer,
year
later
the jurist
entered
to serve in the state
to the right-wing
lLangbein,
" studied
law at the Universities
bestand ich die grosse juristische
Reich was not a sudden move.
B8hme belonged
to receive
4
Hans-Joachim Bbhme.
look at B6hme's past political
and willingness
of 87 SS officers
One of the officers
Sturmbannfbhrer
In 1936 "...
trials
was the most severe time penalty
occasions
was the former
such a sentence
Einsatzgruppen
in which a total
3
handed down.
(die h6chste Zeitstrafe)
of the International
secretary
As early
the service
force
of the
as 1923, at the age of 14,
Bismarck JUgend "die
Im Namen des deutschen
shows that
activities
police
of the
Volkes,
im Osten des
p. 153.
2
Langbein commented: 'Tas Gericht konnte sich nicht letzte
Gewissheit darüber verschaffen
der sich nicht
dass der Angeklagte,
...diese
Befehle gegeben hatte
In der
tatsächlich
mehr erinnern will,
....
überzeugt,
ist
davon
dazu
Gericht
Urteilsbegründung
Das
gesagt:
wird
dass der Angeklagte in mehreren Punkten sicher die Unwahrheit gesagt
hat
Die Folgerung, er hätte nicht die Unwahrheit zu sagen
....
brauchen, wenn er nicht etwar zu verbergen hätte liegt zwar nahe, ist
"
Ibid.,
51.
p.
aber nicht zwingend.
3
Ibid.,
81.
p.
4
SS SturmbannfUhrer Hans-Joachim Bbhme,
Personnel File:
in Magdeburg.
BDC.
SS #151,121, born 1.10.1909,
January
5
Handwritten
Ibid.
1940.
"Lebenslauf"
of Hans-Joachim
Bbhme, dated 14
180
Reiches einen ausgeprägten militaristischen
this
group he became affiliated
youth
Charakter trug. "
to the 9th Infantry
1
Through
Regiment in
1925, for the purpose of "Sonderausbildung. "
In his student days he
belonged to a right-wing
student association,
and in May 1933 he
joined
1938, when he joined
the Gestapo, Bbhme
the NSDAP. Until
was a member of the Allgemeine SS and "Rechtsberater des Bezirkes 42
2
der Stammabteilung Ost.,.
In 1958 B6hmewas charged by a West German
court
in (wegen Beihilfe)
for assisting
he was senior
the murder of 3907 persons while
3
of the Gestapo in Tilsit.
officer
established
Mass er /ýýöhme-/ mit geradezu eiserner
ausgerottet
hat, " sentenced
years
"Ehrverlust.
him to 15 years
studies
and member of the SD, who proudly
exam ...
Erlangen. .7
Dr. Wilhelm
In 1926 he passed his
of Munich.
und promovierte
reported
began his law
the son of a Bezirksamtsassessor,
in 1922 at the University
der Universitat
10
and
Jude wurde zum
.5
GruppenfUhrer
Osten
was
abgeschoben,
nach
Harster,
"Referendar
Konsequenz Juden
in a penitentiary
to Himmler on 24 May 1943 "Der sechzigtausendste
Arbeitseinsatz
6
which
.4
A German jurist
Harster.
The court
in 1927 zum Doktor der Rechte an
joined
In 1929 Harster
the police
I
Ibid
2
Ibid
3
Langbein,
4
Ibid.,
Im Namen des deutschen
Volkes,
150-51.
pp,
81.
p.
5
Undated Stern article
the BDC.
6
found in the Harster personnel file
SS GruppenfUhrer
Personnel File:
Niederbayern.
Kehlheim,
in
born 21.7.1904,
7
Handwritten
"Lebenslauf"
Dr. Wilhelm
BDC.
of Wilhelm
Harster,
Harster,
undated.
at
SS #225,932,
Ibid.
181
(Kriminalpolizei)
Police.
and in 1931 he was assigned to the Bavarian Political
At that
time Harster
"deutschnationaler.
Freikorps
Oberland. "
police
a number of other right-wing
and ended up in 1926 as a member of the "Bund
organizations
From 1921 to 1929 Harster was "JugendfUhrer
Wehrkraftsverein.
"l
joined
Harster
the spring
of being a
In 1920, at the age of 16, he belonged to the
"Oberland, " then joined
para-military
that
"
had the reputation
With this
the NSDAPshortly
of 1933 he also joined
of Bavaria
background it
political
Hitler
after
the SS.
to the Sicherheitsdienst
im bayr.
is not surprising
came to power.
In
The step from the political
of the Third
Reich did not
difficult
In 1935 he became a member
be
to
appear
a
one for Harster.
2
in
hierarchy
Reichssicherheitshauptamt
SD.
the
the
His
the
of
of
rise
was rapid.
It
took him eight
in the occupied
Another
into
to "Befehlshaber
der Sipo"
and to reach the rank of Brigadefuhrer.
Netherlands,
German jurist
the post-war
years
to rise
whose war-time
former
is
the
era
Oberfbhrer
activities
3
pursued him
Horst Bender.
4
After
Bender
1
Ibid.
2
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of Wilhelm
Harster.
Ibid.
3
After the war Harster was tried "... von einem milden
Ibid.
in
But
twelve
to
already
Gericht"
hollandischen
years.
and sentenced
1955 he was returned to Germany where he found immediate employment as
the
It
Bavarian
in
after
the
only
was
government.
an Oberregierungsrat
1963,
in
in
Vienna
former SS HauptsturmfUhrer Rajakovic was arrested
in
Netherlands,
the
Harster's
facts
activities
about
more
revealed
who
Even
then
from
be
government serivce.
that Harster asked to
retired
it took the German courts three years to gather further evidence against
in
the
"
Galgenfrist,
"Zwanzig
Jahre
personnel
enclosed
him. Stern article
Information on the Harster case was also obtained
file of Harster.
from the Wiesenthal
4
Archive.
Personnel File:
in
Lyck,
24.2.1905,
born
SS OberfUhrer Horst
BDC.
Ostpreussen.
Bender,
SS #122,746,
182
completed his Assessorenexam in 1930, he settled down as a
alwyer in
'
his birthplace
in East Prussia.
Although he became a member of the
NSDAPin late
1932, he did not join
1936, by this
time a HauptsturmfUhrer,
the SS until
April
1933.2
In
Bender was taken into the fulltime SS and posted to the "Hauptamt SS-Gericht. " 3 From 1936
until the
of the Third
collapse
(Gerichtswesen),
law,
involved
After
former
in Frankfurt.
Richter
in the judicial
III
beim Reichsfbhrer-SS,
apparatus
lawyer
in Stuttgart
at the major trials
"
of the
of
when he was charged
zum Mord" by Simon Weisenthal
prosecutor
der Abteilung
the war Bender once more took up the practise
and was a practicing
"wegen Beihilfe
"Leiter
as
" then as "vortragender
Bender was actively
Schutzstaffel.
Reich, first
and Robert Kempner, the
in Nuremberg who is now a lawyer
4
1
Biographical
information
taken from "Anzeigesache gegen den
jetztigen
Rechtsanwalt Horst Bender, "
ehemaligen SS Oberfbhrer,
Staatsanwaltschaft
bei dem Landgericht
Stuttgart,
dated 2 April 1976.
Wiesenthal Archive.
2
Master Card.
3
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Personnel
File:
of Horst
Horst Bender.
Bender.
Ibid.
4
"Anzeigesache gegen Horst Bender. " The charge against Bender
'Justitiar'
'Justizminister'
des
Reichsführer-SS
stated that "...
als
oder
dessen Tötungsverbrechen
"
Speci
ly
Tat
fi
Rat
mit
und
unterstützte.
cal
...
he was charged with having advised Himmler on 26 April 1942, that "Bei
Befehl
Befugnis
bei
Judenerschiessungen
erfolgt
rein politischen
ohne
und
bei
Motiven keine Bestrafung,
aber
oder sadistischen
wohl
eigensüchtigen
document along with Bender's
bzw. sexuellen Motiven. " The original
"Zum Vortrag RFSS" is found in the Bundesarchiv Koblenz,
handwritten
Nürnberg.
NS7/247; also Nürnberg Dokument No. 1744, Staatsarchiv
After examining the documents presented the Landesgericht Stuttgart
" The
Befehlsbbermittler.
decided to label Bender "... lediglich
Allies
1744
known
Document
that
the
furthermore5
to
was
court ruled,
"entnazifiziert.
in
their
he
that
Bender
custody,
and
was
was still
while
The court, therefore5 concluded "Es werde ihm lediglich
anbelastet,
"
in die Terrormethoden Himmler's hatte, ihm aber zugute
dass er Einblick
Posten
Verfahren
Das
dass
seinem
mildernd
auf
einwirkte
er
gehalten,
....
170
Abs.
2
StPO
Gründen
tatsächlichen
insgesamt
deshalb
para.
gem.
aus
war
Archive.
Wiesenthal
"
einzustellen.
183
These case histories
German jurists
involved
who joined
from the truth.
ObersturmfUhrer
Nordwest requesting
Dr. Albrecht
Dieckhoff.
vom SD-Hauptamt nach hier
unbedingte Zuverlässigkeit
Bedenken. .2
d. Reserve. "
"Leutnant
for
with
post-war
L6bbarth. "
Dieckhoff,
involvement
with
the latter
of the
surroundings
his Abitur
completing
era Dieckhoff
claimed
Jena, " and he actively
im Freikorps
however,
und
By 1917 he was made
service.
He also
Putsch"
the "Hitler-Ludendorff
gewisse
des Schiffbaues
After
period.
in the Kapp Putsch of 1920.
participated
explained:
about whom such reservations
In the immediate
to have been "Halbzugfbhrer
connection
military
about a certain
Dieckhoff
the comfortable
of the Wilhelmine
wrote
bestehen gegen die
wird,
Dieckhoff
But
case history
The Oberabschnitt
mitgeteilt
Reeder zu Hamburg, " was born into
in 1915 he volunteered
1
the son of a "Professor
Dieckhoff,
obere Mittelstand
information
des Obersturmführers
Who was Albrecht
were voiced?
The following
In May 1939 the SS-Personalkanzlei
statement.
to the Oberabschnitt
all
the SS in 1933 and 1934 were in some way
would be further
bears out this
of his
that
with the heinous crimes committed by the Black Order.
nothing
Nie
might lead the reader to believe
through
is not very precise
putsch.
claimed
some vague
an "Organization
in his description
In 1919 he began his law
hi
in
to
s
he
of
vi
how
ew
study
though
abl
e
Ki
was
much
el , al
studi es at
Kiel
did
He
does
very
at
he
stay
not
say.
not
activities,
political
long,
before
he moved on to Heidelberg,
Greifswald
and Hamburg.
1
Albrecht
Dr.
ObersturmfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
in
Hamburg.
25.12.1896,
SS #194,318, born
2
"SS
Personalkanzlei"
from
the
"Eilt"
Letter marked
1939.
Ibid.
dated
4
May
"
Nordwest,
Oberabschnitt
After
Dieckhoff,
to "SS
184
his Dr. jr.
completing
in his "Lebenslauf"
privilege
he studied
to have been "ein englischer
The international
he joined
SS, was looked
to alleviate
to question
considerable
membership in the "All
a certain
reliabilitY.
the
entering
by the security
suspicion
Peoples Association"
which Berlin
in manchen Dingen eigenartig
out that
went on to point
his political
branch.
did not help
amount of uneasiness about his outside connections.
The most damaging accusation
vielfach
enjoyed caused
the Rotary Club three months after
upon with
His continued
which Dieckhoff
connections
the Reichssicherheitshauptamt
that
Volljurist"
with the
1
law in England as well as South Africa.
of practicing
The fact
law at Oxford and London, and claimed
could make was "D. ist
Mann. "
interesierter
interested
was
Dieckhoff
ein
The letter
in the histories
der al ten Hamburgischen Gross kaufmannsf ami1ien ," and concl uded
with
the statement
"Dabei
haben alle
seine Neigungen einen Einschlag
ins
2
Feudale. ..
discussion.
indeed
is
to
open
case
Dieckhoff's
and crass
three
der geschickt
.3 or was the spiessbUrgerliche
lavieren,
unable
opportunist,
"...
to comprehend a man with
languages
gesel 1schaftl
i ch äusserst
Kreisen
möglichen
fluently,
2
Letter
Seiten
weiss nach allen
cosmopolitan
gewandter Mann ...
interests,
as "...
der Zutri tt
who spoke
ein
1
zu al en
"
hat.
heute
und auch noch
hatte
immer
schon
of Albrecht
Personalkanzlei
SS
of
zu
of the SS Fbhrup_g
mentality
described
and who was
1
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
Ibid.
December 1936.
Was he a smooth
Dieckhoff,
to Oberabschnitt
3
des
SS-Oberabschnittes
"FOhrer
from
Letter
13
1939.
dated
May
"
"Chef der SS-Personalkanzlei,
How was
dated 20
Nordwest.
Nordwest"
Ibid.
Ibid.
to the
185
the SS Führung going to understand a man "...
Inhaber einer der
angesehensten Hamburgischen Anwaltsfirmen
der
und
einzige
Rechtsanwalt,
ist. "'
der bei den englischen
The SD had to admit that
...
Gerichten
it
deutsche
in London zugelassen
had only a certain
amount of
ohne dass i edoch besonderes Tatsachenmateri al vorl i egt .2
.
In the end the SD had to admit defeat.
Dieckhoff remained in the
suspi ci on
SS; he was even promoted to Hauptsturmfbhrer
record of his war-time
and it
activities,,,
had managed to keep well
While Dieckhoff's
There is no
there was only an address for 1941,
read "Wehrwirtschaftsinspektion
Dieckhoff
in 1941.3
Ukraine. "
It
appears that
back of the combat zone.
behaviour left
certain
questions unanswered,
4
the case of ObersturmbannfUhrer Johannes Hossfeld left little
doubt
of his political
orientation.
Bismarckian
and his mannerisms remained those ". .. eines typisch
era,
deutschnationalen
zur Schau tragt.
architect,
during
Herrenmenschens
"5
provided
and social
status
Hossfeld
Hossfeld's
his family
so vital
the Second Reich.
was the typical
father,
an independently
entered
employed Berlin
financial
the necessary
for the 'good life'
Hossfeld
of the
der einen gewissen Standesdünkel
...
with
product
security
of the obere Mittelstand
the "...
k6ngl.
Luisengymnasium
1
Ibid.
2
Letter from"Chef des Reichssicherheitsamtes"
dated 2 May 1939. Ibid.
3
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of Albrecht
Dieckhoff.
4Personnel File:
SS Obersturmbannfbhrer
BDC.
SS #227,632, born 24.7.1879, in Berlin.
5
to "SS Hauptamt, "
Ibid.
Johannes Hossfeld,
des Landesfinanzamtpräsidenten
Beurteilung
"Politische
"
Ibid.
Hossfeld.
Johannes
Schlesien
von
186
in Berlin,
" and then proceeded to study law.
"ReferendarprUfung"
Prior
and in 1909 sat for his "Gerichtsassessorenexam. 11
to the war Hossfeld was awarded a naval commission, and in 1914
he went into
belonged
the
Imperial
Navy as a lieutenant
to the traditional
the "...
represented
Beamtenschaft"
überwiegend
Hossfeld
"...
that
stated
1933.
after
2
in his ministry
with
socialist
servants
Beamte die nicht
herauszunehmen,
"Politische
since
civil
in Breslau.
informed
attitude
refused
pressure to fill
men.
