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Chapter 14 Resources
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Activity 14 Transparency L2
Graphic Organizer 14: Cause–Effect
Causes
Chapter
Transparency 14 L2
Chart
Map Overlay
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CHAPTER TRANSPARENCY 14
Effects
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe (1550–1715)
Europe After the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Map Overlay Transparency
14
A king cannot suspend any laws without the consent of Parliament.
NORWAY
A king needs the approval of Parliament to raise taxes and
maintain an army.
SCOTLAND
This bill guarantees the right of trial by jury for anyone
accused of a crime.
IRELAND
North
Sea
UNITED
PROVINCES
ENGLAND
SWEDEN
Rh
Danzig
BRANDENBURG
Berlin
.
Mts. AUSTRIA
SWITZERLAND
FRANCE
Pyr
Eb
PORTUGAL
HUNGARY
Vienna
R.
Al
ps
Dan
ub
PAPAL
STATES
e nees
ro
M ts.
Rome
Corsica
R.
Naples
ds
These are the true, ancient, indubitable rights and liberties
of the people of England.
R
L o ir e
R.
Atlantic
Ocean
PRUSSIA
Vis
t u la
R.
SILESIA
BOHEMIA
n
i
SPANISH
e
NETHERLANDS
S ein Verdun
Metz
e
A king is required to call frequent Parliamentary sessions for
amending, strengthening, and preserving the laws.
Baltic
Sea
DENMARK
an
Madrid
Ba
ic
l ear
I
Mediterranean Sea
0
0
200
400
200
e
R.
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
Sardinia
sl
SPAIN
Sicily
600 Kilometers
400 Miles
Crete
APPLICATION AND ENRICHMENT
Date
Class
Name
Name
★
Enrichment Activity 14
★
Date
Class
PRIMARY SOURCE R
T
5. Imagine that Philip II of Spain was addressing his troops as they set off to invade England.
How do you think his speech might be the same as Elizabeth’s? How might it be different?
Name
Class
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
At eight o’clock the chief valet de chambre
[personal servant] on duty, who alone had slept
in the royal chamber, and who had dressed himself, awoke the King [Louis XIV]. The chief
physician, the chief surgeon, and the nurse (as
long as she lived) entered at the same time. . . .
At the quarter [8:15], the grand chamberlain was
called . . . and those who had what was called
the grandes entrées [greatest access]. The chamberlain (or chief gentleman) drew back the
curtains which had been closed again, and
presented the holy water from the vase at the
head of the bed. These gentlemen stayed but a
moment, and that was the time to speak to the
King, if anyone had anything to ask of him; in
which case the rest stood aside. . . . Then all
passed into the cabinet of the council. A very
short religious service being over, the King
called [and] they re-entered. The same officer
gave him his dressing-gown; immediately after,
other privileged courtiers entered, and then
everybody, in time to find the King putting on
his shoes and stockings, for he did almost everything himself, and with address [attention] and
grace. Every other day we saw him shave himself; and he had a little short wig in which he
always appeared, even in bed, and on medicine
days. . . .
As soon as he was dressed, he prayed to
God, at the side of his bed, where all the clergy
present knelt, the cardinals without cushions, all
the laity [those outside the clergy] remaining
standing; and the captain of the guards came to
the balustrade during the prayer, after which the
King passed into his cabinet. He found there, or
was followed by all who had the entrée, a very
numerous company, for it included everybody in
any office. He gave orders to each for the day;
thus within a half a quarter of an hour it was
known what he meant to do; and then all this
crowd left directly. . . .
All the Court meantime waited for the King
in the gallery. . . . During this pause the King
gave audiences when he wished to accord any,
spoke with whoever he might wish to speak
secretly to, and gave secret interviews to foreign
ministers. . . .
The King went to mass, where his musicians
always sang an anthem. . . . The King amused
himself a little upon returning from mass and
asked almost immediately for the council. Then
the morning was finished.
On Sunday, and often on Monday, there was
a council of state; on Tuesday a finance council;
on Wednesday council of state; on Saturday
finance council. Rarely were two held in one day
or any on Thursday or Friday. . . . Often on the
days when there was no council the dinner hour
was advanced more or less for the chase [hunt]
or promenade. The ordinary hour was one
o’clock; if the council still lasted, then the dinner
waited and nothing was said to the King.
The dinner was always au petit couvert, that
is, the King ate by himself in his chamber upon a
square table in front of the middle window. It
was more or less abundant, for he ordered in the
morning whether it was to be “a little,” or “very
little” service. But even at this last, there were
always many dishes, and three courses without
counting the fruit. . . .
Upon leaving the table the King immediately
entered his cabinet [private room]. That was the
Date
!
The English speaking theater achieved its
greatest height in Elizabethan England. No
playwright of this time was more important
than William Shakespeare, and no theater
more important than the “wooden O”
referred to in the next to the last line
below—the Globe—where Shakespeare presented and acted in his works, and developed his genius. Yet in 1598 the future of
Shakespeare and his acting company, the
Lord Chamberlain’s Men, were in jeopardy.
They were then performing at The Theatre,
and their lease was up. Evidently unimpressed by the work of the man who would
become the most important dramatist in
world history, the landlord, Giles Allen,
told the company he planned to tear the
building down and “convert the wood and
timber thereof to some better use.”
Faced with homelessness, the company
took action. Under the cover of darkness
the members disassembled the theater
themselves and shipped the pieces across
426A
★
Date
Cooperative Learning Activity
Class
14 ★
King or Queen for a Day—Worksheet
Complete the following worksheet as you discuss the actions, policies, and personal objectives of the
absolute monarchs. Use the information to come to an agreement on who should receive the King- or
Queen-for-a-Day award.
Monarchs to Be Considered
.
Political
achievements
Religious policy
Military successes
or failures
Domestic policy
Foreign policy
Innovations during
the monarch’s rule
State of the empire
after the monarch’s
reign
Choice for King- or Queen-for-a-Day award:
for a Muse of fire, that
would ascend
The brightest heaven of
invention!
A kingdom for a stage,
princes to act,
And monarchs to behold
the swelling scene!
Then would the warlike
Harry, like himself,
Assume the port of Mars . . .
O,
Influential Europeans in Absolute Profile
the River Thames to an area called
Bankside, where two new theaters had just
been built. The company’s new home
would be built there. All were counting on
Bankside becoming London’s next theatrical center, and they were correct.
In 1599 the Globe—made of wood and
probably round, like the letter O—opened
its doors to the public and much success. Its
sign showed Hercules bearing the world on
his shoulders. Apparently Shakespeare
believed that not only the “vastly fields of
France” and “the casques [helmets] that did
affright the air at Agincourt,” but the whole
world, could be crammed imaginatively
into the wooden O of the theater.
Shakespeare died in 1616, but the English
stage continued to enjoy its greatest period
until 1642. In that year the Puritans closed
London’s theaters. They thought theatrical
entertainment would corrupt the citizens,
and the royalty, whom the Puritans
opposed, supported the acting troupes.
But pardon, gentles all . . .
Can this cockpit hold
The vastly fields of France?
Or may we cram
Within this wooden O the
very casques
That did affright the air at
Agincourt?
—William Shakespeare,
Prologue to Act I,
The Life of King Henry the Fifth
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Elizabethan plays often referred to figures from Greek and Roman mythology. Who is
Mars and why does he fit in the prologue about King Henry the Fifth (Harry)?