"...
goes
non-political,
which discredited
Beurteilung"
lists
official
Beamte in his department
1
Handwritten
positions
non-national
wie Parteigenossen.
included
"Lebenslauf
sei,
had
der Bewegung, " and the refusal
Wing
Hermann
when
clearly
to the party
itself
showed
than junior
of Johannes Hossfeld,,
Ibid.
2
Mommsen, Beamtentum in Dritten
The
the use of non-party
in response to a complaint
less
gave
"
misdemeanors which Hossfeld
die Gefallenen
StandesdUnkel
Hossfeld's
a high party
thirteen
day
him
the
off
under
servants
service
angesetzte
geworden seien, aus diesen Stellen
These offences
für
civil
He also did not fire
da sie ebenso Gutes leisten
1933.
"...
to attend
der
dass
Begründung,
mit
es ungerecht
Parteigenossen
"Gedenkfeier
in
a
members
to give
traditional
seven page "Politische
He steadfastly
party
Beurteilung"
committed
eingestellte
Hossf el d hat von j eher ei ne kl are nati onal soz i al i sti sche
Schulungsabende" and resisted
civil
Hossfeld
of Staatsdienertum
It was this
socialist,
A detailed
lassen. "
vermissen
und konservativ
national
tradition
whose unpolitical
than his anti-national
rather
commander.
1
h6here Beamtentum, and politically
back to the days of Bismarck.
Linie
In 1903 he passed his
Reich,
p. 21.
arrived
he
when
that
senior
Beamte,
dated 1 June 1934,
187
dass Beamte des höheren Dienstes auf Grund der unvermeidlichen
höheren Aufwendungen nicht
ihre
Kinder nicht
soviel
zu lassen brauchen.
studieren
mÜsse seine Kinder studieren
auch selbst
hat. "
studiert
können,
die
Beamte,
andere
geben
wie
lassen,
Der höhere Beamte aber
weil er, der höhere Beamte ja
The report
concluded with the poignant
statement that
the admission of Hossfeld into the SS ".
hat die
..
berbhrt. "l One might wonder why
gesamte Beamtenschaft eigenartig
Hossfeld was taken into
in a letter
the SS.
Himmler was asked this
and
der NSDAP, Hauptamt fOr Beamte he
to the Reichsleitung
da
die
in
SS
er
aufgenommen,
wurde
Hossfeld "...
gave his reasons:
question,
der wenigen war, die damals in Schlesien den Mut hatten sich
einer
der Herrschaft
restlos
nicht
process
of standing
SA
ObergruppenfUhrer
to
up
BrUckner Hossfeld had inadvertently
11... restlos
against
verfolgte
Hossfeld
protected
SS in Schlesien.
an attack
die noch heute nicht
Amt entfernt
hand Himmler saw that
against
Heines and Gauleiter
some members of the
Himmler saw in the complaints
können, dass Herr Brückner
verwinden
Hossfeld
3
In the
the SS by the BrUckner followers,
den
Gerichten
und sogar
the SS, yet with
.2
beugen.
zu
Heines-Brückner
überstellt
"
wurde.
von seinem
On the other
in
he
type
the
wanted
of man whom
was not
some unexplained
loyalty
of
sense
he stated,
"Ich
in
jetzt
Hossfeld
Herrn
ich
guten
käme mir schlecht vor, wenn
4
his
"
Himmler
severed
never
Zeiten aus der SS entlassen würde.
1
behaviour
Hossfeld's
socialist
non-national
The comments on
"
In
his
Beurteilung.
six-page
entire
"Politische
from
the
are taken
either
reference
does
political
a
single
Hossfeld
make
not
"Lebenslauf"
Hossfeld.
Johannes
File:
Personnel
Socialism.
National
pro or against
2
der
Hauptamt
NSDAP,
"Reichsleitung
to
Himmler
Letter from
Ibid.
1936.
March
16
dated
fUr Beamte, "
31bid.
4
Ibid.
188
connection
with the cantankerous Oberfinanzprdsident;
on the contrary,
he promoted him in time to the rank of Obersturmbannfbhrer.
In his book Die gleichgeschaltete
innerhalb
der Partei
herrschten
nach der Machtergreifung
sozialisten
gelten
waren, die Ziele
ý2 In the opinion
sein,
das bestrebt
the new dictum
als Nationalder Staatsthe NS
writer
be grouped in with
of the sampled jurists
to accept
ist,
of this
While there were jurists
who should
the majority
reluctance
darüber ob die sofort
konnten, die bereit
Dieckhoff,
little
Zweifel
offenbar
Justizangehörigen
Fbhrung need not have worried.
adherents,
Johe wrote:
eingetretenen
führung zu verwirklichen.
and perhaps
Justiz
in this
"Deutsches
like
Hossfeld,
the doubtful
study showed
Recht muss das
das deutsche Volk in seiner Eigenart zu
A
The assessment of
und seine Volkwerdung zu begbnstigen.
4a
Dr. Falk Ruttke,
could
at Berlin,
prominent member of the law faculty
erhalten
in the SS "...
jurists
ied
German
be
to
a number of
appl
perhaps
sicher
Ziele
dass er sich
in jeder
die Partei
und ihre
einsetzt.
The professional
officers:
A second very important
1
"Dienstlaufbahn"
2
Johe,
3
old elite,
Die gleichgeschaltete
Justiz,
military
officer,
Ibid.
p. 197.
Ibid.
SS SturmbannfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
Halle.
in
11.11.1894,
born
5
the former
Hossfeld.
Johannes
of
4
1936.
für
Lage rückhaltlos
es ist
"Dienstleistungszeugnis"
Ibid.
Dr. Falk Ruttke,
of Falk Ruttke,
SS #156,315,
dated 11 November
189
be looked at next.
will
Karl Demeter in his study of the German officer
corps in 1933 wrote that
three discernible
at the time of the Machtergreifung
groups among the "...
mehr ganz jungen Offizieren.
nicht
besonders intelligenten
"'
The first
Socialism,
indifferent.
.2
".
smaller,
die meisten aber reagierten
..
Demeter concluded his discussion
"Auch bei der älteren
Generation haben viele,
German officer
National
und
group reacted favourably
toward the new regime, the second, considerably
National
there were
rejected
wohlwollend oder
with the statement:
bald rascher, bald
3
langsamer, den Weg zur neuen Bewegung gefunden. "
This attitude of the
toward
is substantiated
Socialism
by F. L.
Carsten in his study of the Reichswehr when he wrote "The nationalism
so loudly
his
by Hitler
proclaimed
was closely
nationalism
akin
that
'apart
armed forces
toward National
only
had the same aims as the
the older
with
included
former
Socialism
all
study of former
generation
has been done to date.
joined
who
men
occupation
"aktiver
as
3.8% of the sampled SS officers
2
3
4
and their
officers
of officers
Offizier.
reactions
This quantitative
to 1939 and listed
the SS prior
"
Table 6.1 showed that
had been professional
1
Offizierkorps,
Deutsche
Das
Demeter,,
1966),
as Hammerstein put
Schutzstaffel.
the
have
been
of
a member
could
No quantitative
their
really
that
German
the
is
of
member
concerned, since no serving
study
this
study
own - that
to their
Hitler
from
the
speed'
A
It is particularly
Reichswehr.
it
to believe
induced the officers
officers
p. 191.
Ibid.
Ibid.
F. L. Carsten,
404.
p.
The Reichswehr
and Politics,
1918-1933 (Oxford
190
prior
to coming into
the SS.
corps d'61ite
military
joining
slow
rate of the officers
group has been commented on above.
professional
seems to support the assertions
officers
the SS as the para-
did
the
of
new regime
not appeal to too many
The unusually
officers.
This suggests that
This joining
pattern
made by Demeter and Carsten, that the
around to look more favourably
came gradually
as a
upon the regime.
Yet it
would take them some time before the members of the erstwhile
"first
Estate"'
of robbers. "
would realize
in various
for
officers,
Colonel
and the retired
expertise
positions
German League prior
1935 and taught
service
75 years
old,
wrote
stopped until
den Typ eines
1
Ibid.,
their
last
military
Von Einem,
Braunschwei2.
in
1945.
offensive,
"...
gehalten
With his
in 1938, entries
It
appears that
with
by
then
Einem,
von
eine Ehrenprbfung.
"...
Himmler's
remark
was
Generalstabsoffizieres
Felix
to the VerfUgungstruppe
January
to Himmler requesting
The reason for his indignation
applied
at the Junkerschule
launch
their
to
about
the Allies
a gang
of War and vocal advocate of the Pan-
at the Junkerschule
from active
file
3
in the VerfUgungstruppe.
to 1914, was recalled
tactics
in his personnel
example Paul Hausser,
von Einem,
the son of the Wilhelmine Minister
retirement
"...
2
Some of the former
Steiner
they had indeed joined
that
"
dass ich fOr
deutschen
der
der
werde,
397.
p.
2
in
found
Oster
Hans
Abwehrgeneral
former
by
the
A note made
,
The
Generals:
His
Hitler
Deutsch,
Harold
and
his diary in 1944.
(Minneapolis
19.
1938
1974).
January-June
p.
Hidden Crisis,
3
Oberf8hrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
in
Northheim.
born 31.12.1880,
Kurt von Einem, SS #25690505
191
Armee schädlich
und daher grundsätzlich
1
abzulehnen ist. "
Himmler
had made the remark in response to von Einem's request to be
posted as
commander to the front
a regimental
Third Reich.
stressful
Himmler's curt
"Ich unterscheide
Offizier
bei den Generalstabsoffizieren
sind ...
Offizier
und SS-Führer qualifiziere,
11 11
NSDAP,
...
Zufriedenheit
to Lubl in.
Lublin
5
eine Tätigkeit
welche für die Armee
Hilmar Mosed joined
he retired
from an active
die Generalleutnant
des Reichsorganizationsleiters
the
34-year
military
der Ordensburgen der
Moser bisher zur vollsten
ausübt.
A
In 1942, the
Moser was posted as "Kommandantdes Oberfeldkommandos"
As the result
soon fell
hopelessness
den truppenfremden
1942 Moser served as "Inspekteur
then 61-year-old
wrote to von Einem:
nor his regiment.
Lieutenant-General
SS in 1938 after
Until
the
muss mir überlassen werden. ý2 Von
got his "Ehrenprbfung"
The former
career.
reflects
Zu welcher Art ich den einzelnen mir untergebenen
nützlich
Einem neither
officer
The Reichsfbhrer-SS
und die andere Art des Offiziers,
...
Allgemeine
to the insulted
reply
at the time.
situation
during those dying hours of the
into
of the overall
the combat zone.
defending
of
the city
retreat
of the German army,
The aging general
and surrendered
soon saw the
to the Russians
1
Letter of Oberführer von Einem to "Kommandierenden General
des XIII SS A. K. GruppenfUhrer Simon, " dated 10 January 1945. Ibid.
2
Letter of "Reichsfbhrer-SS Heinrich
1945.
dated
12
Ibid.
January
Einem,
von
3
SS GruppenfUhrer
Personnel File:
Krs. Roda.
in Langenorla,
born 5.11.1880,
Himmler" to OberfUhrer
Hilmar
BDC.
4
Moser, SS #3095713,
der NSDAP to the "Leiter
Letter of "Reichsorganizationsleiter
Ibid.
des SS-Personalamtes, " dated 3 September 1938.
5
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Hilmar
Moser.
of
Ibid.
192
und hat sich nicht
"
erschossen.
might have ended there,
had other
information
1
Moser's military
he
and
would probably
"a gang Of robbers. "
Lublin
he had
that
who realized
had been for years the location
Moser had been shocked by what he saw.
of
and
The camp was also one of the
by
be
the Russians, and when Moser was taken
to
taken
camps
over
first
he immediately
prisoner
information
was quickly
"Ich
Moser stated:
by the Russians both in leaflet
publicized
halte
von Lublin
mitzuhelfen
Verbrechen, die im K. Z. begangen worden sind,
The retired
message with
"Ich
Lublin
Befehl
meinem
Untaten
II
this
ihre
standen,
im Vernichtungslager.
writer
"
success.
Aussagen zu machen über
made the statement
Freies
this
The above case illustrated
1944 to recognize
the horrors
Deutschland,
2. Jahrgang,
that
Himmler's
did not meet with an
1
Himmler"
"Reichsf0hrer-SS
Letter of
1944.
12
October
dated
"
Personalhauptamtes.,
SS.
from
the
Moser
was expelled
this action
2
completed
2
attempt to absorb members of older elites
took Moser until
"
aufzudecken.
his
der Wehrmacht, die in der Stadt
Soldaten
ersuche alle
In Chapter
unqualified
restlos
...
um die unerhörten
d'e"lite,
in
the
Gruppenfbh_rer
corps
and
general
unter
als General
Teilnehmer an zwei Weltkriegen
Oberfeldkommandant
form
issues
In one of its
Deutschland.
meine unbedingte Pflicht,
es für
und Soldat von 42 Dienstjahren,
und letzter
This
the
camp.
about
information
volunteered
and in the communist paper Freies
it
It appears
camps in the eastern territories,
one of the major extermination
alle
have been soon forgotten,
not reached Himmler's Feldquartier.
that Moser had been one of those officers
joined
and SS career
point,
although
of the Nazi regime
to the "Chef des SSAs the result of
Ibid.
No. 37,10
September 1944.
193
and, more importantly
to do something about it.
1
The case of Hermann von Festenburg-Pakisch
to a fellow
officer
than loyalty
was stronger
he held the rank of Obersturmbannfbhrer.
son of a senior
from a Kadettenanstalt.
graduation
Germany's e,lite
infantry
11
selbstandiger
SS until
to join
July
encountered
Although
It
which was to test
a situation
of Festenburg's
he (Hirschwald)
He
der SS. "
joining
of
11
was a half-Jew.
Eisern
Husarenoffizier
war
Kreuz II.
I
socialist
Klasse
2
was one of the
he did not join
his loyalties.
In that
applied
for
year,
membership
seemed undeterred.
his rejection
by the Rechtswahrer-
".
f8rderndes
he
already
a
when
was
..
lawyer's
that
he had earned the privilege
organization
und Kriegsteilnehmer,
das
Frontkämpferkreuz
und
as he had been
habe auch das
erhalten.
ATe
Hermann von FestenbergSS Obersturmbannfbhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Flensburg.
SS #273,742, born 8.1.1880,
Pakisch,
2
His wife
the
was denied on the grounds
Hirschwald
He was of the opinion
the national
getauft,
In
the then Sturmbannfbhrer
His application
Bund because he was a half-Jew,
Mitglied
stage,
named Hirschwald
he could not understand
that
stated
Festenburg-Pakisch
1938
in
that
was
in the NS Rechtswahrer-Bund.
that
in one of
3.
Garde
Regiment
Fuss.
zu
-
the NSDAPat an early
1935.3
an aquaintance
commissioned in 1899 after
to remain in the army, and became a successful
Kaufmann. "
few officers
was the
By 1914 he was a captain
regiments
1919 he did not request
loyalty
to the Black Order when
Festenburg-Pakisch
and was himself
officer,
shows that
He joined the NSDAPin December 1930 with party #410,354.
Ibid.
Master Card.
joined the party at the same time.
3
"Lebenslauf"
Handwritten
of Hermann von Festenberg-Pakisch,
Ibid.
undated.
4
"
dated
"SS-Personalhauptamt,
the
to
Hirschwald
Letter of
Ibid.
1938.
28 November
194
item in the letter
most embarrassing
be in possession of "...