2. What event happened at Agincourt?
3. Why did the Puritans object to plays being performed?
R
• Michelangelo (ISBN 1–56501–425–1)
Name
Saving the “Wooden O”
HANDOUT MATERIAL
R
The following videotape program is available
from Glencoe as a supplement to Chapter 14:
Cooperative Learning
Activity 14 L1/ELL
Class
Historical Significance Activity 14
14
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. What effect do you think this speech had on the soldiers? ____________________________
CTIVITY
.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. How would you describe the tone or mood of this speech? ___________________________
I M U L AT I O N
GUIDED READING In this selection, read to learn what a “typical” day entailed in the life of King Louis XIV.
We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit
our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to
distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that,
under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of
my subjects; and therefore I come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation
and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you
all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood,
even in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart
and stomach of a king, and king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any
prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and
rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, for your forwardness you have
deserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly
paid you. In the mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom prince never
commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous
victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.
2. What does Elizabeth’s presence at Tilbury with the soldiers tell you about her character?
14
he luxurious and elaborate lifestyle of royal courts in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries seems almost unbelievable today. The French
court, especially during the long reign of Louis XIV, set the style for the
rest of Europe. The colorful picture of court life in this selection was written
by Louis de Rouvroy, duke of Saint-Simon, a noble whose Memoirs are considered a masterpiece of French literature. Saint-Simon’s multivolume journals
describe court life and personalities in the years 1694–1723, which include
the final years of the reign of Louis XIV and the regency that followed.
My loving people,
DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided.
EADING
A Day at the Court of the Sun King
ever, reveals the same intelligence and
learning that distinguished much of sixteenth-century writing.
Below is the speech that Elizabeth delivered to the British troops assembled at
Tilbury in 1588 waiting for the landing of
the Spanish Armada.
1. According to Elizabeth, why is she at Tilbury with the troops? ________________________
Date
HS
A
Historical Significance
Activity 14 L2
ISTORY
★
Addressing the Troops
By 1558, when Elizabeth Tudor ascended
to the throne of England at the age of 25,
she could read and write Greek, Latin,
French, Italian, Spanish, German, and, of
course, English. During the era that was
named for her, she was celebrated in many
poems and plays. Her own writing, how-
History Simulation
Activity 14 L1
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Name
Primary Source
Reading 14 L2
To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To find
classroom resources to accompany this video,
check the following home pages:
A&E Television: www.aande.com
The History Channel: www.historychannel.com
BACKGROUND
The late sixteenth century through to the beginning of the eighteenth century was a
time of great change in the nations of Europe. European monarchs sought to consolidate and expand their authority, often in the context of religious wars and disputes wrapped around political power agendas. A number of absolute monarchs
and rulers played key roles in the European theater. In this activity, your group will
choose one historical figure from the era of state building in Europe, research the
subject’s role in the great changes that took place in Europe, and present their findings as a multimedia presentation to the class.
GROUP DIRECTIONS
1. Your group should discuss, then select, one of the following figures to research.
Elizabeth I
William and Mary
Louis XIV
Charles II
Philip II
Peter the Great
Oliver Cromwell
Frederick William the Great
James II
Henry of Navarre
2. As a group, decide on the aspects of the subject to be researched and presented,
including details from his or her personal life and the impact that the person
had on changes in Europe as a whole. Assign specific areas of research to individual group members.
3. Complete your research assignment and include ideas for visuals and props
that can be included in the multimedia presentation about your subject.
4. Present your multimedia presentation to the class and have the class complete
the “listener’s guide.”
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Enrichment Activity 14 L3
ORGANIZING THE GROUP
1. Decision Making/Group Work Decide on a subject from the list provided or
suggest another subject to your teacher for approval. Brainstorm as a group the
general criteria or areas that will be used to organize the research on the subject’s life and historical significance. Record the results. Assign specific topics or
criteria to individual team members to research. Team members should be
aware of all organizing criteria determined by the team, not just their own, so
they can point teammates to sources of information for their own, different
research assignments.
2. Individual Work Start with your textbook, but draw upon at least three sources of
information to research your subject under the criteria you were assigned. Be sure
to include personal information you can find about the subject and identify
sources of maps, paintings, documents, information about personal effects, and
other information that can be used in visuals. Share any information you find that
★
Chapter 14 Resources
REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT
Linking Past and Present
Activity 14 L2
Time Line Activity 14 L2
Name
Name ____________________________________
Date ________________
Class __________
Date
Reteaching Activity 14 L1
Name
Class
‘
Time Line Activity 14
Date
Critical Thinking Skills
Activity 14 L2
Vocabulary Activity 14 L1
Class
Name
f
Reteaching Activity 14
Date
Name
Class
Date
Class
Critical Thinking Skills Activity 14
Vocabulary Activity 14
Drawing Conclusions
Linking Past and Present Activity 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
DIRECTIONS: The monarchs who ruled Spain, England, France, the German states, and
Russia from 1500 to 1750 were intent on expanding their territory and power. Their efforts at
national expansion set the stage for Europe’s future territorial conflicts. The time line below
shows some of the key events in their power struggles. Read the time line, then answer the
questions that follow.
1558 Elizabeth I becomes
queen of England.
1500
1600
K
W
L
What I Already Know
What I Want to Know
What I Learned
Section 1: Spain
1700
1800
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1668 Spain recognizes
Portugal’s independence.
2. Making inferences: Why might leaders
feel that controlling a group’s culture
would help them govern that group?
1748 European powers sign
the Treaty of Alx-la-Chapelle.
1642 English civil war begins.
1685 The Edict
of Nantes
is repealed.
1700 Charles II dies; Europe is
plunged into the War of the
Spanish Succession.
1.
Whom did Queen Elizabeth I put to death in 1587?
When did the Thirty Years’ War begin?
3.
What common factor links the event that occurred in 1566 with the event in 1625?
•
commonwealth
•
inflation
armada
•
czar
•
Mannerism
•
baroque
•
divine right
•
natural rights
•
boyars
•
heretics
•
witchcraft
conclusions.
rom 1577 to 1580, the great English explorer Sir Francis Drake sailed
around the world in a ship called the Golden Hind. However, the ship
started its voyage with a different name—the Pelican. Sir Francis Drake
suddenly renamed the ship right after one of his sailors, Thomas Doughty,
sparked a mutiny. Drake ruthlessly suppressed the mutiny by beheading
Doughty, but this action created a political crisis. Doughty had been the
secretary to Sir Christopher Hatton, a major investor in the voyage and one
of Queen Elizabeth’s favorites. The Hatton family coat of arms (a family crest
or shield) was decorated with a golden female deer, called a hind. A few
days after Doughty’s execution, Drake renamed the Pelican the Golden Hind.
Under that name, the ship achieved great fame.
F
as he held
virtually unlimited power over his subjects. About 15,000 Spanish soldiers died as a result
of the disastrous defeat of the (2)
Philip had sent to invade England.
, which sent prices soaring.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries an intense hysteria over the belief in
How did the Tudor monarchs
influence English and
European affairs?
(4)
, or magic, affected the lives of many Europeans. The religious
zeal that led to the Inquisition and the hunt for (5)
was extended to
1. From the information above, what can you conclude about Sir Francis Drake’s perso-
concern about witchcraft.
1721 Russia defeats Sweden
and wins control of the eastern
end of the Baltic region.
2.
absolutism
•
In Spain the rule of Philip II was an example of (1)
Why did Philip II and other
Spanish monarchs have
difficulty ruling the
Spanish Empire?
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow to draw
•
Another result of the defeat was (3)
Section 2: England
1625 Huguenots revolt
against Louis XIII.