19.8.1938,
vom
was that
tolerate
Schreiben des Reichsführer-SS
ein angebliches
des bei ihm vorliegenden
wonach anlässlich
keine Bedenken bestehen, dass er weiter
bl ei be. "1
Hirschwald claimed to
förderndes
Mitglied
The SS Führung was in an obvious dilemma.
a half-Jew
could one get rid
as a "f8rderndes
Ausnahmefalles
der SS
How could the SS
Mitglied";
on the other hand, how
of a member who had a letter
from the ReichsfUhrer-SS
him
gave
permission
which
to remain a member of the SS? The
Reichssicherheitshauptamt
was called
claims,
and reported
of the letter.
the letter.
It
Hirschwald
several
strange
indeed Hirschwald
in
possession
was
point
Festenberg-Pakisch.
not only not to surrender
advice
his
for
advice,
reprimand
Lieutenant-Colonel
Report
This was indeed
But he could not protect
Festenberg-Pakisch
letter.
received
a severe
3
but remained in the SS.
Thus Himmler would at times
Reichssicherheitshauptamt
2
from the Gestapo became so great
Soon pressure
he gave up Himmler's
advised
but also to make
in
hide
them
secure places.
and
coming from an SS officer.
The former
The Sturmbannfbhrer
the letter,
copies
forever.
his
fellow
remembered
Hirschwald
that
of it
Hirschwald
apartment
he
bestimmiter
Form"
aber
was asked to surrender
was at that
aquaintance,
officer
Hirschwald's
A team of the Gestapo went to Hirschwald's
in h6f 1icher
".
and
..
that
to Himmler that
in to investigate
act against
in the quest for
the advice
socially
prominent
v. Kretschmann was admitted
investigation
the
of
on Hirschwald,
of the
into
persons.
the SS
dated 1 December 1938.
Ibid.
2
Letter of GruppenfOhrer
Ibid.
dated 8 May 1939.
3
Ibid.
Heydrich
to "ReichsfUhrer-SS
Himmler, "
195
even though the security
The former
Dr. Oscar Lossen
major,
of the SS against
known historian
Professor
and secretary
was an artillery
committing
his colonelcy
himself,
July
1938, his
described
into
the FUhrerkorps
Lossen, the son of the well-
army commission in 1907.
the "bayerische
Landespolizei"
his doctorate
outwardly,
He
some time with the
under the Nazi regime,
at least
he ever became a party
taken
1919, when, after
able to complete
a Parteianwarter,
was only
a regular
until
Bamberg, he entered
he received
was also
unreliable.
of the Akademie der Wissenschaft,
received
officer
He was also
maj or.
2
him politically
the advice of Heydrich.
Max Lossen,
Freikrops
branch considered
in 1925.
as a
Although
he was very slow in
to the regime.
By 1937 he
does not show that
and his personnel file
3
Even though Lossen joined the SS in
member.
"Politische
Beurteilung"
marked "streng
vertraulich"
Lossen as follows:
ist ausser Zweifel national
Mann
eingestellter
und
.. o
kann als ausgesprochener
'Soldat'
bezeichnet werden
...
ist jedoch im Gegensatz zur heutigen Zeit noch zu sehr
Er wurzelt noch zu sehr
mit Standesdünkel behaftet
....
in alten Anschauungen des unpolitischen
Offizierskorps
der Volksgemeinschaft
und hat demzufolge die Notwendigkeit
4
noch nicht voll erfasst.
The report
concluded
with
the statement:
angesehen werden. "5
er nicht
appeared Himmler's
Below this
comment made with
1
See Chapter
II,
"Als
Nationalsozialist
rather
unfavourable
the traditional
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
in MUnchen. BDC.
born 17.6.1887,
4
assessment
green pencil
"ist
70.
p.
2
3
Handwritten
kann
"Lebenslauf"
Dr. Oskar Lossen, SS #3099503,
of Oskar Lossen,
dated 25 June 1938.
des Oberstleutnants
der Gendarmerie
Beurteilung
"Politische
dated
Gauleitung
by
MUnchen-Oberbayern,
the
Lossen"
Oskar
Dr.
written
Ibid.
13 July 1937.
5
Ibid.
Ibid.
196
zu bef6rdern.
The officer
and shortly
in the SS as a Standartenfbhrer.
HH'11Lossen was enrolled
who resigned his commission in the Reichswehr in 1924,
became Ortsgruppenleiter
thereafter
in the town of BUckeberg,
appears to have been an early adherent to National Socialism.
2
Friedemann Goetze was raised in an obere Mittelstand milieu;
was Stadtsyndicus,
Lieutenant
and later
than ".
his early
eine grenzenlose
..
leaving
He gave no reason for
He was commissioned Second
Verehrung
it
in 1926.
dissolved
was
1935 Geotze volunteered
autumn of 1933.
In early
VerfUgungstruppe
and was employed as a teacher
Braun
.
Although
the NSDAPuntil
tacti
Braunschwei
that
g
cs at
In April
SS-Fbhrerschule"
It
seems that
Goetze's
wrote
then GaufUhrer,
a SturmbannfUhrer
and
by the Nazis in the
for
service
in the
in February
1937, he did not
was while
he was teaching
'doubtf ul ' pol i ti cal past was
1935 Standartenfbhrer
letter
a
It
the
at the Junkerschule
in January
the summer of 1937.4
join
3
Goetze joined
Goetze became Obersturmbannfbhrer
1935 and commandant of the Junkerschule
Socialism
General Ludendorffs.
became LandesfUhrer,
in the Bund until
remained active
commitment to National
the party
of Ludendorff,
Tannenbergbund
revealed.
his father
in 1890, and remained in the army for the next 34 years.
Goetze gave no reason for
other
Landrat.
Colonel
Hausser,
then "FUhrer der
to Himmler in which he discussed
Dr. Koster,
5
Goetze.
the
Goetze
and
remembered
1
Ibid.
2
Personnel File:
Stade.
in
26.7.1871,
born
3
4
Handwritten
SS BrigadefOhrer
BDC.
"Lebenslauf"
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Friedemann Goetze,
Goetze,
Friedemann
of
Goetze.
Friedemann
of
5
Dr.
StandartenfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
Koster
BDC.
Eifel.
Kellberg,
in
born 20.4-1905,
graduate.
SS
a
university
was
the
who
joiners of
in
SS
full-time
became
officer
he
a
surgeon until
SS #261,4053
undated.
Ibid.
Ibid.
"3.
Paul Koster,, SS -;
)700.3
IF
few
the
early
was one of
He was a veterinary
1934.
197
11
...
Saalschlachten
erheblichen
der Saalschlachten
einer
der Weiterführung
...
Obersturmbannfühere Goetze an
The same SS officer
berührt,
einem ganz eigenartig
der sich frÜher
hergelaufenen
der jetzige
das
bei
und
seiner Tannenbergbund-Versammlung durch uns mit Gewalt
wurde. "
verhindert
dem
Tannenbergbund
mit
stated to Hausser "dass es
einen Mann als höheren SS-Führer zu sehen,
in gehässigster
Weise über unseren Führer als
Ausländer und Konjunkturredner
geäussert hat. "'
Hausser's method of dealing with the case is of interest,
it
shows hi s, as wel 1 as the Verf b2ungstruppe's,
central
SS FUhrung.
It
code of the non-political
military
expertise,
a tactics
teacher
habe Dr. Koster
unabhängig
for
dass alle
job he did as
the report
with:
"Ich
Führer der Schule jetzt
müssen.
für
Ich betrachte
-
die Durchführung
agreed with
Hausser,
es als meine besondere und
dieses
was his political
the jurisdiction
Grundsatzes
zu sorgen. "
Goetze was not reprimanded,
he was named commandant of the school
outside
lower
a
adherence to the
Hausser lauded Goetze's
He concluded
hingewiesen,
Only in one instance
but this
continued
von ihrem Werdegang - gemeinsam und kameradschaftlich
Pflicht,
matter
First
i ndependence f rom the
and commendedhim on the effective
darauf
Himmler apparently
that
officer.
at the school.
zusammenarbeiten
persönliche
shows Hausser's
also
for
SS.
the
of
for
in 1937.
past held against
him,
In 1938 Goetze applied
NSDAPmembership number, in view of his earlier
services
to
1
"Reichsfbhrer-SS
Hausser
to
StandartenfUhrer
Letter of
Ober
Obersturmbannfbhrer
SS
Koster
Dr.
SturmbannfUhrer
SS
Betr.
Himmler;
Ibid.
1938.
April
8
dated
"
Goetze,
2
Ibid.
2
198
the party.
Gauleiter
Oberführer
Rust turned down the request "...
Goetze am Liebsten
Friedrich
Jeckeln,
the Gauleiter-.
haben möchte. "'
then Fbhrer des Oberabschnittes
"...
Tannenbergbündler
Er war vielmehr
nicht
in der Partei
da er den
Mitte,
agreed with
ich weiss dass Goetze vor der Machtübernahme
war und sich keineswegs für die Bewegung betätigte.
jener
jungen Tannenbergbündler,
einer
die die NSDAP
als unerwünschte Konkurenz ansahen und die stur die Ludendorffsche
Richtung
It
"
vertraten.
is surprising
2
Goetze did not receive
though,
purpose was to train
a future
Six months after
the then 25--year-old
Geotze
Hans
a son,
and after
The case histories
interest,
4
a Freikorps,
selected
his commission,
married.
one to study
After
with
He also
1
Letter of Gauleiter
Ibid.
1 February 1938.
the VerfUgungstruppe.
the careers
the First
the Eiserne
Division
in the "Grenzschutzab-
in the Ruhr fighting
Mitte"
Oberabschnittes
des
"FUhrer
Letter of the
1938.
Ibid.
February
8
dated
"
der SS-Personalkanzlei,
Master Card.
StandartenfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Rendsburg.
in
born 3.11.1897,
Later
in Lithuania.
Rust to "SS-Personalhauptamt,
# was 5,226,122.
of two
World War Hans Goetze joined
Regiment 210 to fight
participated
and attitudes
2
4
army
Goetze
Hans
Friedemann
are of particular
and
of
then fought
3
His party
leaders.
Some22 months later
his commission entered
resigning
whose sole
The son too became a regular
born.
was
of officers.
Bromberg. "
of specially
number.
political
Friedemann Goetze had received
the Freiwil-ligen
he joined
generation
second lieutenant
as they allow
generations
schnitt
in view of his pre-1933
that
Goetze remained commandant of a FUhrerschule
activities,
officer
a lower party
3
before
he
" dated
to "Chef
Ibid.
Hans Goetze,
SS ý028197715
199
joined
the 100,000-man Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic.
He retired
from the army on 31 January 1933.1
as a captain
The day after
he left
he remained a member until
the army Goetze joined
he went into
the SA, of which
the SS in May 1937.
Between
1933 and 1937 Geotze worked with the Bahnschutz, and in 1936 he
the post of "militarischer
Leiter der Bahnschutzschule Munchen2
Freimann. "
In the VerfUgungstruppe Geotze was given the rank of
received
SturmbannfOhrer
Bahnschutzschule
and because of his teaching
he was immediately
While he was a teacher
was investigated
function
he
which
attended
branch for
It
the
posted to the Junkerschule T81z.
at the Junkerschule
by the security
unbecoming to an SS officer.
background with
the younger Goetze
having made remarks
appears that
at a Junkerschule
in the company of "...
social
Frau von Blomberg,
geb. von Hammerstein, Ehefrau des Hauptmanns von Blomberg, und Frl. von
3
Hammerstein"
Goetze said "Die Austattung der Schule mit Bildern ist
so, dass man Gästen dabei viel
noch nicht
immer wieder
die beiden Bilder,
Goetze was also
5
Sanftmbtige. "
kann.
bieten
SS
Heini
wie unser
supposed to have referred
Es hängen
und Adolf
to Himmler as "Heinrich
For making these remarks Goetze was called
1
Biographical
.,
data from the "Lebenslauf"
ý4
der
to Hausser,
Hans
Geotze,
of
undated.
Ibid.
2
Ibid.
3
"Vernehmungsniederschrift"
Ibid.
1938.
July
27
dated
Voss,
of testimony
given
by SS Oberfuhrer
of testimony
Ibid.
given
by SS Hauptsturm-
41
bid.
5
f0hrer
"Vernehmungsniederschrift"
1938.
July
23
dated
Lemke,
200
the Inspekteur
that
der VerfUgungstruppen.
he meant no offence
repeated remarks "...
habe. "1
die ich selbst
8fters
and made StandartenfUhrer
former
the
was
national
Colonel
socialist
1934.
Karl
since
He was also
Ritter
1933.
4
the then 73-year-old
Waffen SS.
1
2
Heimatschutz
Von Kurz was one of those officers
very seriously.
in
who
In July
1943,
OberfUhrer asked Himmler for a posting to the
innige
Bitte
eines alten
Soldaten
"Vernehmung des SS SturmbannfUhrers
"Mein Reichsfbhrer,
SS BrigadefUhrer
Personnel File:
Ibid.
Wien.
in
24.12.1873,
Karl
"Dienstlaufbahn"
"Lebenslauf"
of Ritter
der
Kämpfers
und
Goetze, " undated.
Ibid.
Handwritten
Ibid.
imprisonment
member of the Steirischer
Goetze.
Hans
of
4
his
Leoben" until
3
1940.
who had been an active
He completed his request with the plea:
Sie die
erfüllen
3
had
Kurz
been a
von
Socialism
commitment to National
his
came into the SS. Amongthem
von Kurz,
Ritter
an active
and the NS Reichskriegerbund.
to the Reich in March 1938,
officers
der SA Brigade
"Nachrichtenoffizier
born.
before he fell
the French campaign of 1940.2
a number of prominent Austrian
took
were not
Goetze was promoted Obersturmbann-
With the annexation of Austria
July
and imprison the
of the corps d'elite
even reprimanded for such offenses.
during
and seemed to understand the
reason to arrest
officers
fUhrer a short time later,
geh6rt
remarks were made. While remarks like
sufficient
man in the street,
ordinary
he only
in der Schnutzstaffel
Hausser accepted the explanation,
these were frequently
to his superior
when he made those remarks, and that
in which the offending
spirit
Goetze explained
Ritter
von Kurz,
zu Kurz,
Ibid.
SS -#132350465
dated 14 February
201
Bewegung, am Freiheitskampf
des deutschen Volkes auch in seinen alten
Tagen noch aktiv
zu können. "'
septogenarian
teilnehmen
for
his offer
and told
the cause as speaker in his native
Another active
active
national
general staff,
him that
Austria.
he could best serve
2
member of the Reichskriegerbund
but a less
was the former major-general in the Austrian
3
Anton Edler Kless von Drauwbrth.
Von Drauw6rth, the
socialist
in
in
1902
commissioned
a
and
was
served
son of a Bezirksrichter
infantry
Hungarian
Himmler thanked the
as a major-general.
Twenty-eight
regiment.
years
There is no indication
the old general was politically
army and the annexation
active
of Austria
NSDAPin 1938 and joined
later
he left
the army
in his "Lebenslauf"
from the
between his retirement
in 1938.
that
He became a member of the
4
the SS in the same year.
by
General
Drauw8rth
1939
in
November
When
was recommended
von
the Reichskriege
Reinhard,
Ostmark '.
5
adherence
a question
f0hrer,
was raised
to the Catholic
to be named "GaukriegerfUhrer
concerning
Church.
Drauw6rth's
in der
continued
The Fbhrer des SS Oberabschnittes
den Oberf Uhrer Kl ess
".
ty
the
Donau was goi ng to use
next opportuni
..
1
"Reichsfbhrer-SS
Kurz
to
Ritter
von
Letter of OberfOhrer
Ibid.
1943.
July
19
dated
"
Himmler,
Heinrich
2
"SS-OberfUhrer
to
Himmler
Letter of
Ibid.
dated 23 August 1943.
Karl
Ritter
"
Kurz,
von
3
Kless
Edler
Anton
von
BrigadefOhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Kýrnten.
in
Gurk,
8.9.1882,
born
#310,301,
SS
Drauw6rth,
4
von
handwritten
from
the
data
Biographical
Ibid.
Drauw6rth, undated.
dated
5
Reinhard
General
Letter of
Ibid.
1939.
13 November
"Lebenslauf"
of Kless
to the "SS-Personalhauptamt,
"
202
Über die Folgen seiner Zugehörigkeit
It appears that
zum Katholizismus
the attempts to change the old soldier's
on deaf ears.
Von Drauwbrth remained a Catholic,
Gaukripge_rfbhrer
'elites
or social
of individual
among his officers.
Himmler tolerated
such diversity,
been believed
absolute
obedience to orders from above.
amount
The cases showed that
in an organization
possible
that
extent than had
stressed
Background of the SS Führer:
In his analysis
Dahrendorf stated
had to accept a certain
perhaps to a greater
hitherto
The Socio-Economic
in 1943.2
show that Himmler in his attempt to gather
members of professional
diversity
fell
religion
he was named
and was promoted to Brigadefbhrer
These case histories
aufzuklären. "'
that
of post-1945
German society
German social
"...
was
conditions,
nach wie vor eine
das
Unten,
in
Oben,
vom
wenig
ein
zerschnitten
3 The lack
Oben
das
Unten
of general social
vom
wei ss..,
wenig
und ein
Gesellschaft,
halbierte
mobility
was an accepted
fact
"...
Germans
to
many
and
der Ordnung der Welt und wird nicht
Several
studies
background of the pre-1918 obere Mittelstand
für
die
breiten
on the socio-economic
".
indes auch
zeigen
..
die ausgeprägte
1
des
SS-Oberabschnittes
Letter of"FUhrer
Ibid.
1940.
April
8
Personalhauptamt5"dated
2
"Dienstlaufbahn"
3
Dahrendorf,
4
Ibid.
Drauw6rth.
Kless
von
of
Gesellschaft
es in
Zweifels.
fragenden
Gegenstand
zum
done by German sociologists
Oberschichtsgruppen
liegt
und Demokratie,
Tendenz zur
Donau" to the "SSIbid.
119-20.
pp.
A
203
Selbstrekrutierung.
"i
in the terms Ner
seiner
Familie
The social
einmal oben steht
in German society
3
educational system.
.0
elite
findet
in der Regel Mittel
den eigenen Status zumindest zuerhalten j
prevalent
Studies
which Dahrendorf described
rigidity,
"...
were primarily
der Gesellschaft.
background of the Nazi Party
.4
In other
aus den unteren
words "Mit
status
wrote
of the Nazi elite
"...
in the Nazi Party
positions
than the rest.
that
...
'Ibid.,
2
Ibid.,
Mittelschichten
mdssi ge Schul bi 1dung. ,5
those persons who rose to the
had less education
...
and
,6
Table 5.1 which showed the educational
sampled SS Fbhrer,
of the
dem Sieg der NSDAPbegann
der Auf sti eg der Pl ebej er, " who had only
a
highest
of the
have shown that the men who rose to power
as the result
Machtergreifung
Lerner
was particularly
because of the class orientation
of the gocio-economic
und Wege,
suggests
that
a different
distribution
of the
type of man rose to a
p. 248.
p. 117.
3Engelmann,
German Education, p. llff;
Dahrendorf's
views on
German education are expressed in Gesellschaft
und Demokratie, pp. 341-358;
(TObingen
deutschen
Universitaten
Arbeiterkinder
Dahrendorf,
an
see also,
1965).
Dahrendorf's
views can be summed up with the following
statement
der akademischen
kommt als Rekrutierungsfeld
"Die Unterschicht
Führungsgruppen in Deutschland nicht in Frage. " Gesellschaft
und Demokratie,
p. 118.
4
Ein ZirkulationsWolfgang Zapf, Wandlungen der deutschen Elite;
FMünchen
1919-1960
1966),
51.
Führungsgruppen,
Deutscher
p.
modell
5
6
Ibid.
Lerner, The Nazi Elite,
p. 106.
"
index
status.
of social
is here an
Lerner
emphasized "Education
204
of leadership
position
January 1933.
in the SS.
encountered in his study,
the Table shows that
had completed university.
30% of the FUhrerkorps
1
where less than 5% have a university
population
conclude that
the officer
the educated segment of society
by showing that
degree, one has to
in
was overrepresented
of Table 5.1
31% of the sampled FUhrerkorps had professions
2
In view of these results
a university
education.
almost
which presuppose
SS
the
as an organization
one cannot speak of
were leading
Compared to the German
the findings
Table 6.1 substantiates
corps.
the case after
leaders
Lerner
the
party
uneducated
of
In spite
of the Schutzstaffeln
This was especially
"...
where the uneducated
the educated. 113
ask then,
One might
from what socio-economic
did the SS FUhrer come? Table 6.3 shows the social
of society
strata
class
of the sampled
Table 6.3
and their
SS officers
Arbeiter
from
an
came
highly
underrepresented
should
shown earlier,
is apparent
was also
4%
of the officers
only
that
in the Fbhrer_korps of the SS.
not come as a surprise.
the NSDAP, and, second,
underrepresented
one cannot expect
1
See Table 5.1,
116.
p.
2
6.1,
Table
See
164.
p.
3
Lerner,
it
The Nazi Elite,
only 1% of
Compared to the percentage
home background.
in the German population
however,
and that
Arbeiter,
corps were
the sampled officer
Arbeiter
The Table shows that
home background.
107.
p.
First,
the Arbeiter
was
These findings,
the Arbeiter,
in the general
of
as was
membership of
high
representation
a
of this
205
Table 6.3
Social
Stratum
of SS Officers
in Relation
to Their
Home Background
HOME
SOCIAL STRATUM ARBEITER- UNTERE
OBERE
BACKGROUND OF OFFICERS SCHICHT
MITTELSTAND MITTELSTAND TOTAL
ARBEITERSCHICHT
UNTEREMITTELSTAND
OBEREMITTELSTAND
TOTAL
.
4%
.6
0
l%
3.2%
.
4%
4%
52.2
24.2
77%
3.8
15.2
19%
59.2%
39.8%
100%
206
stratum of society
officer
when one deals exclusively
The Table shows furthermore,
corps.
FUhrer belonged to the untere Mittelstand,
Mittelstand
with members of an
homes.
It
is the obere Mittelstand
that
Of the sampled officers
stratum.
placed them into
this
social
stratum,
is most noticeably
sociological
1
by Dahrendorf
between 5-10% of German society
social
59.2% of the sampled
while 77% came from untere
According to the various
overrepresented.
that
models mentioned
belongs to this
upper
39.8% had professions
which
while 19% came from obere Mittelstand
background.
Table
6.3 reveals
On the one hand the table
trends.
of the social
strata,
While admittedly
milieu
two interesting,
on the other
the percentage
is small
the social
,
FUhrer
is remarkable.
homes, only
.
4% remained
it
shows considerable
of this
or officers
in the same social
Mittelstand.
in
the Arbeiterschicht
percentage as remained
social
mobility.
from an Arbeiter
segment of the
small
Of the 4% of officers
able to advance to the untere
contradictory,
shows a high degree of "Selbstrekrutierung"
of Arbeiter
mobility
seemingly
from
Arbeiter
came
who
stratum,
whereas 3.2% were
Most surprisingly
the same
4%
to
able
was
- .
-
barriers
to
the
the
obere
and
advance
social
numerous
overcome
2
While there was considerable
Mittelstand.
upward social mobility
1
Dahrendorf,
Gesellschaft
Demokratie,
und
p. 100.
2
Dahrendorf states that in his climb to the upper stratum of
die
deutsche
dass
Gesell
".
discovers
schaft
the
soon
striver
society,
..
davon
Zwei
kennt.
drei
Barrieren
sind von
in ihrer Schichtstruktur
kennt.
Gesellschaft
jede
Barrieren
sie
moderne
Grösse
wie
mittlerer
....
den
den
Eliten
Grenze
die
angrenzenden
und
zwischen
Das ist einmal
Es
des
Mittelstandes
eine
gibt
noch
Dienstklasse
der
und
Bereichen
....
überschrittbar.
leicht
ist
diese
viel
weniger
sehr
Barriere
dritte
und
das
Drittel
Unten,
Oben
obere
etwa
nähmlich
von einem
Sie trennt
ein
119.
"
Ibid.,
Drittel.
dem
p.
unteren zwei
von
des Schichtgebäudes
207
for
the officers
Arbeiter
that
came from Arbeiter
in the officer
homes, the distribution
a different
corps reflects
of the
Of the 1%
pattern.
of Arbeiter
in the sample only 4% came from the same social milieu,
.
whereas, . 6% had come from the untere Mittelstand.
Thus while over
half
of the Arbeiter
downward social
being
sample also experienced social
It
mobility.
dragged down to the Arbeiterschicht,
the untere
Mittelstand.
in chapter
cited
II
Arbeiterschicht.
is not surprising
of Arbeiter
of the Arbeiterschicht
in the Führerkorp2_
these men sank to the
that
These men were the flotsam
the narrow confines
this
by
dreaded
so
much
which was
Fromtheexamples
it
mobility,
loss of statusq
this
was precisely
it was a
of society
who even within
in
difficulties
encountered
eking out a meager existence.
Whereas the limited
either
mobility,
since
with
.
If
6%.
24.2% of the officers
one takes
stratum.
them into
factor
"Selbstrekrutierung"
in the untere
factor
should also not be over-
the
to
to
obere
advance
were able
mobility
of this
the untere
Mittelstand
is most pronounced.
Mittelstand
while
the
Of the 59.2% of
52.2% came from the same social
themselves
to
work
3.2%
Only
were able
Arbeiterschicht,
group is neglegible
however, who had
a look at the officers,
which placed
occupations
officers
mobility
The downward social
Mittelstand.
Of the 77%
factor.
homes, 52.2% remained in the same social
The upward social
stratum.
looked,
is the "Selbstrekrutierung"
Mittelstand
from untere
showed some social
downward,
the most pronounced characteristic
upward or
Mittelstand
of the untere
sample of Arbeiter
3.8% experienced
up from the
the loss of middle
class
208
status.
The "Selbstrekrutierung"
Mittelstand
from this
homes is also very high.
social
On the other
Mittelstand.
social
mobility
who had professions
can be said that
who came from an Arbeiter
stratum.
be detected
could
in the
the obere
Mittelstand,
considerable
at the social
considerable
occupations,
one finds
upward social
who came from
mobility
Conversely,
is noticeable.
of the untere
that
class
who belonged to this
mobility
status,
while
of the
is most pronounced.
is so noticeably
stratum
of their
the "Selbstrekrutie-
Mittelstand
factor
one looks
a considerable
Among 39.2% of the officers
the upward social
if
belonged by virtue
a loss of middle
Since the obere Mittelstand
is the officer
one looks at the 4% of officers
among the 1% of Arbeiter
is most apparent.
obere Mittelstand
if
is apparent.
of them had experienced
factor
Mittelstand.
to which the officers
among the 59.2% of officers
I
who came from the obere Mittelstand
"Selbstrekrutierung"
classes
homes, while 24.2% had
and the 77% of officers
milieu
looks
one
at the 19% of officers
1A
who came
which placed them into
from the untere
climb
In summary it
rung"
from obere
Of the 19% of officers
15.2% had come from obere Mittelstand
made the difficult
fraction
the officers
Of the 38.9% of Führer who belonged to the obere
Mittelstand
the untere
for
15.2% remained in the same social
stratum,
hand, greater
group of officers
If
factor
of society
it
overrepresented,
that
warrants
a
Chi-Square test of independence between the social class of the
home
background
is
that
their
there
shows
officers
specific
and
a
beyond the 001 level between the
statistically
significant
relationship
.
Although the value of the Chi-Square is significant,
two variables.
an
(Cramer's
Phi) is very ciose to 0
index of strength
of relationship
between the variables
it
indicating
that although a relationship
exist,
For Chi-Square and Cramer s Phi
is not a very strong relationship.
261.
A,
8,
Appendix
Table
p.
see
calculations,
209
brief
the degree of upward social
comment. To find
as found in this
obere Mittelstand
SS officer
who belonged
to this
study,
stratum
He was the kind of man who, in a society
was the exception
and ambition
perseverance,
of his own social
obtained
and it
their
earned position
What better
stratum.
That this
Mittelstand.
status,
than the rule,
rather
should
after
was a particular
Hitler
the SS.
into the
the pre-1939
kind of person.
in which upward social
mobility
had demonstrated a drive,
which helped him to overcome the confines
This
be recalled
do
this
to
way
of the new regime,
suggests that
in
the obere
then
person
was a parvenu
person who had finally
degrees prior
mobility
that
achieved
professional
had
in
FUhrer
the
sample
most
to 1933, would want to secure his hardcame to power, is quite
than to join
understandable.
the most prestigious
organization
Chapter VII
FAMILY LIFE ANDMORALITY
At the time when the SS numbered a mere 15,000 men' and the
2
of the formation numbered no more than 350 officerss
FUhre
Himmler already
had visions
Since an integral
achieve.
blood" was the selection
December 1931 issued
in ten short
Schutzstaffeldismissed
application
through
part of the selection
of their
from the SS.
the strict
of the official
marriage
attitude
be dealt with
1
Statistisches
2
"Zahlenm8ssige
hauptamt/13.
This order
outlined
be applied
Any member of the
could be
regulations
has been written
code, this
chapter
about the
will
show -
how
the
code was applied.
-
toward women, divorce,
in this
3
would henceforth
marriage
Since very little
the use of case histories
official
that
of the mates of the SS members.
4
of men of "pure
Heiratsbefehl_.
the criteria
who violated
was to
spouses, Himmler as early as 31
the well-known
paragraphs
to the selection
of what the black corps d'e"'lite
and homosexuality
will
The
also
chapter.
Jahrbuch,
1937, p. 7.
Entwicklung
des SS Fbhrerkorps,
3
The text of the "Heiratsbefehl"
doc.
2284-PS, pp. 134-35.
xxx,
is reproduced
" SS-Personalin IMT, vol.
4
An SS-Hauptamt ruling
of 23 June 1937 laid down that any SS
This strict
the Heiratsbefehl
member who disregarded
would be expelled.
'
by
a subsequent order of 23 June 1938 which stated
order was modified
that the SS member who ignored the marriage law need not be expelled
SS
his
Knoebel,
he
satisfied
wife
racial
regulations.
provided
and
Necessity,
Racial Illusion
and Military
p. 22.
210
211
The Selection
of SS Wives:
What type of womanwas the specially
to marry in order to produce a future
The importance
Himmler placed
and their
candidates
SS man permitted
selected
"pure
blood"?
of
generation
on the selection
of racially
wives can be seen by the fact
that
pure
in 1931 he had
the Rasse und Siedlungsamt (RuSA) which shortly thereafter
'
developed into a major Amt of the SS.