DIRECTIONS: Write one of the following terms on each numbered line below to complete the
Royal Power and Conflict, 1500–1750
1598 Russian Time of Troubles begins.
1618 Thirty Years War begins.
Critical Thinking
Directions: Answer the following questions
on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Making comparisons: How were the
Hapsburgs and the Soviets similar in the
way they ruled conquered countries? How
were they different?
paragraphs.
19. A few sample questions have been filled in for you.
1587 Elizabeth I orders the execution of Mary Stuart, her cousin.
1566 Dutch Protestants rebel against Philip II’s
efforts to impose Catholicism on the Netherlands.
1588 England defeats the
Spanish Armada.
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe: 1550–1715
The monarchs who ruled England, France, Spain, the German states, and Russia from
1500 to 1750 battled to expand their domain and their power. Their struggles laid the
foundation for the ensuing territorial strife in Europe.
DIRECTIONS: Complete the following “KWL” chart to review the information in Chapter
about the topic. For example, you might
read about a king who, without consulting
his advisers, invades a neighboring country.
From this information, you might conclude
that the king is impulsive or aggressive.
nality? State and support at least two conclusions.
Following the death of England’s Queen Elizabeth I, James I ascended to the throne
Section 3: France
with his belief in (6)
, the conviction that a ruler derives complete
authority to govern directly from God and is responsible to God alone.
In 1642 England slipped into a civil war between the supporters of the king and the parSection 4:
The German States
4.
Which country became independent in the mid-seventeenth century?
5.
Based on the entire time line, how would you characterize Europe in the sixteenth,
seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries?
Section 5: Russia
liamentary forces. Following their victory, Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House
of Lords and declared England a republic, or (7)
.
In the sixteenth century, Russia’s Ivan IV became the first ruler to take the title of
(8)
, the Russian word for caesar. Ivan IV took steps against the
(9)
to reduce their potential threat to his throne.
The artistic Renaissance came to an end when a new movement, called
(10)
, emerged in Italy and distorted elements such as scale and
perspective. This movement was eventually replaced by (11)
, known
for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions.
2. What conclusion can you draw about why Sir Francis Drake changed the name of the
flagship from the Pelican to the Golden Hind? Explain your answer.
3. At sea, captains took the law into their own hands. Explain why this conclusion is or is
not supported by the information above.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Now Some governments still ignore peoples’
right to choose their own way of life. The
“empire” of the former Soviet Union included
countries in Eastern Europe, in which the
Soviets had set up puppet governments. Like
the countries in the Austro-Hungarian Empire,
Eastern Europe under the Soviets also had a
variety of ethnic groups living within the
region. Hoping to maintain a strong centralized rule, the Soviets did not allow the
different groups of people in Eastern Europe to
express their cultures: Traditional religions,
economies, family structures, art, and literature were all banned.
Hungary and Czechoslovakia were among
several Soviet-ruled countries that had been part
of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The nationalism that developed during Austrian rule
intensified under Soviet control. Repeatedly,
Hungary and Czechoslovakia tried to free themselves from the Soviets. Finally they succeeded
as the Soviet Union began to crumble.
Communist China has also tried to revise
the cultures of the peoples living under its
domain. Tibet is a notable example. Buddhist
leaders, called lamas, once ran the Tibetan government. Consequently, religion formed the
core of Tibetan culture.
When China first took over Tibet, Chinese
leaders promised the Tibetans that their religious freedom would be respected. However,
in 1956 that promise was broken: Many
Buddhist monasteries were closed and the
Dalai Lama was forced to seek refuge in India.
Buddhism forbids the use of violence.
Therefore, the Dalai Lama has tried to free his
country of Chinese tyranny through peaceful
means—so far without much success.
When you draw conclusions, you make
decisions about information presented. A
conclusion is a logical generalization you
make by putting together the details you
read about with what you already know
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Then As the leaders of the Holy Roman
Empire, the Hapsburgs of Austria tried to unify
the countries under their rule by converting
their populations to Catholicism. In Bohemia
(present-day Czechoslovakia), Catholics and
Protestants had once coexisted in peace.
However, when a Hapsburg monarch closed
down the Protestant churches there, civil war
broke out. This conflict ignited the Thirty Years’
War, which raged from 1618 to 1648.
The Bohemians’ reaction to an attack on
their religion demonstrated the strength of
people’s attachment to their culture. However,
the Hapsburgs ignored this message. After
putting down the Bohemian revolt, the
Hapsburgs attempted to force Catholicism on
other German states. By the end of the Thirty
Years’ War, the Hapsburg king, Ferdinand III,
had abandoned this effort.
In the meantime, Ferdinand created a
strong central government within the countries
still under his control. He then wrested
Hungary and Transylvania from the Ottoman
Empire.
Under the Turks, the Hungarians had been
free to practice Protestantism and otherwise
express their own culture. This tolerance
enabled Hungarians to develop a strong sense
of national identity, which would help them
later on as they resisted the rule of Austria.
Although unable to completely break away
from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the
Hungarians did manage to thwart the
Hapsburgs’ attempts to establish a totally centralized empire. Over time, strong feelings of
nationalism would develop within other countries of the Empire, and these countries, too,
began to challenge the authority of Austria.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Attempts to Maintain Centralized Power:
Past and Present
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
John Locke, an English political thinker, argued against absolutism. Locke believed that
3. Synthesizing information: Do you think
that peaceful resistance, such as strikes and
boycotts, are worthwhile methods of
humans had certain (12)
, including life, liberty, and property.
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
Chapter 14 Test
Form A L2
Chapter 14 Test
Form B L2
Performance Assessment
Activity 14 L1/ELL
ExamView® Pro
Testmaker CD-ROM
Standardized Test Practice
Workbook Activity 14 L2
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✔
★ Performance Assessment Activity 14
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✔
Score
Chapter 14 Test, Form A
Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________
Standardized Test Practice
Score
Chapter 14 Test, Form B
Use with Chapter 14.
CTIVITY 14
Persuasive Writing About an Issue
A
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
Column A
Column A
Column B
1. French Protestants influenced by John Calvin
2. recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France
A. Toleration Act
of 1689
3. Thirty Years’ War
B. El Greco
4. his execution horrified much of Europe
C. Charles I
2. the “Most Catholic King”
B. Bourbon
3. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are
responsible only to God
C. Louis XIV
• music
D. divine right
of kings
• computer text
E. absolutism
• maps
• slides
• videotapes
F.
• radio broadcasts
• speech
• diorama
5. the invasion of England by William of Orange
D. Cardinal Richelieu
4. Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas
E. Edict of Nantes
5. soldiers in the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell
F.
7. Louis XIII’s chief minister
G. “Glorious
Revolution”
6. laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy in
England
8. sought to increase France’s wealth and power by following
the ideas of mercantilism
9. his work reflected the high point of Mannerism
10. integrated Western customs and ways of doing things into
Russia
Jean-Baptiste
Colbert
J.
Peace of
Westphalia
H. Bill of Rights
I.
Phillip II
J.
Mannerism
• photographs
• computer graphics
• movies
A writer uses persuasion to express his or her opinion and to make readers agree with it,
change their own opinion, and sometimes take action. Like other types of writing, persuasive
writing consists of a topic, a main idea about the topic, and supporting details. However, your
main purpose in persuasive writing is to influence other people. Therefore, you need to pay special
attention to your audience, presenting your supporting ideas in a way that will persuade your
audience to accept your opinion.
• sound effects
• television show
• posters
★ Learning to Write Persuasively
★ TASK
Use the following guidelines to help you write persuasively.