RuSA's primary duties were to
established
(1) racial
deal with
(3) geneological
(2) farm worker and settlement
questions;
(4)
and
education.
supervision;
When a SS member, regardless
he had to apply
to RuSA (later
to undergo thorough
Furthermore,
medical,
her racial
blood as that
of themselves
pictures
mental,
of her husband.
frontal
one
-
Himmler himself
prospective
alone,
brides
whether
and decided
the girl
of Jewish or Slavic
had to submit three
one
side,
,
and one full
investigation
team.
looked at the pictures
body pose In the
of all
the
on the basis
met SS racial
led to many problems as will
screening
had
examinations.
had to be as clear
Both partners
His wife
permission.
and political
which were examined by the appropriate
case of officers,
2
of rank, decided to get married
RuSHA), for
record
questions;
of the visual examination
3
This method of
standards.
be illustrated
by a few case
histories.
1
1 January 1935 the Rasse-und Siedlungsamt
Effective
Anatomie, p. 203.
Buchheim et. al.
Hauptamt.
2
Ibid.,
became a
p. 202.
3
on a number of occasions this researcher encountered several
in
file.
for
The
RuSHA
this
was
one
explanation
marriage applications
first
the officer's
that Himmler might reject
choice, thus the officer,
look
for
forced
to
a
if he abided by Himmler's decision,
elsewhere
was
bride,
and re-apply.
suitable
212
In the spring
Bauer,
1
Mika.
on active
1941,
the then 41-year-old
of
with the army, applied
to marry Frl.
Anna
into the background of the prospective
bride
service
An investigation
was launched and the resultant
to be an SS officer's
wife.
The report
stated:
enough.
Bauer
Apparently
that
the pictures
der SS nicht
and her grandparents.
team was submitted
in July
darstellt,
Grenzfall
,4
k8nnte.
werden
1941.
jedoch
other
tragbar. 2
second report
zur
Since it
it
was
and sisters,
of the investigation
This team judged Anna Mika to be a
der in rassischer
Seite
noch zur positiven
While the racial
i
commiss on expressed
Bildern
of her seven brothers
3A
Mischling,
nordisch-östischer
Dr Ernst
were of very poor quality,
requested that Mika submit pictures
her parents
Anna Mika did not look aryan
"Die Braut des Antragstellers,
Aufnahme in die Sippengesellschaft
was admitted
questioned Anna Mika's suitability
report
nach den dem VH-Gesuch beigelegten
erscheint
...
Dr. med. Ernst
question
Hinsicht
hin entschieden
seemed settled,
reasons why Anna Mi ka ". ..
einen
the
al s zukbnf ti ge
der SS
SS-Mannes nicht geeignet und für die Sippenschaft
5
It appears that Frl. Mika received the investigating
tragbar ist. "
Frau eines
nicht
in her apartment
officers
dyed hair.
The officers
displaying
also
felt:
red painted
fingernails
and red-
"Den Gedankengdngen der Schutzstaffel
1
Dr. Ernst
SS HauptsturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in NUrnberg.
SS #75,664, born 24.7.1902,
Bauer,
2
Nordwest" to "Chef des
Letter from "Erganzungsstelle
" dated 27 May 1941. Ibid.
Reichssicherheitshauptamtes,
31bid.
4
Report to the "Sippenamt,
5
Ibid.
Berlin,
" dated 3 July
1941.
Ibid.
213
dürfte
sie kein Verständnis
entgegenbringen
Wohnung stehen heute noch neben einigen
Im Bücherschrank ihrer
....
Klassikern
Bücher von Arnold
Zweig,, Emil Ludwig (Cohen), Maxim Gorki und Hermann Mann."'
Upon the receipt
appealed to Berlin.
It
of the negative decision
seems he was not given the reasons for his bride's
and he questioned why "Frl.
reiection,
die an eine Offiziersfrau
entspreche,
Himmler wrote:
"Ich
to marry,
Verlobung
mit
den Anforderungen
3
the official
2
sind?.,
Frl.
bin jedoch nicht
heranzutragen...
but without
Mika nicht
zu stellen
habe zwar Ihre
eigene Verantwortung freigegeben,
Gesuch an den Fbhrer
of RuSHA, Bauer
Thereupon
Mika auf Ihre
in der Lage Ihr
Thus Bauer was given permission
blessing
of Himmler.
He married
in
4
March 1943, and remained a member of the Al_lgeme_ineSS.
An early
also
III/I
of the SS, Hauptsturmfbhrer
of the strict
ran afoul
bride's
joiner
pictures
for
marriage
examination
to the. Sippenamt stated:
östische
Rassenanteile
Mongolenfalte
ist
angedeutet.
1
Ibid.
The SS report
with the name Mann, which the
Heinrich,
one must assume that
well versed in German literature.
2
Letter from Dr. Ernst
Ibid.
dated 3 July 1941.
3
"Frl.
Frl.
Klasen wurde beurteilt
und nordische
Klasen ist
his
of the Rasseamt
...
Beimischung.
als unausgeglichener
Rassenzusammensetzung als
Frau eines
stated Hermann Mann. Since the two writers
Nazi regime had banned, were Thomas and
SS officers
the investigating
were not
Bauer to "Reichsfbhrer-SS
Letter from "Reichsfbhrer-SS
Ibid.
dated 11 December 1941.
4
Master Card.
when he submitted
to RuSHA. A report
überwiegen westische
in der geschilderten
Mischtyp
regulations
Paul Bettingen
5
Himmler"
Himmler, "
to Dr. Ernst
Bauer,
Ibid.
5
SS HauptsturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Kolberg.
born 11.11.1906,
Paul Bettingen,
SS
214
SS-Angeh6rigen nicht
Mer Antragsteller
"
geeignet.
selbst
überwiegend fälisch,
technique
grudging
In spite
was determined
the decision
in ergAnzender
als unausgeglichener
of these adverse reports
due to injuries
Klasen "auf
struggle
was conducted
4
The story warrants
MUI1er.
eigene Verantwortung.
to gain permission
member could
challenge
in 1929, in October
According
Leupold.
bride
the
of
.5
vorgelegt.
"...
After
retelling
who joined
for
1936 applied
to the official
to marry his
permission
remain
report
the documents and pictures
zur persönlichen
Entscheidung
decided
to
Himmler
documents
not
the
of
to "Heiratsamt
2
Report of "Rasseamt III/P
Ibid.
12 February 1942.
to "Sippenamt
4
and still
SS
to marry Frl. Babette
1
Report of "Rasseamt III/I"
Ibid.
12 February 1942.
3
Master Card.
Hermann
the SS in 1928 and the NSDAP
dem
Reichsführer-SS
wurden
his perusal
3
determined
how
a
shows
it
of the Reichsfbhrer
the orders
MUller,
in the organization.
for
After
Himmler's
by the mechanic and SS ObersturmfUhrer
fiancee
during
received
he
Rasseamt
the
also received
of
The most persistent
the alte
to marry the woman of his choice.
to marry Frl.
permission
als seine Partnerin. "'
Klasen ist
Bilder
KAmpfer, who was "50% Parteiverletzt"
challenging
Beimischung
wertvoller
"Frl.
stated:
Mischtyp zu bezeichnen. ,2
the Kampfzeit,
östischer
of the Rasseamt which shows the haphazardness
durch die eingereichten
Beurteilung
concluded with the statement:
bei geringer
und damit erheblich
A second report
of the selection
ist
The report
im Hause, " dated
im Hause, " dated
Ibid.
ObersturmfOhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Hof/Saale.
in
born 3.1.1909,
Hermann MOller,
5
Siedlungs-Hauptamtes,
des
Rasse-und
"Chef
from
Letter
1937.
Ibid.
3
July
dated
"
"SS-Personalkanzlei,
SS 741,6701,
" to
215
grant the requested permission
was told
if
that
have to resign
MUller
reasons
were
no
given
and
in his desire
he persisted
from the SS.
Himmler must have sensed that
in
denying
ground
weak
permission
back his decision.
MUller,
he also refused to resign.
informed
was
Leupold,
not
however, refused to accept the verdict
denying
the reasons for
which were essentially
ingenious
idea
of
that
claiming
When asked to produce a medical certificate
he replied
"Auf Befehl
was informed
falls
aufgefordert,
Ihre
his fiancee
that
Entlassung
since
he refused
He received
order:
Zeitpunkt
on
the claim,
On 9 July
Eheschliessung
seem all
1937 he
nicht
aufgeben,
the more remarkable
FUhrung.
SS
the
of
and commands
"Die SS-Personalkanzlei
nicht entsprechend geäussert
3
..
The issue was clear-cut.
entlassen.
hit
das
durch
RuSHA
Sie
wurden
bis zum 15.8.1937 entgegen und sollten
Nachricht
certain
of MUller
to bow to the requests
a more direct
Then Mbller
2
beantragen.
zu
aus der Schutzstaffel
actions
to
remained and
to substantiate
des Reichsführer-SS
He
fiance4e was pregnant.
had had a miscarriage.
Sie die beabsichtete
The subsequent
his
and
bat der
him permission
medical,
permission was once more denied.
therefore,
too
he was on
for he asked a medical doctor to
At the end of March 1937 "...
by RuSHA that
marry Babette
the
he would
Überprüfung
um eine nochmalige
seines Gesuches."'
Antragsteller
that,
to marry the girl
date or he would be expelled.
sieht
Ihrer
Sie sich bis zu diesem
haben, werden Sie von hier
He was to give
But MUller
up the girl
aus
by a
took no heed of this
1
Ibid.
MUller,
2
Letter from "Chef der SS-Personalkanzlei"
dated 9 July 1937. Ibid.
31bid.
to SS Obersturmfuhrer
216
communique. He wrote to Himmler on 10 August requesting
of his application
betr.
"...
meines Austritts
/iChT
daher
die
von mir verlangte
und
der
Schutzstaffel
aus
to give
up Babette
Leupold with
SS-Mannes unwürdig und feig,
deutlich
It
is,
writer
erkennbar ist,
was a junior
in an organization
to orders
case is that
from superiors.
RuSHA relented
des Verlobungs-
freizugeben.
"
2
mit
MUller
that
the letter
stressed
MUller:
unquestioning
Müller
des Obersturmführers
hat der Reichsführer-SS
Babette
in this
"Nach nochmaliger
entschieden
Leupold auf eigene Verantwortung
married
"'
wurde.
A more amazing development
und Heiratsgesuches
Frl.
that
wo klar und
getroffen
one considers
and informed
am 16.8.1937
beim Reichsführer-SS
die Eheschliessung
if
his
"Es ware eines alten
dass eine Fehlentscheidung
officer
He explained
sich hier zurückzuziehen,
letter
obedience
Vorlage
the words,
indeed,, a remarkable
Erklärung
erst nach Bearbeitung und
Rückgabe meines vorgenannten Gesuches abgeben kann. "
refusal
a re-examination
...
1938
Leupold on 12 February
3
4
and remained a member of the SS.
Some of the exchanges between individuals
absent from the situation.
5
impatient
SS member Georg Rupert
very
got
humor was not completely
old-time
1
Letter from ObersturmfUhrer
Ibid.
dated 10 August 1937.
MUller
and RuSHA showed that
For instance,
with
RuSHAwhen his
to "Reichsfbhrer-SS,
2
Siedlungs-Hauptamtes,,
des
Rasse-und
"Chef
from
Letter
Ibid.
1937.
August
27
dated
"
"SS-Personalkanzlei,
3
Master Card.
"
to
Ibid.
4
During the war MUller served as a corporal
Ibid.
MUller.
Hermann
"Dienstlaufbahn"
of
5
the
SS ObersturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
Bechtheim.
in
born 30.10.1908,
in the Waffen-SS.
George Rupert,
SS #17525
217
request for marriage was not answered immediately.
scribble,
which obviously
ObersturmfUhrer
required
wrote to Berlin
an answer to his marriage request.
wrote Rupert,
sein.
gleich
rascher und schneller
bei der Braut nur gewisse
landläufige
Schwachsinn leichtesten
.3
of Rupert's
sich
Bilder
Shortly
und zustellungsreif
schwanger machen damit die
genehmigt wird. "'
wenn auch nicht
Grades. 2
"Auf Grund der Akten lässt
Akten befindliche
kann, "
What Rupert
the examining SS doctor had declared under the
"...
the intelligence
and
he received
"Soweit ich es beurteilen
heading of "Erbgesundheit"
erscheinen.
was about time that
"mÜsste die Sache doch mindestens fertig
did not know was that
into
it
Oder muss man jedes Mädel zuerst
Beurteilung
the Bahnarbeiter
some effort,
that
In an awkward
lassen
thereafter
zu erklären
Dummheit vorliegt
ist,
ob
oder ein
This remark launched an investigation
future
darüber
Finally
wife.
it
was decided:
schwer etwas sagen.
die Braut nicht
Bei den
als schwachsinnig
Rupert received
permission
to marry
4
Hel ene Scherer.
The above case histories
they
insisted
on the right
able to to bring
to marry the girls
about reversals
took months, yet
struggles
The selection
have shown how some SS officers,
process could,
of their
in RuSHAdecisions.
choice,
if
were
At times the
in the end Himmler grudgingly
gave approval.
of course, be used for other purposes too.
1
Rupert to "Chef des Rasse-und
Letter of ObersturmfUhrer
" dated 12 February 1937. Ibid.
Siedlungs-Hauptamtes,
2
1936.
"Verlobungs-und
Ibid.
Heiratsgesuch,
3
" Sippenamt,
dated 14 October
Dr. med. Geyer to "Chef des
Letter from SS HauptsturmfOhrer
" dated 5 February 1937.
Ibid.
Rasse-und Siedlungs-Hauptamtes,
4
Master Card.
Ibid.
218
That is,
girl,
an officer
could blame RuSHAfor not being able to marry the
when RuSHA had actually
1942 Sturmb_annfbhrer
Paula Gander.
by her fiance
e
She, therefore,
2
By August 1943 Paula Gander had still
that
mit meinem Bräutigam
Still,
Karl
Betzwieser
RuSHAand told
bride
Betzwieser
advised
it
Kentniss
too cowardly
zu wollen. "
She concluded
In the meantime Betzwieser
he did not care to marry Frl
.
sent another letter
the girl
that
dass der Reichsführer-SS
was still
die Angelegenheit
was unaware of the change of
Only after
Gander von Ihrem Entschluss
verschanzen,
"...
Sie mir doch zu meinem Lebensglück,
the Amt that
the prospective
to Himmler was Betzwieser
erteilen
lebenswert wäre. .3
heart of her "LebensglUck. "
Frl.
marriage had been obtained.
to Himmler pleading
with the plea "Verhelfen
had 'contacted
not been informed
zu lassen und die Genehmigung zur Eheschliessung
da mein Leben sonst nicht
Gander.
for their
permission
wrote a letter
nochmals überprüfen
the letter
Karl
him permission to marry.
In July
1
Betzwieser
received permission to marry Frl.
given
Ihr
high
"...
time
was
dass Sie
geben und sich nicht
habe. "
Gesuch abgelehnt
to confront
his fiancee
dahinter
with
4
the truth,
".
in
1944
SS-FUhrung
him
July
the
and
once more
schliesslich
reminded
..
5
is
known
"
It
Sie
not
whether
sich entscheiden.
selbst zu wissen, wie
Paula Gander was ever informed
of Betzwieser's
decision
1
SS SturmbannfUhrer Karl
Personnel File:
Bez. Amt Bruchsal.
in Mingolsheim,
born 3.7.1912,
2"Vermerk, " dated July 1942.
Betzwieser,
BDC.
SS #24450883
Ibid.
3
Letter from Paula Gander to "Reichsfbhrer-SS
Ibid.
dated 30 August 1943.
Heinrich
Himmler, "
4
to SturmbannfOhrer
Betzwieser,
5
to SturmbannfUhrer
Betzwieser,
from "Feldkommandostelle"
Letter
Ibid.
dated 17 January 1944.
dated
not to marry her,
Letter from "Feldkommandostelle"
Ibid.
16 July 1944.
219
for
in the autumn of 1944 Betzwieser was declared missing at the
'
eastern front.
The SS
Once an officer
to produce as many offspring
obligation
coul d.
showed that
had advocated that the ideal SS family
2
While the above-cited case histories
of four children.
some SS FOhrer resented Himmler's interference
plans,
legislation
the wives did not comply with
on the size
Himmler's
dream.
of "pure blood" as he possibly
Himmler, at one point
should consist
marriage
had obtained permission to marry, it was his
much trumpeted
of their
families.
four-children
the Reichsfbhrer's
The result
was, that
remained largely
family
per
a
the 115,650 married
of 31 December 1939 showed that
Statistics
with their
SS men had on the average 1.1 chi 1dren, whi 1e the of fi cer's had an
3
1937
der
SS
for
Jahrbuch
The
Statistische
1.4
average of
children.
showed that
1938 stated
for
Jahrbuch
5
children.
that
The SS statistics
reveal
men, 37,376 had no children
the SS statistical
an Verheirateten
1
in 1938 1.1 children.
This gives the average SS family
that
at all.
compilers
Kindern
und
2
H6hne,, The Order,
In the light
"Hinsichtlich
Betzwieser.
p. 157.
Ibid.
4
Statistisches
Jahrbuch,
1937, p. 61.
5Statistisches
Jahrbuch,
1938, p. go.
SS
of such evidence
des Anteiles
lag die SS in den vergangenen Jahren
Karl
of
"Dienstlaufbahn"
94,000
the
married
over
of
had to admit:
the
while
SS men had 105,459
94,457 married
further
1.2,4
was
per SS family
the number of children
Ibid.
220
unter dem Reichsdurchschnitt.
erheblich
could ignore the fact
"
Not even the SS Führung
in 1936 the SS was 32% below the national
that
in 1938 the corps_d_'elite
'
average.
average, while
national
The quantitative
data on the number of children
the sampled SS FUhrer substantiate
their
chief's
14% below the
was still
the failure
for family
criterion
2
size.
fathered
of the officers
by
to meet
Table 7.1 shows that 87.9%
Table 7.1
of the sampled officers
the married officers
had three or fewer children.
the desired four-children
attained
takes a look at the size of the officers'
joining
date,., the trend toward smaller
becomes apparent.
trend
in relation
to their
than larger
rises
the percentage
families
with
1931 to 1933,85.3%
the
between 1928
two years of
had three or fewer children.
percentage
with
three
or
rose to the 90 mark and remained remarkably constant.
suggests
four children
SS numbers
of officers
to 84.7% for those who joined
post-Machtergreifung_joinem3
fewer children
This
If one
Of those men who came to the SS during the last
the Weimar Republic,
For the
rather
or fewer children,
size family
1930.
and
families
mark.
Thus, whereas 75.4% of the officers
under 1000 had three
with this
Only 7.4% of
that
largely
went
Himmler's
urging
his officers
to have at least
unheeded.
Party Membership of SS Wives:
In his
study
on the social
composition
of the early
NSDAP, Kater
P. 94.
2
It should be recalled
careers.
the entire officers'
that
the children
data are taken from
221
(71
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222
1
discovered that only 4.4% of the pre-1923 Nazi Party members were women.
2
In January 1933 barely 6% of the membership of the NSDAPwas female.
The low percentage of female party members was no accident
Socialist
National
from the beginning an organization
Movement was
that
3
had no place for women. An official
that
"the NS Frauenschaften
claim
it
that
could
in the old belief
due primarily
"In
stated,
solve
that
struggle
position
liberalism
was
As Fest
movement of the
of such ideas the woman's rights
The quantitative
rested
in German society
of the sexes.
of equality
and
Socialism's
National
of woman's emancipation
woman's undefined
notion
4
,,
....
the question
to the mistaken
the light
tasks
political
'
decay,
like
'symptom
of
century appeared as a
5
"
and parliamentarianism.
nineteenth
wives
are determined to lead the womenunder their
feminine
back to the particular
1933 stated
commentator after
out of the depth of the day-to-day
direction
as the
democracy,
data on the membership of the sampled officers'
in the NSDAPshow that
22% of the early
SS officers'
wives were
Table 7.2
party
that
and
members,
the SS just
1
2
after
Kater,
this
figure
It
the Machtergreifung.
"Soziographie,
Schoenbaum, Hitler's
those who joined
dropped to 10% for
was during
Phase III
July
-
" p. 151.
Social
Revolution,
p. 41.
3
the
NSDAP,
the
passed
members
first
of
meeting
At the
general
holding
from
of
position
any
a
woman
prohibited
which
a resolution
397.
Reich,
Third
the
Face
p.
The
Fest,
of
in
the
party.
leadership
4
5
Ibid.,
402.
p.
Ibid.,
402-03.
pp.
223
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224
1934 to September 1939 that
members rose again.
This increase
to the fact,
attributed
Phase III
the percentage of wives who were party
that
in party membership could partly
the younger officers
had married women, who, if
of the. corps d'elite,
who joined
during
they consented to marry an officer
had themselves gone through the BDMand after
they had been subjected
to the barrage of propaganda, had taken the
logical
the party.
after
step of joining
the initial
Aufnahmesperre
be
rush to join
It should also be kept in mind that
the NSDAPin 1933, the Party
lifted
which was gradually
imposed an
around 1937.
Divorce in the SS:
Due to the haphazard recording
files,
it
impossible
was
sampled SS Fbhrer.
personal
It
to ascertain
divorces
of
the divorce
is indeed surprising
event was not more carefully
that
recorded
in the personnel
rate
among the
such an important
in the personnel
files.
The Statistische
total
Jahrbuch of the SS for 1938 lists 113 divorces for the
1
The Statistische
Jahrbuch
membership of the SS for that year.
for 1937 separates the divorce
that
for
officers.
rate of non-commissioned SS men from
The statistical
survey
for
1937 shows that
2
Since there
64
22
to
to officers.
and
were
men
were granted
3
some 200,000 serving SS men at the time as opposed to some 9,000
4
divorce
it
is
the
that
rate among the officers
seen
clearly
officers,
divorces
1
Statistisches
Jahrbuch,
1938, p. 95.
Statistisches
Jahrbuch,
1937, p. 65.
Ibid. 9 P. 16.
4
"Zahlenmässige
hauptamt/13.
Entwicklung
des SS Führerkorps,
" SS-Personal-
225
was considerably
higher than among the men.
Since heredity
it
such an important
played
that a number of officers
should come as no surprise
a reason to obtain
quick divorces.
StandartenfUhrer
a bookdealer before he became a full-time
for divorce
in 1942.
in SS philosophy,
role
It appears that
used heredity
Friedrich
Knolle,
as
l
in the SD, applied
officer
Knolle applied
for divorce after
he met the widow of a former SS officer who worked with him in the SD in
2A
the Netherl ands.
child had been born to the couple in 1941.3 In
order
a speedy divorce
to obtain
when he had married
He admitted
ailment.
hip ailment
wife.
years
code been enforced
he would surely
He also
entschieden,
nichts
for
that
im Wege stande.
shaky grounds
in February
that
from a hip
Knolle
cleverly
as vigorously
out that
pointed
to marry his
and "Heydrich
hat damals
Ehescheidung dienstlich
Umständen einer
divorce
had
was in
in 1933 as it
not have been given permission
diesen
AA
recalled
some time he had wondered whether the
his case to Heydrich,
presented
dass unter
Knolle
in 1933, she had suffered
was due to heredity.
the marriage
later
his wife
from his wife,
to Knolle
was granted
1943, and he remarried
on these
in September of that
year.
1
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Amsterdam.
born 12.3.1903,
Friedrich
Knolle,
SS #59,601,
2
der
Sipo
"Inspekteur
Knolle
to
Obersturmbannführer
from
Letter
letter
his
to
the
Knolle
19.4.1943.
superior
dated
"
SD,
des
wrote
und
die
darzulegen,
Gründe
die
mich
tatsächlichen
kurz
"...
um
officer
"
Ibid.
Ehe
zulassen.
scheiden
meine
veranlassten,
3
Master
4
Card entry
under number of children.
Letter from ObersturmbannfOhrer
Ibid.
"
SD.
des
und
Knolle
Ibid.
to "Inspekteur
der Sipo
226
SturmbannfUhrer Otto Jacobs,
a full-time
after
discovered
officer,
he had married that
auch beantragt,
a Dekorateur before he became
the devastating
"...
Abstammung ist.
arischer
l
truth
a few months
der Vater der Frau Jacobs nicht
Auf Grund dieses Umstandes hat Jacobs dann
seine Ehe für nichtig
zu lassen. 2
erklären
How a
woman, whose father
was not of pure aryan background could have
obtained permission
to marry an SS officer
in the correspondence.
explained
of his non-aryan
ObersturmfUhrer
his marriage
wife's
sister
that
his wife
had suffered
of his wife
an uncle
"Ich
Hans Gm6hling
which he was certain
ailment,
for
less than a year later
he
3
remarried.
after
place is not
Jacobs could not have taken the loss
too seriously,
wife
in the first
from a heart
had died from heart
this
had gone unnoticed
RuSHA replied
that
disease.
der Familie
since
that
birth,
Letter from "SS-Gericht
Himmler, " dated 11 April 1938.
3
Master Card.
4
IIP
Ibid.
erst
im Laufe meiner
health examination of
concerning
to "ReichsfUhrer-SS
the medical
SS #102,446,
Heinrich
Ibid.
SS ObersturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
in Zumberg, Mittelfranken.
born 10.9.1908,
5
and that
Gm8hling wrote:
1
SS SturmbannfUhrer Otto Jacobs,
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Wardenburg, Oldenburg.
born 23.7.1907,
2
his
was curious as to whether
in the original
no information
and nerve
He stated
ailment
writer,
he found out
that
from a heart
inherited.
was
Ehe erfahren. 115 Gm6hling, like
his wife.
also stated
suffered
habe von dem Gesundheitszustand
these factors
4
Hans Gm8hling,
BDC.
SS #8793609
des
"Chef
Rasse-und
Gm6hling
to
ObersturmfUhrer
from
Letter
1940.
Ibid.
18
October
"
dated
Siedlungs-Hauptamtes,
227
examinati on coul d be rel eased si nce ".
di e gemachten Angaben unterl i egen
..
der arztlichen
Schweigepflicht. "l What seems even more surprising
is
the fact
that
is no evidence which would suggest that his wife was
there
to another physical
subjected
husband's story.
A divorce
Friedrich
PolizeifUhrer
Jeckeln,
'Ostland,
Jeckheln's
to his first
explain
,4
..
As a result
that
in 1927.
Jeckeln
on his father-in-law,
the difficult
drei
erst
letter,
in his first
klar
....
in this
of his first
"...
Wenn schon mal fürher
waren" wrote
incident
is
marriage
He explained
fiel
that
mir ein
Dieses Buch machte mir
das Blut.
Jeckeln,
in 1932
Jeckeln was forced to
marriage
Abstammung des Herrn Hirsch
in
Kindern zu ihrem Recht
to be a Jew.
der arischen
married
obligations
wrote to Hitler
What is interesting
Buch in die Hände, Die Sünde wider
die Rassenfrage
to meet his financial
deutschen
whom he believed
time
He had initially
to blame the break-up
tried
and Hbhere SS und
The SS became involved
The wife
of this
his case to Himmler.
the fact
during
".
Gruppenfbhrer
the SS in 1929.
and the children.
wife
zu verhelfen.
the future
when he failed
his assistance
requesting
3
divorce
a
life
private
her
was granted in July 1941.2
' joined
in 1918, and obtained
in order to corroborate
examination
mir Zweifel
/i-he father-in-Iaw-/
"so hat mir das gelesene
an
gekommen
Buch mit der Schilderung
1
Letter from "Chef des Sippenamtes, " to ObersturmfUhrer
Gm6hling, dated 5 May 1941. Ibid.
2
Master
Card.
Ibid.
3
Friedrich
GruppenfUhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Schwarzwald.
Hornberg,
in
born 2.2.1895,
4
Letter from Frau Charlotte
Ibid.
1932.
5 February
Jeckeln
to Adolf
Jeckeln,
Hitler,
SS #4,367,
dated
228
des Charakters
des Juden die unumstössliche
Herr Hirsch ein Jude ist.
Es war mir klar,
meine Ehe in die Brüche gehen muss. "'
further
While he could not use this
financial
interesting
court
for
for
it
an essentially
demonstrates
the attitude
the role
to be sexually
Karl
Bauerle
perverse.
in 1928 under the
in order
non-aryan
Bguerle
2
of a National
and the rights
no
was a Jew.
argument effectively
case of Hauptsturmfbhrer
toward marriage,
considered
he used this
responsibility
The divorce
No other reasons were given,
as a reason for divorce
laws of the Weimar Republic,
dass
dass über dieses Wissen
To Jeckeln his father-in-law
proof was presented.
to avoid
Gewissheit gebracht,
family.
is most
Socialist
and what it
of a wife,
and his wife
were
He was a Studienrat
people.
at a Napola, she had her
3
Staatsexmen.
In 1941 Bguerle applied for a divorce.
Although
educated
in the documents,, he must have become interested
never mentioned
for
someone else
Bauerle
charged his wife
Socialist
with
child,
marriage,
and with
It
With regard
for
with
is
sexual
interesting
to the first
refusing
holding
became final
to share with
on to bourgeois
duties
in her marital
failing
the divorce
a month after
he remarried.
4
beliefs,
religious
to have another
perversion.
to see how the court
charge,
dealt
"...
the
man
where
with
ist
ganz von seinem
Bguerle,
Karl
SS
HauptsturmfUhrer
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Krs.
NeuenbUrg.
in
Langebrand,
born 9.2.1907,
"Lebenslauf"
Ibid.
Ibid.
the charges.
Jeckeln to "Reichsfbhrer-SS
1932. Ibid.
2
4Master Card.
in
him a National
by an unwillingness
1
Letter from StandartenfUhrer
Himmler, " dated 28 February
Heinrich
3
Handwritten
is
it
of Karl
Bgurle,
SS
dated 2 March 1940.
229
beruflichen
erfüllt
in der grösseren Gemeinschaft des Volkes
und politischen
Zu diesem Ziele
....
ordnet er alles,
insbesondere das
Fami1i enl eben unter.
fe wanted ".
the
i
and
wi
nur
ei
n
gemütl
ches
,"
..
harmonisches
Leben mit ihrem Mann und Kindern, " the court ruled
und
that
the marriage was "...
charge that
"
zerrOttet.
To substantiate
hung on to bourgeois religious
the wife
mentioned the incident
den Klagenden gebetet
heimkommen."
endgUltig
where "...
beliefs,
the
the husband
die Beklagte mit den Kindern fbr
haben, er möge aus dem Kriege wieder gut
The court
ruled that
act was "...
this
keine verr4te-
rische
Betatigung
wife.
Towards the charge that the wife refused to have sexual relations
with
christlicher
her husband out of fear
liberal
and progressive
dass es in einer
ihre
Weltanschauung, " even for an SS man's
It ruled
view.
geführten
ordentlich
Auffassungen,
of pregnancy,
showed a remarkable
"Er /Uäuerle7-beobachtet
Ehe der Hausfrau wohl zukommt,
kundzutun und eine verständige
Würdigung derselben durch ihren Ehemannzu erwarten ....
insbesondere
the statement
in der Frage der Nachkommenschaft. "
SS
officer's
an
of
ich mir nicht
das lasse
keinem Reichsführer
wife:
....