Create a multimedia show to capture the excitement of the great social upheavals
that took place in Europe from 1500 to 1700. Working with a small group of classmates,
use a variety of different media to describe what happened in Spain, England, France,
the German states, and Russia. Your show should be no more than 10 minutes long.
• Direct your argument to a particular
audience.
• Present your viewpoint in a main idea
statement.
• Support your main idea statement with facts
and relevant opinion.
★ AUDIENCE
Your audience is your classmates and teacher.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence
or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the
sentence. (4 points each)
C. “King of the World.”
D. “Papal King.”
13. James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is
A. the belief that a king was granted the wisdom of God upon ascending to the
throne, and therefore was faultless.
B. the concept that kings were equal to God, and therefore did not have to live by
the laws of the Church.
C. the theory that kings alone could know the mind of God, and therefore could
determine the future through divination.
D. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.
★ PURPOSE
The purpose of your multimedia show is to give your audience an accurate,
detailed description of royal power and conflict (political, social, and economic) in
Europe during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries.
11. Although only 7 percent of the total French population were _____ , 40 to
50 percent of the nobility became part of that religion.
A. Catholics
C. Jews
B. Huguenots
D. Jesuits
★ PROCEDURES
1. Summarize what you know about Spain, England, France, the German states, and
Russia from 1500 to 1700.
12. The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholicism as the official religion of
France, but
A. also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges,
such as holding public office.
B. was intended to bring about an end to the battles between the Catholics and the
Huguenots, but actually only served to inflame tensions.
C. declared all Huguenots to be enemies of the state, starting the French Wars
of Religion.
D. was largely ignored by the Huguenots, and served only to appease the pope.
2. Research any additional information you need.
3. Plan and outline what you will include in your presentation. Select the different
media you will use to present each aspect of your show.
4. Prepare a complete script, including each speaker’s dialogue and cues for each media
display. Prepare any illustrations and make any recording to be included in your
show. Prepare a time management plan and allocate tasks to each group member.
★ Practicing the Skill
Read the selection below and complete the activity that follows.
King Louis XIV
Louis XIV is recognized as
the most powerful king who
ever ruled France. His 72-year
reign set the style for European
monarchies during the 1600s and
1700s.
Although Louis relied on a
bureaucracy, he was the source of
all political authority in France.
Jacques Bossuet, the leading
church official of France during
the 1600s, supported Louis’s
feelings about absolute
monarchy. Bossuet wrote:
5. Construct the multimedia show. Check and double-check any machinery (such as
video players, CD players, and slide projectors) to make sure that they are working correctly.
13. The Thirty Years’ War involved all the major European powers except
which nation?
A. France
C. England
B. Spain
D. Germany
6
• Use supporting evidence that appeals to both
reason and emotion.
• Anticipate and respond to possible opposing
viewpoints.
• End by summarizing your ideas and, if
appropriate, give a clear call to action.
Present your show. If possible, videotape it so you can critique your performance
later.
“What grandeur that a single
man should embody so much!…
Behold this holy power, paternal
and absolute, contained in a
single head: you see the image
of God in the king, and you
have the idea of royal majesty.”
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre.
C. Bourbon
D. Annecy
12. Phillip II of Spain was known as the
A. “Huguenot King.”
B. “Most Catholic King.”
8. fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King
9. marked the end of the artistic Renaissance
10. his novel Don Quixote has been hailed as one of the
greatest literary works of all time
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence
or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the
sentence. (4 points each)
11. The house of
A. Valois
B. Nantes
• drawings
Puritans
G. Miguel de
Cervantes
7. system of government in which a ruler holds total power
H. Huguenots
I.
Writing Objective 1: The student will respond appropriately in a written composition to the
purpose/audience specified in a given topic.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
According to Bousset, subjects had
no right to revolt. Kings need
account to no one except God, but
they should act with humility and
restraint because “God’s judgment
is heaviest for those who
command.”
INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITIES
Mapping History
Activity 14 L2
History and Geography
Activity 14 L2
Class
Name
Mapping History Activity 14
World Art and
Date
Name
Class
Music Activi
ty 14
★
The Hapsburg Empire
The Hapsburgs reached their greatest power before the end of the 1500s: Charles
V annexed Milan in 1535, Philip II conquered Portugal in 1580, and Spanish
holdings in the Americas were expanding. However the Hapsburg power
structure would collapse over the next decades.
0°
10°E
E
Eng
S
nnel
lish Cha
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
NET
Balti
e
cS
a
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about this Dutch painter, then answer
the questions that follow.
S
London
Calais
20°E
DENMARK
North
Sea
ENGLAND
L
HER
AN
D
van Rijn (1606–1669) was born in
Leyden, the son of a miller. He received a
Rembrandt
classical education at the Latin School and spent
POLAND
Brandenburg
BOHEMIA
Paris
FRANCE
AUSTRIA
Milan
HUNGARY
40°
PORT
UG
AL
N
Madrid
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
Corsica
SPAIN
Rome
Seville
Sardinia
Mediterrane
an
Sea
0
200
400 miles
2. Did Philip II make a strategic error in locating the capital of the Spanish
Hapsburg possessions in Madrid? Explain your answer.
3. Locate each of the lands held by the Spanish Hapsburgs. Based on the arrangement of countries, what location might have made a better capital than Madrid?
Why?
4. The Spanish Armada suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the English.
LUX.
Dijon
FRANCE
draw the viewer into an intimate relationship
with the art. It is not necessary to know the story
behind the painting to feel its emotions and
share the experience. Rembrandt’s appeal is said
to lie in his “profound humanity”—the compassion he has for all his subjects.
(continued)
10°W
Madrid
SPAIN
Taranto
SARDINIA
SICILY
Gibraltar
Algiers
Tunis
Oran
ALGERIA
TUNISIA
MEDITERRANEAN
SEA
Tripoli
30°W
0
150
BRITIS
H
300 miles
0 150 300 kilometers
0°
LIBYA
10°E
Launched from Gibraltar, landings near Casablanca,
Oran, and Algiers started the campaign that eventually allowed Allied forces to occupy Europe during
World War II.
MULTIMEDIA
Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Audio Program
World History Primary Source
Document Library CD-ROM
POLAND
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Milan
Cannes
ITALY
Rome
CORSICA Anzio
Salerno
Casablanca
MOROCCO
P r o f i le 1
chant sung by children on Guy Fawkes Day
AUSTRIA
SWITZERLAND
Marseille
SEA
200 400 kilometers
0
Lambert Conic Conformal Projection
1. Based on the map, in what ways was the Hapsburg Empire powerful in the
mid-1500s?
ENGLAND NETHERLANDS
BELGIUM GERMANY
10°W
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
40°W
Lisbon
Class
14
Remember, remember the fifth of November,
Gunpowder treason and plot;
I see no reason why Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot.
World War II Allied Troop Movements
20°W
Date
ld History: Activity
People in Wor
Guy Fawkes (1570–1606)
TIC
RIA
AFRICA
Name
day. To the naval commanders of Britain,
control of the point at the southern tip of
Spain where the Atlantic joins the
Mediterranean proved irresistible.
Some 200 years later during World War II,
Britain’s judgment of Gibraltar’s strategic
importance proved correct. In November of
1942, General Eisenhower set up a command
center in Gibraltar from which he launched
the invasion of North Africa known as
Operation Torch. Troop convoys assembled
in Gibraltar’s harbor. A cave within the rocks
served as the point from which Eisenhower
communicated with Washington, London,
and the field commanders landing in Africa.