Die Frau ist
In view of the above ruling,
sexual
nicht
perversion
I
charge
the court's
is most surprising.
The above statements
Stuttgart,
Oberlandesgerichtý
even accepted
Privatsache,
nur da zum
in der Welt herum. "
fährt
der
Mann
kriegen
Kinder
und
und
Arbeiten
The court
und bleibt
"Es ist
Das gilt
von keinem Heissmeyer und von
befehlen,
Himmler
nicht,
den
Wünsche
verschiedenen
auf
und
Hoffnungen
den
beruflichen
B.
auch
z.
Gebieten
the court
attitude
In this
1
toward the
instance
from
the
taken
court ruling
were
Ibid.
dated 18 July 1941.
the court
of the
230
Bauerle had charged his wife with
adopted an almost medieval attitude.
the continued
practice
of masturbation.
Treiben der Beklagten,
The court ruled,
dem der Kläger offenbar
ständig Widerspruch
hat, war eine schwere Eheverfehlung,
entgegengesetzt
Natur nach auch geeignet war, die Parteien
"Dieses
welche ihrer
zu entfremden und die Ehe
Der Beklagten muss der Vorwurf gemacht werden, dass sie
zu zerrütten.
es an genÜgender Bekämpfung dieses Triebes hat fehlen lassen. "'
Thus the court
realms,
but ruled
in the marriage
The divorce
freedom in determining
even in the professional
in her life,
of aspects
the wife
allowed
that
masturbation
and child
was a severe failure
and equated the habit
relationship,
a number
bearing
on her part
to a compulsion.
was granted.
Homosexuality
in the SS:
into
In 1933, when Himmler put a temporary halt to recruitment
the SS, he used the interlude
managed to gain acceptance
Aside from the chronic
aryan background,
1
expel ed.
crime
2
to weed out any undesirables
into
men suspected
with
death.
the Kampfzeit.
alcoholics,
of homosexuality
were ruthlessly
homosexuality
3
had
doubtful
and men of
unemployed,
Himmler considered
punishable
the Black Order during
that
a persoanl
There is no doubt,
that
insult,
and a
the puritanical
1
Ibid.
2
The court made special mention
die
dass
".
it
stated,
summation when
..
hat,
sich
Selbstbefriedigung
getrieben
hat
Ehegattin
verfehlt
Pflichten
einer
3
H8hne, The Order,
142-43.
pp.
its
in
last
the
charge
of
Beklagte dadurch, dass sie
besonders, schwer gegen die
" Ibid.
...
231
attitude
toward homosexuality
attitude
toward this
youth,
in the SS was the result
of Himmler's
'
kind of sexual activity.
Even as a
particular
Himmler found homosexuality
associated
it
disturbing.
particularly
He
with the degeneration
and lack of morality which he saw
2
everywhere around him in post-war Germany.
Not even alte Kgmper,
like
the SS GruppenfUhrer Kurt Wittje,
escaped prosecution
that
after
and eviction
each homosexual be expelled,
the first
from the SS.
3
head of the SS-Hauptamt,
In 1937 Himmler decreed
handed over to the courts,
and that
he had served his sentence ".
he wi 11 be sent on my instructions
..
to a concentration
of his merciless
illustrated
camp and shot while
prosecution
trying
of men suspected
of this
The extent
habit
sexual
is
by some case histories.
He demoted his nephew Obersturmfbhrer
sentenced
to escape.
A
him to death for
drunkeness.
Hans Himmler
5
and
He then gave the unfortunate
1
Himmler had numerous conversations with Felix Kersten on the
In these talks it became apparent that Himmler
subject of homosexuality.
considered homosexuality an inherited characteristic
and,, therefore,
incurable.
Felix Kersten, The Kersten Memoirs, 1940-1945, with an
introduction
by H. R. Trevor Roper, trans. from the German by C.
Fitzgibbon and J. Oliver (New York 1956). pp. 56-64.
2
After reading the book Die Rolle der Erotik in der mannlichen
in which the author Hans Blbher argued that physical
Gesellschaft
is
between
a natural result of male companionship,
males
attraction
Himmler commented in his diary "In any case the pure physical homosexuality
that is contrary to human nature. "
is an error of degenerate individualists
Bradley Smith, Heinrich Himmler, 1900-1926 (Stanford 1971), p. 115.
3
Wittje was released because of ill health,
Officially
Schwarze Korps of 22 May 1935 expressed the hope that the alte
duties.
his
would soon resume
4
and the
Kampfer.
Hbhne, The Order, p. 143; see also, Knoebel, Racial Illusion
1941,
"...
in
in
Hitler
38.
one
Necessity,
said
Military
p.
and
be
homosexuality
SS,
the
punished
must
of
case
every
namely
organization,
there
be
the
the
SS7to
/fhe
it
When
nation
elite
of
aspires
death.
with
SocialPower
Politics
Steiner,
and
be
punishment
other
any
cannot
91.
P.
I
5
BDC.
Himmler
the
Hans
file
missing
at
was
The personnel
of
232
man the opportunity
When he survived
to prove himself
this
ordeal,
at the front
with an airborne
derogatory
some
and made
unit.
remarks about
hi s uncl e, Himmler had him impri soned ".
1i
i
hn schl i ess 1i ch
und
ess
..
als
Homosexuellen
im K. L. Dachau 'liquidieren'.
In view of the treatment
"'
his nephew received,
that
it
is not
Himmler proceeded with utter ruthlessness against
2
StandartenfUhrer Hans Himpe.
It appears that Himpe, a one-time
that
surprising
professional
officer,
was a young student
age of ten.
Socialism
had been introduced
at a Kadettenanstalt
Although
prior
to homosexuality
he
while
where he had been sent at the
Himpe was lauded for
his services
to National
to 1933, he was paraded in front
demoted and expelled
of the Sturmbann,
3
Even
from the SS because he was a homosexual.
the plea to Himmler "Mein ReichsfUhrer,
ist
schwarzen Rock auszuziehen
ist
heute
gezwungen
wer
halber
ein
nur noch
Mensch, und wird
A did
können,
Staate
heutigen
im
in
Ehren
arbeiten
niemals wieder
jail
from
Himpe
year
a one
not save
5
L. Sachsenhausen.
den
17-months
stay at
sentence and a
Hauptsturmfbhrer
Dr. Rbdiger von Bodingen,
1
The above cited
incident
is related
6
jur.
Dr.
a young
by Kogon, Der SS-Staat,
p. 356.
2
SS StandartenfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Berlin.
born 18.11.1899,
3
The official
degradiert
SS-Mann
zum
Ibid.
1936.
Hans Himpe, SS #26,854,
Unzucht
Negen
widernatürlicher
reason given was
April
10
"
dated
SS
der
ausgestossen,
und aus
4
"Reichsf0hrer-SS
to
Himpe
Hans
Letter of
Ibid.
1936.
April
30
dated
5
Master Card.
Heinrich
Himmler, "
Ibid.
6
Bodungen,
RUdiger
Dr.
von
Hauptsturmfbhrer
SS
File:
Personnel
BDC.
Stettin.
b.
in
Eichwerder
28.6.1910,
born
SS #241,798,
233
and an early
this
adherent to National
and enthusiastic
crime while
as an instructor
serving
Socialism,
committed
at the Junkerschule Tblz.
A member of the NSDAPsince 1930, and a member of the SS since 1934,
Bodungen was sent to K. L. Sachsenhausen.
released
from the concentration
SS penal unit.
2
a minefield.
the notorious
clearing
UntersturmfUhrer
fortunate
that
that
In January 1940 he was
camp, sent to the "verlorene
1
During
the French campaign he died while
Dr. Georg Hagen,
3
he did not share a similar
he had had a homosexual relationship
der Reichspostdirektion
Prasident
release
fOr die SS.
No further
action
in Breslau,
dismissal
former
since
regular
was discovered
Hagen, who was
an immediate
he had become "...
and senior
untragbar
the Ministerialdirektor.
to bring
was sufficient
BrigadefUhrer
army officer
it
requested
was taken against
from the SS.
himself
consider
fate after
of homosexuality
The mere suspicion
about instant
5a
GrUnewald,
could
in 1923.
from the SS, which was granted
A
Haufen, "
Hans Dietrich
police
officer
1
Mm
'verlorene
Haufen:
the
Hoess wrote the following
about
Lauf e des Kri eges, a1s sel bst Himmler di e Todesurtei 1e zu vi el wurden,
'Himmelfahrtskommandos'
die
Bewährungsabteilungen,
SS
man
errichtete
Widerstandsunternehfast
die
Minensuchen
aussichtslosen
oder
zu
genannt lebend
Bewährungseinsätze
diese
haben
Nur
wenige
wurden.
men eingesetzt
273.
Change,
Social
Politics
Power
"
Steiner,
p.
Oberstanden.
and
2
of Rbdiger
von Bodungen.
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Rbdiger von Bodungen.
3
SS UntersturmfUhrer
Personnel File:
BDC.
in Breslau.
born 16.3.1899,
4
Personnel
Dr. Georg Hagen, SS #36,191,
1933.
dated
November
Hagen,
Georg
of
Release report
Ibid.
date unreadable.
5
SS
BrigadefUhrer
File:
Personnel
in
Beuthen,
14.12.1898,
born
SS J-0309,502,
File:
Hans Dietrich
Oberschlesien.
Exact
GrOnewald,
BDC.
234
since 1928, was on an inspection
he was suspected one night
A lot
of drinking
night,
everyone was intoxicated,
GrOnewald, whose history
could not be proven.
SS, on the grounds that
Reinhaltung
schools in 1944, when
of police
of having had a male companion in his room.
had gone on that
and the charge against
tendencies,
trip
he violated
von SS und Polizei.
included no homosexual
Yet GrOnewald was released from the
"...
den Erlass des Fbhrers zur
"'
That Himmler at times thought the SS court decisions
lenient
and directed
of Hauptsturmfbhrer
Dr. Hennig Graf von Hardenberg.
doctor
young medical
was during
a more severe sentence is illustrated
in the case
Hardenberg was a
to the Verfbgungsdivi-sion
attached
a regimental
2
party,
celebrating
too
the collapse
in 1940.3
of France,
it
that
Hardenberg was accused of having made homosexual approaches toward an
N. C. 0.
That he was described
und ohne Hgrte
...
,4 cannot
homosexual tendencies.
dass unter
Kartei
lead one to assume that
Purely circumstantial
einigen
Träger
wohnende
als weich
Hardenberg had any
facts
the
and
evidence,
SS-Männern ein Gerede entstanden
Anwandlungen" and "...
habe gleichgeschlechtliche
in Berlin
by his company commander "...
sei,
v. Hardenberg
dass zwei ebensfalls
des Namens Graf von Hardenberg bereits
in der
der
Homosexualität
Bekämpfung
als
zur
5
latente
das
Feldgericht
haben
eine
auf
sind, ...
der Reichszentrale
Homosexuelle
bekannt
Proceedings
against
Hans Dietrich
1944.
GrOnewald, dated 1 April
Ibid.
2
Personnel File:
Hardenberg, SS #220,823,
Dr. Hennig Graf von
SS HauptsturmfUhrer
in Demmin, Pommern. BDC.
born 18.10.1907,
3
"Deutschland"
The VerfUqungsdi_vision was renamed
107.
SS,
Waffen
The
Stein,,
"
"Das
Reich.
p.
then renamed
in late
1940,
4
führer
den
SS
HauptsturmStrafsache
Division,
SS-V.
der
gegen
"Gericht
1940.
Ibid.
20
August
"
dated
Hardenberg,
Graf
von
Dr. Hennig
5
in
Reichszentrale
the
Hardenbergs
entered
The two
Ibid.
brother
and uncle.
Hardenberg's
Hennig
were
235
Erbanlage des v. Hardenberg in dieser
While the SS Divisional
Court granted that
may have made Hardenberg a latent
found it
necessary,
Richtung schliessen
lassen. "'
hereditary
certain
homosexual, the trained
factors
jurists
basis
the
of the evidence presented
on
v. Hardenberg im vollem Umfange mangels Beweises freizusprechen.
When he received the divisional
Himmler, however, thought otherwise.
court's
verdict
he reversed it,
Eignung entlassen.
informed
hat,
that
Himmler had reviewed
Entscheidung
A
of the case.
und es abgelehnt
In February
with
He felt
Selbstmord
Hardenberg
wegen mangelnder
Eignung so zu Herzen genommen, dass die Gefahr besteht,
dieserhalb
1941 Obergruppen-
Hardenberg,
that
hat sich den Ausschl uss aus der Schutzstaffel
begeht. "
der
aus
auf Entlassung
aquainted
who was personally
a renewed review
"...
the sentence
Waffen-SS
aufzeheben.
und
Heissmeyer,
requested
and ordered ". .. wegen mangelnder
When Hardenberg appealed the sentence he was
die gegen Sie getroffene
Schutzstaffel
f0hrer
.3
"
2
Heissmeyer reiterated
dass er
that
Hardenberg
he
that
homosexual
was
and
relatives,
had nothing to do with the two
5
Himmler
adament
to
remained
It
avail.
happily married.
no
was all
6
his
in
to
corps.
serve
that Hardenberg was unfit
1
"Gericht
2
3
der SS-V. Division.
l'
Ibid.
Ibid.
"Dienstlaufbahn"
Hardenberg.
Hennig
of
Ibid.
"ehem.
the
to
SS-Gericht"
Hauptamtes
des
"Chef
from
Letter
19
"
dated
Hardenberg,
Graf
Hennig
Dr.
d.
von
R.
SS Hauptsturmfbhrer
Ibid.
October 1940.
4
SS
des
"Chef
5
to
Heissmeyer
ObergruppenfUhrer
SS
Letter of
Ibid.
1941.
8
February
dated
"
Personalhauptamtes,
6
Master Card.
Ibid.
236
From these case histories
FUhrer
carried
the stamp of a "laughable
well
2
Socialism.
on Frau KrOger's
that
side
there
of GruppenfUhrer
simple
suspected
matter
a racial
to obtain
code looked
divorce
a
factor
homosexuality,
What made matters
an officer.
On the other
or hereditary
or charged with
ancestor
upon homosexuality
in 1711.3
It
is
were less awed by
hand, it
appeared to be a
in the SS, provided
was little
fact
the
even worse was
as a hereditary
was
KrUger because
in one's favour.
there
as
accepted the rulings
educated officers
the commands of the SS FUhrung.
successfully
Klingenberg
Walter
educated SS officers
some less well
could
enforced.
Rasse-und Siedlungshauptamt
was a jewish
so many well
from above, while
could twist
were capriciously
the war hero and Ritterkreuztrager
to marry the daughter
relatively
Himmler, "l of a pedantic,
Yet the rules
the powerful
against
as Himmler,
surprising
Heinrich
KAmpfer and mechanic Hermann MUller
a fight
forbidden
They frequently
sense of values.
and prudish man who had become leader of the praetorian
guard of National
While the alte
can be seen that the SS
by a peculiar
was guided
kleinbbrg_erlich,
conduct
it
sickness
one
Once
escape for
that
that
the SS moral
had to be
eradicated.
1
Kogon, Der SS-Staat,
p. 359.
2
is
kleinbUrgerliche
Himmler's
provided
mentality
An example of
One day the book Freude - Sexualther
incident.
in the following
the name) was found in
(Himmler meant to write Freud but misspelled
Dilcher
Himmler
Dilcher.
StandartenfUhrer
ordered
the desk of
dieses
Nie
kommt
he
his
could explain
to come to
so
immediately
office
"
des
Buches?
der
Bestzer
"Ist
Dilcher
"
and
Buch in den Dienstschreibtisch?
in
".
Berl
1
Di
that
importance
cher was ordered
The matter was of such
..
Power
"
Steiner,
ich
bis
genehmige.
es
wieder
verlassen,
nicht zu
353.
Change,
Social
p.
Politics
and
3
H6hne, The Order,
144.
p.
CONCLUSION
The quantitative
of the SS FUhrerkorps has made it
composition
detail
approach used in the investigation
the social
1939.
and
changes that
While Hitler's
using
January
of the composition
analysis
of the sampled
composition
1933.
1933 as the only dividing
Kampfzeit.
That is to say, the Fbhrerkorps
Similarly,
from what it
after
of the corps
changed so that
from what it
had been in early
major social
of the various
Phase 1:
which this
branches
of the SS will
an elementary
Arbeiter
look at the
for
The social
each of the
composition
be summarized.
analysis
of the early
SS member who would eventually
born in southern
only
composition
again was different
This summary will
also
Hitler
1925-1930
The quantitative
typical
study
to
the early
the social
by September 1939 it
the
The officer
had been during
is divided.
for
on the day that
the Machtergreifung
1933.
periods
changes prior
of the sampled Fbhrerkorps
characteristics
into
phases
three
line
of the SS is unsatisfactory.
assumed power was different
_FOhrerkorps,
and post-Machtergreifung
corps of the SS had undergone a number of social
January
in some
of power on 30 January 1933 led to
seizure
breakdown of the pre-
has shown that
to trace
the corps between 1925
occurred within
some major changes in the social
a more detailed
possible
of the social
joiners
showed that
FUhrerkorps
to
the
advance
Germany, was under the age of 30 when he joined,
school
education,
had
an occupation
or
and was either
which placed
237
him into
the
was
had
an ungelernter
the untere
Mittelstand.
238
In the early
depicted
living,
literature
as a social
on the SS the man who wore the black uniform was
a man who was incapable of earning a decent
misfit,
and one who exemplified
data,
qualitative
the detailed
of SS man did in fact
the very early
stringent
this
for
seizure
1931 to 1933 showed that
officers
in
the first
was
northern-born
was already
over their
for the first
a trend
time.
In this
of Phase II.
The educational
old age group.
showed fewer
that
with
officers
only
or even some university
were still
was most noticeably
data,
of
Quantitative
breakthrough
the election
on the social
While the gradual
increase
that
in
toward the end of Phase I,
the 2 to 1 predominance of
southern-born
compatriots
was
The trend toward an older officer
time period
continued
there
during
the
was a noticeable
39-yearin
30increase
to
the
and an
analysis
for
the 1931 to 1933 joiners
a Volksschulbildung
education,
to
commissioned
promoted
of the qualitative
in the middle
Phase
I,
began
the
at
of
end
which
decrease in the under-30 joiner,
Abitur
Phase of the SS.
an influence
noticeable
of Phase II
part
officers
established
part
the Infancy
of power occurs
of the SS Fbhrerkorps.
northern-born
early
among
This suggests that the
be looked at in two parts.
phase will
the period
composition
corps,
type
1931-1934
of the NSDAP in September 1930 exerted
it
showed that this
he could be found primarily
during
enforced
Because Hitler's
results
The
advocated by Schreck in his Order No. 1
criteria
were not too stringently
Phase II,
case histories,
but that
exist,
Schlagertyp.
adherents of the Schutzstaffel.
selection
Phase 11:
the anti-social
rank,
and more with
While ungelernte
it
was the untere
overrepresented
in the FOhrerkorps.
the Lebenslgufe
showed that
an
Arbeiter
Mittelstand
A perusal
the Schlagertyp
239
or the individual
even within
who had difficulty
providing
the narrow definition
longer taken into
the SS during
the officer
the final
home environment,
a stable
of the untere Mittelstand,
In other words, the men who joined
corps.
two years of the Weimar Republic,
promoted to commissioned rank, were from the more stable
Hitler's
seizure
of power was associated
major changes in the social
toward an older
it
composition
officer
in the non-Abitur
officer
university-educated
SS was also
category,
and a corresponding
in the occupational
between 1933 and 1934.
that
For the first
educated segment which joined
did
employed and
not consist
person continued
was only
Phase III
in the second half
was slightly
it
was noticed
officers
for
rise
the
for
the
those joining
time it was the obere Mittelstand
data showed that
the SS at this
of disgruntled
the
time was productively
or unemployed intellectuals.
the northern-born,
to make up a significant
of Austria
annexation
was a sharp drop
1934-1939
Throughout
It
the most
of educated men into
distribution
The qualitative
was overrepresented.
Phase 111:
sudden influx
of Phase II,
that
categories
January 1933 there
This
While the
and the trend
After
group.
reflected
with some of the
officers,
and occupational
pronounced changes occurred.
BUrgertum.
in the second part
corps continued
was in the educational
and who were
of the FOhrerkorQs.
of 2 to 1 in favour of northern-born
ratio
was no
that
Among the professions
in the latter
and the senior
part
civil
professional
Fbhrerkorps.
the
sampled
of
1937
1939,
to
the
phase,
with
of
and the Sudetenland
altered.
educated,
part
II
Phase
of
the geographic
the
pattern
of the. obere Mittelstand
that
did
join
not
servants
the former
professional
in the headlong
240
rush of the other educated Marzgefal_lene to don the black uniform.
However, it
in greater
June 1934 that
was after
As a result
numbers.
these two groups began to join
of the influx
groups, there was a marked increase
of these two professional
in the above-50 age group.
Branches of the SS
The study has shown that
take place in the composition
that also major variations
branches
various
and the Sicherheitsdienst
had the largest
of northern-born
had the largest
men.
applicants
in their
formation
young man's
20's,
of officers
tended to attract
The Sicherheitsdienst
39-year-old
could claim
VerfUgungstruppe
the
and
with
of its
two-thirds
the
while
of southern-born
percentage
percentage
the Sicherheitsdienst
of each branch was concerned,
the TotenkopfverbAnde
of 40, while
officers,
SS
of university-
had the highest
percentage
the highest
SS contained
the Allgemeine
percentage
Geographically,
officers.
as the age distribution
Allgemeine
the largest
but
composition of the
has been shown that
the Totenkopfverbande
percentage
Totenko fverbgnde
As far
Thus it
educated
of elementary-school
in the social
contained
while
changes
of the SS FUhrerkorps over the years,
existed
of the SS.
educated officers,
not only did major social
officers.
the
over the age
21to
the
more of
a preponderance
of
was a predominantly
FOhrer joining
the SS before
they reached the age of 20.
he Officers
Socio-economic
At least
comment.
aspect
In the investigation
Fbhrerk2. nps it
.
social
further
one
mobility
discovered
was
than one might
of this
of the social
study warrants
background of the sampled
that the officers
expect
to find
some summary
had experienced more
in post World War I German
241
While the Selbstrekrutierung
society.
Mittelstand
admittedly
was high,
as is to be expected,
small sample of officers
from an untere Mittelstand
noticeable
social
joining
milieu
of the untere and obere
the upward mobility
from Arbeiter
in interesting.
percentage of the sampled SS officers
barriers
of their
stratum of society
goals
factor
background, and those
The fact
that a
overcome the various
home environment and advanced into a higher
suggests that once these men reached their
they were determined
the elite
of the
formation
to secure their
newly-won social
of the new regime.
professional
status
by
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Beobachter.
APPENDIX A
Table 1. Table of Frequencies
of the Study to Rank Achieved
Relating Phases
by the Officers
PHASES
III
JUNIOR RANKS
RANK
SENIORRANKS
LEVELS
383
(376)*
1724
(1797)
904
(838)
3011
229
(222)
1032
(1017)
541
(563)
1802
56
(70)
250
(192)
131
(175)
437
668
3006
1576
5250
GENERALRANKS
TOTAL
*The observed
frequencies
(fo-fe)
fe
x2
TOTAL
are given
in parentheses.
2
2
41
14.78!
13.46
3.5
89
22
21
+
+
4.82
+
+
13
3.09
+
+
+
+
=
X4
--.
.
.
.
2.
Cramer's
0=
N= total number in sample
k= the smaller of number of rows or columns
X2
N k-l
/j 1
V. 5250(3-17
= .
06
254
255
Table 2. Table of Frequencies Relating
Birthplaces
to Officers'
in Terms of Geographic
Phases of the Study
North/South/Special
Regions
PHASES
I
NORTH
REGIONS
SOUTH
SPECIAL
TOTAL
*The observed
(fo-fe)
fe
401
(317)*
II
1808
III
TOTAL
(1936)
949
(950)
3158
198
(318)
891
(854)
468
(385)
1557
68
(33)
307
(216)
160
(286)
535
667
3006
1577
5250
frequencies
are given
in parentheses.
2
2
14.72
18.01
26.97
1.54
2.04
72.73
17.60
9.06
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
X4 =
99.23 = 261.9
Cramer's
2
0=
V/ýN k-1
0
261.9
52560(2)
16
N= total number in sample
k= the smaller of number of rows or columns
256
Tabl e 3. Table of Frequencies Relating
Phases of the Study
Birthplaces
to the Officers'
in Terms of Population Centres
PHASES
TOTAL
CITY
POPULATIOt
I TOWN
CENTRES
RURAL
TOTAL
*The observed
x
2-
2=
X4
(fo-fe
fe
.
117
214
(209)*
941
(956)
435
(425)
1590
158
(155)
695
(713)
322
(307)
1175
263
(271)
1154
(1121)
533
(558)
1950
635
2790
1290
4715
frequencies
are given
in parentheses.
)2
173
2.43
944
699
466
230
056
239
+1
+
+
+
+.
+.
+
+.
.
.
.
.
4.167
=
257
Tabl e 4. Table of Frequencies Relating Branch of SS Joined to
Birthplace
Officers'
in Terms of Geographic North/ South/Speci al Regions
BRANCHES
NORTH
SOUTH
REGIONS
SPECIAL
1
TOTAL
* The observed
TV
SD
VT
112
637
137
(89)*
(668)
(129)
50
287
62
(81)
(259)
(59)
18
104
23
(10)
(101)
(34)
145
180
1028
222
1430
are given
in parentheses.
frequencies
TOTAL
886
399
(fo-fe
fe
5.26
09
3.56
15
2.73
+
19.22
+
+
47
1.51
+
+
4.72
+
+
+
X4 =
.
.
.
37.71
2
2.
2
Cramer's 0x
,V N(k-1)
0 =/ý7_71
140 TC2
1
N= total number in sample
k= the smaller of number of rows or columns
258
Table
5.
Table of Frequencies Relating Branch of SS Joined
to Officers'
Age at Time of Joining
BRANCHES
TO 29
AGE
30-49
)s
GROW
A/SS
TV
SD
VT
2141
101
574
123
(2038)*
(90)
(617)
(194)
1558
73
418
90
(1650)
(88)
(384)
(17)
126
6
34
6
(137)
(2)
(25)
(8)
172
3825
180
1026
219
5250
50+
TOTAL
*The observed
frequencies
are given
TOTAL
2939
2139
in parentheses.
(fo-fe
fe
1.
96
59.21
2.77
3.08
5.43
+
+
40.98
+
+
1.2
3.22
+
+
+
+
.
x2=4.96
6
2.67 + 2.38 + . 67 = 127.52
2.
72
OF
Cramer's
/525
,
127652T
(-2
in
N= total
sample
number
k= the smaller of number of rows or columns
x
-Lý
NTk--1
11
.
259
Table 6.
Table of Frequencies Relating Phases of the Study
Age at Time of Joining
to the Officers'
PHASES
TOTAL
TO 29
AGE
30-49
GROUPS
374
(454)*
1683
(1792)
882
(693)
2939
272
(205)
1125
(1169)
642
(765)
2139
22
(9)
98
(45)
52
(118)
172
668
3006
1576
5250
50+
TOTAL
* The observed
(fo-fe-)fe
1.
x2=
4
frequencies
are given
in parentheses.
2
17.14 + 7.09 + 40.60 + 16.57 + 2.54 + 23.52 + 7.59 + 29.04
85.32 = 229.41
2.
01
Cramer's
v7
.
2
x
(
k-IT
N73N
229.41
g57215ý(2)
14
.
N= total number in sample
k= the smaller of number of rows or columns
260
Tabl e 7.
Table of Frequencies Relating Phases of the Study to the
Officers'
Occupations in Terms of Social Structure
PHASES
I
ARBEITERSCHICHT
UNTERE
MITTELSTAND
SOCI AL
STRUCTURE
OF
OCCUPAOBERE
TIONS
MITTELSTAND
11(1)
! 1(2)
111
7.13
15.55
16.51
16.81
(20)*
(20)
(3)
(13)
394.06
860.08
913.17
929.69
(728)
(729)
618.32
29.50
( 817)
(834)
(1084)
(556)
267.81
582.37
(354)
(92)
1458
668
TOTAL
3097
frequencies
are given
2097
1
1548)
1576
5250
in parentheses.
(fo-fe
fe
1.
x2=
a
86 + 66.55 + 58.30 + 37.55 + 43.32
23.32 + 1.27 + 11.06 + .
576.49
66.43
63.84
+
89.55
=
+
114.53 +
/!
2.
56
1
1
*The observed
TOTAL_
Cramer's
.
576.49
-Z§
52564(-2T
2
x2
NFk;- 1
N= total number in sample
k= the smaller of number of rows or columns
.
23
261
Tabl e 8. Table of Frequencies Relating Officers'
Socio-Economic
Home Background to their Occupations in Terms of Class Structure
HOMF RArKnpniiNn
ARBEITERSCHICHT
ARBEITERSCHICHT
SOCIAL
STRUCTUR
OF
OBERE
OCCUPA- MITTELSTAND
TIONS
TOTAL
*The observed
(fo-fe
2.15
43.14
10.72
(20)*
(34)
(2)
119.58
UNTERE
MITTELSTAND
UNTERE
OBERE
TOTAL
MITTELSTANDMITTELSTAND
2393.46
56
594.96
(166)
(2738)
(204)
80.27
1606.41
399.32
(16)
(1271)
(799)
2086
202
4043
1005
5250
frequencies
are given
3108
in parentheses.
)2
fe
2
400.04
70.03
51.46
256.90
49.60
18.02
+
+
7.09
1.53
+
+
+
+
+
X4 =
1002.87
2.
Cramer's 0x2 VN
r-
1002.87
7
2
5250ý2
2
N= total number in sample
k= the smaller of number of rows or columns
k-1
.
31
APPENDIX B
Comparative
Table of SS and Commonwealth Army Ranks
(Commissioned Ranks only)
SS-Untersturmfbhrer
Second Lieutenant
SS-Obersturmfbhrer
First
SS-Hauptsturmfbhrer
Captain
SS-SturmbannfUhrer
Major
SS-ObersturmbannfUhrer
Lieutenant-Colonel
SS-Standartenfbhrer
Colonel
SS-OberfUhrer
-------
SS-Brigadef0hrer
Brigadier
SS-Gruppenfbhrer
Major-General
SS-Obergruppenfbhrer
Lieutenant-General
SS-Oberstgruppenfbhrer
General
Reichsfbhrer-SS
Field
262
Lieutenant
Marshal