From this strategic point, the Allies launched
the campaign that eventually allowed them
to regain Europe.
AD
Spanish Hapsburgs
Austrian Hapsburgs
Holy Roman Empire
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Sicily
one year at the university. He left school at the
age of 15 to study art under a local artist.
Recognition and fame came early, and
Rembrandt was soon sought after to produce
portraits and other paintings for collectors. He
was also an excellent teacher; in fact, hundreds
of works thought to have been painted by
Rembrandt are now known to be the work of
his students.
One of Rembrandt’s specialties was large oil
paintings—some of biblical stories, others on historical subjects. These include The Blinding of
Samson, The Return of the Prodigal Son, The
Sacrifice of Abraham, Aristotle Contemplating the
Bust of Homer, and The Night Watch. Much of
his genius was in his use of chiaroscuro, or the
play between light and dark. Sometimes in his
paintings light pours in from outside, illuminating
the important figures. More often the figures
themselves seem to radiate their own light, as in
the self-portrait shown here. Also, each face
painted by Rembrandt is different—Samson looks
wretched; the father forgiving his son is full of
tenderness and compassion; the soldiers on
night watch are alert. There is also balance and
an attention to detail. The emotions portrayed
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
IRELAND
Class
Since 1704, England and Spain have been
quarreling over Gibraltar, a 2.25 square mile
rocky outcropping in the Straits of Gibraltar
linked to Spain by a narrow isthmus. Why
do the two powers contest control of “the
Rock”?
England plucked Gibraltar from Spain
during the War of the Spanish Succession,
which began when Louis XIV accepted the
Spanish crown on behalf of his grandson,
Philip of Anjou. In the spring of 1704,
Britain and the Netherlands dispatched
fleets to the Mediterranean to assist Charles
of Austria in his claim to the crown. Unable
to attain their original objective and not
wishing to return empty-handed, the fleet’s
commanders attacked Gibraltar on July 23
and took possession of its gates the next
In the 1600s, the Netherlands was a newly independent country.
Consequently, Dutch artists were not supported by a system of commissions
from church and state, as were the artists in older, Catholic countries. Instead,
artists were dependent on private collectors. There were many wealthy collectors, which encouraged an explosion of artistic talent. The master of all the
Dutch artists was Rembrandt, who produced in his lifetime more than 600
paintings, 300 etchings, and 2,000 drawings. Yet he died alone, penniless, and
largely unappreciated.
Hapsburg Possessions in Europe 1560
10°W
N
W
Date
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ACTIVITY 14
Britain’s Toehold in Europe
Rembrandt
DIRECTIONS: The map below shows the Hapsburg holdings in the mid-1500s.
Use the map to complete the activities that follow. Write your answers on a
separate sheet of paper.
50°
N
People in World History
Activity 14 L2
MindJogger Videoquiz
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
TeacherWorks CD-ROM
Interactive Student Edition CD-ROM
The World History Video Program
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Date
World Art and Music
Activity 14 L2
POR
TUGAL
Name
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A. Roundheads
6. granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right of free public
worship
Peter the Great
★ BACKGROUND
The term multimedia means “many media.” Multimedia presentations are exciting
and effective because they stimulate many different senses—especially sight and
hearing—at the same time. Multimedia presentations include some or all of the following elements:
Column B
1. ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre
Each November 5 in the British
Commonwealth, children repeat this
Gunpowder Treason chant. It’s Guy Fawkes
Day! On this day in 1605, a man named
Guy Fawkes nearly blew up King James I
and his government.
Robert Catesby was one of the conspirators’ leaders. A Roman Catholic extremist, he
wanted to avenge the anti-Catholic laws of
England. He enlisted at least 11 other people
to help him carry out his plans. The most
famous of these was Guy Fawkes, a soldier
who had been serving in Flanders. The
group rented a house next to Parliament and
tunneled into a cellar beneath the House of
Lords. There, Fawkes and the other conspirators stacked 36 barrels of gunpowder, covered with iron bars and firewood. All that
remained was to set the gunpowder off. The
date selected for the explosion was
November 5, when King James himself was
scheduled to appear for the opening of
Parliament. The conspirators hoped that the
massive explosion would kill James and the
members of Parliament, and in turn set off a
Catholic uprising throughout Britain.
Although the plan required secrecy, word
got out. Since the conspirators needed more
Guy Fawkes, kneeling, being interrogated by James I
money to finance the planned uprising,
they invited several wealthy men to join
them. One of these men, Sir Francis
Tresham, revealed the plot to his brother-inlaw Lord Monteagle, through a letter warning him not to attend Parliament.
Monteagle had the cellar searched. Fawkes
was captured, and what came to be known
as the Gunpowder Plot was ended.
Ironically, the Gunpowder Plot, which was
conceived to help the plight of persecuted
Roman Catholics, actually caused Roman
Catholic persecution to be more vigorous
and bitter in England.
The conspirators were tried and convicted. On January 31, 1606, Fawkes and 7 of
the other conspirators were beheaded. Of
the 11 conspirators, Guy Fawkes—because
he intended to light the fuse—is the most
remembered. In 1606, a year after the
gunpowder was discovered, Parliament
enacted a law establishing November 5 as
a day of public thanksgiving. To this day,
children make effigies of Guy Fawkes. The
“Guys” are then burned in bonfires, and
fireworks fill the skies.
REVIEWING THE PROFILE
Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. What role did Guy Fawkes play in the Gunpowder Plot?
2. What was the purpose of the plot, and what were its results?
3. Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions. Why did the Parliament choose November 5 to
be a day of thanksgiving?
SPANISH RESOURCES
The following Spanish language materials
are available:
• Spanish Guided Reading Activities
• Spanish Reteaching Activities
• Spanish Quizzes and Tests
• Spanish Vocabulary Activities
• Spanish Summaries
• Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide
426B
Chapter 14 Resources
SECTION RESOU RCES
Daily Objectives
SECTION 1
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
1. Discuss the situation in many
European nations in which
Protestants and Catholics fought for
political and religious control.
2. Summarize how, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,
many European rulers extended
their power and their borders.
SECTION 2
Social Crises, War, and Revolution
1. Explain how the Thirty Years’ War
ended the unity of the Holy Roman
Empire.
2. Relate how democratic ideals were
strengthened as a result of the
English and Glorious Revolutions.
SECTION 3
Response to Crisis: Absolutism
1. Identify and describe Louis XIV, an
absolute monarch whose extravagant lifestyle and military campaigns
weakened France.
2. Discuss how Prussia, Austria, and
Russia emerged as great European
powers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
SECTION 4
The World of European Culture
1. Describe the artistic movements of
Mannerism and the baroque, which
began in Italy and reflected the spiritual perceptions of the time.
2. Identify Shakespeare and Lope de
Vega, prolific writers of dramas and
comedies that reflected the human
condition.
Reproducible Resources
Multimedia Resources
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–1
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1
Guided Reading Activity 14–1*
Section Quiz 14–1*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–1*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–2
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–2
Guided Reading Activity 14–2*
Section Quiz 14–2*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–2*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–3
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–3
Guided Reading Activity 14–3*
Section Quiz 14–3*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–3*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–3
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–4
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–4
Guided Reading Activity 14–4*
Section Quiz 14–4*
Reteaching Activity 14*
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–4*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–4
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment
CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Assign the Chapter 14 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.
*Also Available in Spanish
426C
Blackline Master
Transparency
CD-ROM
DVD
Poster
Music Program
Audio Program
Videocassette
Chapter 14 Resources
Teacher’s
Corner
INDEX TO
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE
The following articles relate to this chapter:
• “The Tale of the San Diego,” by Frank Goddio, July 1994.
• “The Living Tower of London,” by William R. Newcott,
October 1993.
• “St. Petersburg: Capital of the Tsars,” by Steve Raymer,
December 1993.
• “Inside the Kremlin,” by Jon Thompson, January 1990.
• “Shakespeare Lives at the Folger,” by Merle Severy,
February 1987.
• “Legacy from the Deep: Henry VIII’s Lost Warship,” by
Margaret Rule, May 1983.
Access National Geographic’s new dynamic MapMachine
Web site and other geography resources at:
www.nationalgeographic.com
www.nationalgeographic.com/maps
MEETING SPECIAL NEEDS
In addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found in
each section, the following resources are also suitable for
your special needs students:
•
•
•
•
•
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers to
tailor tests by reducing answer choices.
The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of the
student edition so that less-proficient readers can listen to
the words as they read them.
The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides the
same content as the student edition but is written two
grade levels below the textbook.
Guided Reading Activities give less-proficient readers
point-by-point instructions to increase comprehension as
they read each textbook section.
Enrichment Activities include a stimulating collection of
readings and activities for gifted and talented students.
WORLD HISTORY
Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content is
covered in the Student Edition.
You and your students can visit www.wh.glencoe.com , the
Web site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovative
integration of electronic and print media offers your students a
wealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to the
Web site for the following options:
• Chapter Overviews
• Self-Check Quizzes
• Student Web Activities
• Textbook Updates
Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in the
Web Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources and
Interactive Tutor Puzzles are also available.
From the Classroom of…
Candice Frumson
Ladue Horton Watkins
High School
St. Louis, Missouri
What Kind of King am I?
Have students analyze and discuss primary source
documents to gain an understanding of Louis XIV
and absolutism. Choose from the writings of Louis or
members of his court and distribute copies to students. Read the document aloud and provide time
for students to take their own notes as to the main
points and their interpretation. Then have students
work in pairs to discuss the main points and take
notes. Follow this activity with a class discussion. Ask
if Louis’s problems have a modern equivalent (use
Hitler, the United States, the Soviet Union, and so on
as examples). Ask students to write a “talk back” to
Louis XIV telling him what they think of his ideas.
KEY TO ABILITY LEVELS
Teaching strategies have been coded.
L1
L2
L3
ELL
BASIC activities for all students
AVERAGE activities for average to above-average
students
CHALLENGING activities for above-average students
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER activities
Activities that are suited to use within the block
scheduling framework are identified by:
426D
Introducing
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism
in Europe
Performance
Assessment
Refer to Activity 14 in the
Performance Assessment
and Rubrics booklet.
1550–1715
Key Events
The Impact Today
As you read this chapter, look for these key events in the history of Europe during the
sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries.
• The French religious wars of the sixteenth century pitted Protestant Calvinists
against Catholics.
• From 1560 to 1650, wars, including the devastating Thirty Years’ War, and economic
and social crises plagued Europe.
• European monarchs sought economic and political stability through absolutism and
the divine right of kings.
• Concern with order and power was reflected in the writings of Thomas Hobbes and
John Locke.
Have students explain the many ways in
which their daily lives are affected by the
U. S. Constitution. Remind students that
European ideas and ideals influenced the
Constitution’s Framers as they prepared
this living document that has profoundly
shaped the way we live.
The Impact Today
The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.
• The ideas of John Locke are imbedded in the Constitution of the United States.
• The works of William Shakespeare continue to be read and dramatized all over
the world.
The World History
Video Program
To learn more about early
seventeenth-century France, students
can view the Chapter 14 video, “Louis
XIV: The Sun King,” from The World
History Video Program.
World History Video The Chapter 14 video,“Louis XIV: The Sun King,”
chronicles the practice of absolutism in France during the 1600s.
Elizabeth I
c. 1520
Mannerism
movement
begins in Italy
MindJogger Videoquiz
Use the MindJogger Videoquiz to
preview Chapter 14 content.
Available in VHS.
1500
1558
Elizabeth I becomes
queen of England
1550
1566
Violence erupts
between Calvinists
and Catholics in the
Netherlands
St. Francis, as painted
by Mannerist El Greco
426
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
426
PURPOSE FOR READING
K-W-L Charts What do you Know, what do you Want to know, what have you Learned? This strategy
helps students utilize their knowledge and generates interest. Have the students create a three-box
chart on Monarchy. Label the top two boxes “What do you Know about Monarchies?” and “What do
you Want to know about Monarchies?” Label the third box “What have you Learned about Monarchies?” Ask students to fill in the first two boxes, and then discuss what they wrote with a partner and
the class. Finally, ask them to add information to the “Learned” box as they study the chapter. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
Introducing
CHAPTER 14
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, students should be able to:
1. describe the causes of the
French Wars of Religion and
how they were resolved;
2. explain militant Catholicism
and its effects on Europe;
3. list the causes and results of
the Thirty Years’ War;
4. discuss the significance of the
English and Glorious
Revolutions;
5. explain the absolutism of
Louis XIV, Ivan the Terrible,
and Peter the Great;
6. distinguish an absolute from a
constitutional monarchy;
7. explain significant movments
in art, literature, and
philosophy in the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries.
Art or Photo here
Versailles was the center of court life during the reign of Louis XIV.
HISTORY
John Locke
1598
French Wars of
Religion end
1648
Peace of
Westphalia ends
Thirty Years’ War
1600
1650
1618
Thirty Years’
War begins in
Germany
Chapter Overview
1690
John Locke
develops
theory of
government
HISTORY
Chapter Overview
1700
1689
Toleration Act of
1689 is passed in
English Parliament
Visit the Glencoe World
History Web site at
wh.glencoe.com and click
on Chapter 14–Chapter
Overview to preview
chapter information.
1701
Frederick I
becomes king
of Prussia
Gustavus Adolphus, the king of
Sweden, on the battlefield
Introduce students to chapter
content and key terms by having
them access Chapter Overview
14 at wh.glencoe.com .
Time Line Activity
Have students list events on the time
line that reflect religious struggles.
(violence between Calvinists and
Catholics in the Netherlands, French
Wars of Religion, Toleration Act) L1
427
MORE ABOUT THE ART
The Palace of Versailles is one of the most famous structures of Western architecture. It was originally a hunting lodge but was expanded by Louis XIV beginning in 1661 to reflect his power and
grandeur. On several occasions during Louis’s reign, the palace was the scene of elaborate and
enormously expensive festivals that lasted for as long as a week. From 1682 to 1789, the Palace of
Versailles was the official residence of the kings of France. In 1919, the treaty that ended World War I
was signed in the palace’s famous Hall of Mirrors. Today the Palace of Versailles is a national
museum that draws about 3 million visitors a year. Restoration work on its interiors and exteriors,
begun in the early 1900s, is still continuing.
Dinah Zike’s Foldables are threedimensional, interactive graphic
organizers that help students
practice basic writing skills, review
key vocabulary terms, and identify
main ideas. Have students complete
the foldable activity in the Dinah
Zike’s Reading and Study Skills
Foldables booklet.
427
Introducing
A Story That Matters
Depending upon the ability level
of your students, select from
the following questions to reinforce the reading of A Story That
Matters.
• What evidence is there in the
story that suggests Louis XIV
enjoyed being in control? (He
always appeared the same and
did not lose control of himself.)
• What was the one characteristic about himself that Louis
XIV could not seem to control? (his vanity)
• Why do you think a monarch
like Louis XIV, with limitless,
unrestrained vanity, might
make “mistakes of judgment”? (He was too concerned
with his own appearance and ego
and did not always see the bigger picture.) L1 L2
Louis XIV with his army
Louis XIV
holding court
The Majesty of Louis XIV
L
ouis XIV has been regarded by some as the perfect
embodiment of an absolute monarch. Duc de Saint-Simon,
who had firsthand experience of French court life, said in his
memoirs that Louis was “the very figure of a hero, so imbued
with a natural majesty that it appeared even in his most
insignificant gestures and movements.”
The king’s natural grace gave him a special charm: “He was
as dignified and majestic in his dressing gown as when dressed
in robes of state, or on horseback at the head of his troops.” He
excelled at exercise and was never affected by the weather:
“Drenched with rain or snow, pierced with cold, bathed in
sweat or covered with dust, he was always the same.”
He spoke well and learned quickly. He was naturally kind,
and “he loved truth, justice, order, and reason.” His life was
orderly: “Nothing could be regulated with greater exactitude
than were his days and hours.” His self-control was evident:
“He did not lose control of himself ten times in his whole life,
and then only with inferior persons.”
Even absolute monarchs had imperfections, however, and
Saint-Simon had the courage to point them out: “Louis XIV’s
vanity was without limit or restraint.” This trait led to his “distaste for all merit, intelligence, education, and most of all, for all
independence of character and sentiment in others.” It led as
well as “to mistakes of judgment in matters of importance.”
About the Art
Louis XIV was a great patron of
the arts and quickly increased
the number of paintings in his
galleries. He demanded that
artists meet classical standards
that reflected elegance, selfrestraint, and polish. French art
became the expression of the
nation and the king, but not of
the people. French styles in both
art and architecture spread to
ruling classes all over Europe.
Why It Matters
The religious upheavals of the sixteenth century left Europeans sorely
divided. Wars, revolutions, and economic and social crises haunted
Europe, making the 90 years from
1560 to 1650 an age of crisis in
European life. One response to
these crises was a search for order.
Many states satisfied this search by
extending monarchical power. Other
states, such as England, created systems where monarchs were limited
by the power of a parliament.
History and You As you read
through this chapter, you will learn
about a number of monarchs. Create either a paper or electronic chart
listing the following information:
name of the ruler; country; religion;
challenges; accomplishments. Using
outside sources, add another
category to your chart to reflect
what you learn about the personal
life of each king.
428
HISTORY AND YOU
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
428
Maintaining order and increasing political and economic stability has been the primary goal of
most governments. What is the best way to do this—by extending governmental controls and powers or by guaranteeing individual rights and limiting government? Have students analyze this question by researching current examples of at least two governments that have taken different
approaches to solving this issue. Students should familiarize themselves with John Locke and
Thomas Hobbes, who are discussed in Section 4 of this chapter, before conducting their research.
Have students write a brief report stating their opinion about this issue, as supported by the results
of their research. L2 FCAT LA.A.2.2.7
CHAPTER 14
Europe in Crisis:
The Wars of Religion
Section 1, 429–432
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• In many European nations, Protestants
and Catholics fought for political and
religious control.
• During the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, many European rulers
extended their power and their borders.
Huguenots, Henry of Navarre, King Philip
II, William the Silent, Elizabeth Tudor
Compare and Contrast As you read this
section, complete a chart like the one
below comparing characteristics of France,
Spain, and England.
Key Terms
1. What were the causes and results
of France’s wars of religion?
2. How do the policies of Elizabeth I of
England and Philip II of Spain compare?
Places to Locate
Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland
1562
French Wars of
Religion begin
BELLRINGER
Preview Questions
militant, armada
Preview of Events
✦1560
This section explores the struggles between Catholics and
Protestants during this period.
✦1570
France
Skillbuilder Activity
England
Government
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Religion
Conflicts
✦1580
1571
Spain defeats Turks
in Battle of Lepanto
Spain
✦1590
1588
England defeats the
Spanish Armada
✦1600
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
14–1
1598
Edict of Nantes recognizes rights
of Huguenots in Catholic France
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
3
ANSWERS
1. 130 2. about 1900 3. England; the English ships had
more cannons per ship than did the Spanish.
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 14 TRANSPARENCY 14-1
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
1
How many ships were in
the Spanish Armada?
2
How many cannons did
the English have?
3
Which side had more cannons?
What does that tell
you about the number of
cannons carried by each ship?
The English Fleet Versus the Spanish Armada
Voices from the Past
Number of Ships
England
Spain
Number of Cannons
England
Spain
In August of 1572, during the French Wars of Religion, the Catholic party decided to
kill Protestant leaders gathered in Paris. One Protestant described the scene:
= 10 ships
“
In an instant, the whole city was filled with dead bodies of every sex and age, and
indeed amid such confusion and disorder that everyone was allowed to kill whoever
he pleased. . . . Nevertheless, the main fury fell on our people [the Protestants]. . . .
The continuous shooting of pistols, the frightful cries of those they slaughtered, the
bodies thrown from windows . . . the breaking down of doors and windows, the stones
thrown against them, and the looting of more than 600 homes over a long period can
only bring before the eyes of the reader an unforgettable picture of the calamity
appalling in every way.
”
Guide to Reading
—The Huguenot Wars, Julian Coudy, 1969
Conflict between Catholics and Protestants was at the heart of the French Wars
of Religion.
The French Wars of Religion
By 1560, Calvinism and Catholicism had become highly militant (combative)
religions. They were aggressive in trying to win converts and in eliminating each
other’s authority. Their struggle for the minds and hearts of Europeans was the
chief cause of the religious wars that plagued Europe in the sixteenth century.
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
= 100 cannons
429
Answers to Graphic: France: Government: monarchy (Henry IV); Religion: Catholic; Conflicts: French Wars
of Religion (1562–1598); Spain: Government: monarchy (Philip II); Religion: Catholic; Conflicts: Battle of
Lepanto (1571), revolt in Netherlands
(1566–1609), Armada attacked England (1588); England: Government:
monarchy (Elizabeth I); Religion:
Protestant; Conflicts: defeated Spanish Armada (1588)
Preteaching Vocabulary
Have students define militant and
use the word in their own sentence,
applying it to a contemporary
situation. L1
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–1
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1
• Guided Reading Activity 14–1
• Section Quiz 14–1
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–1
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
429
CHAPTER 14
However, economic, social, and political forces also
played an important role in these conflicts.
Of the sixteenth-century religious wars, none was
more shattering than the French civil wars known as
the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). Religion
was at the center of these wars. The French kings persecuted Protestants, but the persecution did little to
stop the spread of Protestantism.
Huguenots (HYOO•guh•NAWTS) were French
Protestants influenced by John Calvin. They made up
only about 7 percent of the total French population,
but 40 to 50 percent of the nobility became Huguenots. Included
in this group of nobles was the
house of Bourbon, which ruled
Bay of
FRANCE
Biscay
the southern French kingdom of
Navarre
Navarre and stood next to the
Valois dynasty in the royal line
of succession. The conversion of
SPAIN
so many nobles made the
Mediterranean
Huguenots a powerful political
Sea
threat to the Crown.
Still, the Catholic majority greatly outnumbered
the Huguenot minority, and the Valois monarchy was
strongly Catholic. In addition, an extreme Catholic
party—known as the ultra-Catholics—strongly
opposed the Huguenots. Possessing the loyalty of
sections of northern and northwestern France, the
ultra-Catholics could recruit and pay for large
armies.
Although the religious issue was the most important issue, other factors played a role in the French
civil wars. Towns and provinces, which had long
resisted the growing power of the French monarchy,
were willing to assist nobles in weakening the
monarchy. The fact that so many nobles were
Huguenots created an important base of opposition
to the king.
For 30 years, battles raged in France between the
Catholic and Huguenot sides. Finally, in 1589, Henry
of Navarre, the political leader of the Huguenots and
a member of the Bourbon
dynasty, succeeded to the
throne as Henry IV. He
realized that as a Protestant he would never be
accepted by Catholic
France, so he converted to
Catholicism. When he
was crowned king in 1594,
the fighting in France
finally came to an end.
Henry of Navarre
Section 1, 429–432
2 TEACH
Answer: Wars of Religion occurred;
Henry of Navarre succeeded to
throne; Henry converted to Catholicism and issued Edict of Nantes,
making Catholicism the official religion of France.
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 14–1
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 14, Section 1
Did You Know
?
During the reign of her half-sister Mary,
Elizabeth was arrested and sent to the Tower of London on suspicion of contributing to a plot to overthrow the government and
restore Protestantism. After two months of interrogation and spying
revealed no conclusive evidence of treason, Elizabeth was released
from the Tower and placed in close custody for a year.
I.
The French Wars of Religion (pages 429–430)
A. Calvinism and Catholicism had become militant (combative) religions by 1560. Their
struggle for converts and against each other was the main cause of Europe’s sixteenthcentury religious wars.
B. The French civil wars known as the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) were shattering. The Huguenots were French Protestants influenced by John Calvin. Only 7
t f th
l ti
H
t
d
l
t 50
t f th
bilit
Enrich
Under Philip II, Spain was intolerant of any diversity of belief,
ready to undertake “holy war”
against any who did not profess
the Catholic faith. Philip II’s
reign was also the time when
writers and artists such as Cervantes and El Greco lived and
flourished. Ask students to speculate about how religious intolerance and artistic freedom might
coexist. L2
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 14–1
Name
Date
Class
To solve the religious problem, the king issued the
Edict of Nantes in 1598. The edict recognized
Catholicism as the official religion of France, but it
also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to
enjoy all political privileges, such as holding public
offices.
Reading Check Identifying List the sequence of
events that led to the Edict of Nantes.
Philip II and Militant Catholicism
The greatest supporter of militant Catholicism in
the second half of the sixteenth century was King
Philip II of Spain, the son and heir of Charles V. The
reign of King Philip II, which extended from 1556 to
1598, ushered in an age of Spanish greatness, both
politically and culturally.
The first major goal of Philip II was to consolidate
the lands he had inherited from his father. These
included Spain, the Netherlands, and possessions in
Italy and the Americas. To strengthen his control,
Philip insisted on strict conformity to Catholicism
and strong monarchical authority.
The Catholic faith was important to both Philip II
and the Spanish people. During the late Middle Ages,
Catholic kingdoms in Spain had reconquered Muslim areas within Spain and expelled the Spanish
Jews. Driven by this crusading heritage, Spain saw
itself as a nation of people chosen by God to save
Catholic Christianity from the Protestant heretics.
Philip II, the “Most Catholic King,” became a champion of Catholic causes, a role that led to spectacular
victories and equally spectacular defeats. Spain’s leadership of a Holy League against the Turks, for example, resulted in a stunning victory over the Turkish
fleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Philip was not so
fortunate in his conflicts with England (discussed in
the following section) and the Netherlands.
The Spanish Netherlands, which consisted of 17
provinces (modern Netherlands and Belgium), was
one of the richest parts of Philip’s empire. Philip
attempted to strengthen his control in this important
region. The nobles of the Netherlands, who resented
the loss of their privileges, strongly opposed Philip’s
efforts. To make matters worse, Philip tried to crush
Calvinism in the Netherlands. Violence erupted in
1566 when Calvinists—especially nobles—began to
destroy statues in Catholic churches. Philip sent ten
thousand troops to crush the rebellion.
In the northern provinces, the Dutch, under the
leadership of William the Silent, the prince of
Guided Reading Activity 14-1
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.
430
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
1. Name the chief cause of religious wars that plagued Europe in the sixteenth century.
2. Who were the Huguenots?
3. What issues besides the religious played a role in the French civil wars?
4. What event brought the French Wars of Religion to an end?
READING THE TEXT
5. How did Philip II strengthen his control over Spain?
6. How did Spain see herself as a Catholic nation?
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
430
2
Monitoring Comprehension One of the most important reading strategies students can learn is
that they can monitor their own reading comprehension. Instruct them to try to be aware of the
exact point when they have missed something. They can do this by periodically asking themselves
key questions, such as “Can I re-phrase the main point of this paragraph?” or “How does this section connect to the one before it?” If they do not understand an important idea, students should
re-read, review, or read further to clarify what is unclear. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
CHAPTER 14
Section 1, 429–432
Height of Spanish Power, c. 1560
Boundary of the
Holy Roman Empire
0°
20°E
North
Sea
DENMARK
Baltic
Sea
ENGLAND
London
1566
T
NE
D
S
Spanish Hapsburg
lands (under Philip II,
King of Spain), 1560
Austrian Hapsburg
lands (under Ferdinand I,
Holy Roman Emperor), 1560
R
HE
LA
N
POLAND
Paris
Battle
N
Organized revolt
S
AUSTRIA
10°W
50°N
E
W
HUNGARY
POR
TU
GA
L
FRANCE
Madrid
Corsica
S PA I N
Sardinia
Rome
NAPLES
Answer: communication, travel,
enforcing laws, collecting taxes
Spanish lands were located
throughout Europe.
1. Applying Geography Skills What difficulties must Philip II
have encountered
administering
an empire of
this size?
Answer: They saw themselves as
chosen by God to save Catholicism
from Protestant heretics.
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
Me d i t e r r a n e a n Se a
0
Sicily
500 miles
0
500 kilometers
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Lepanto
1571
Philip II
of Spain 䊳
AFRICA
Orange, offered growing resistance. The struggle
dragged on until 1609, when a 12-year truce ended
the war. The northern provinces began to call themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands and
became the core of the modern Dutch state. In fact,
the seventeenth century has often been called the
golden age of the Dutch Republic because the United
Provinces held center stage as one of Europe’s great
powers.
Philip’s reign ended in 1598. At that time, Spain
had the most populous empire in the world. Spain
controlled almost all of South America and a number
of settlements in Asia and Africa. To most Europeans, Spain still seemed to be the greatest power of
the age.
In reality, however, Spain was not the great power
that it appeared to be. Spain’s treasury was empty.
Philip II had gone bankrupt from spending too
much on war, and his successor did the same by
spending a fortune on his court. The armed forces
were out-of-date, and the government was inefficient. Spain continued to play the role of a great
power, but real power in Europe had shifted to England and France.
Reading Check Describing How important was
Catholicism to Philip II and the Spanish people?
Why was the defeat of the Spanish
Armada significant for England?
(strengthened England and Protestantism) L1
The England of Elizabeth
In this section, you will learn how
the defeat of the Spanish Armada guaranteed that England would remain a Protestant country and signaled
the beginning of Spain’s decline as a sea power.
When Elizabeth Tudor ascended the throne in
1558, England had fewer than four million people.
During her reign, the small island kingdom became
the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe and
laid the foundations for a world empire.
Intelligent, careful, and self-confident, Elizabeth
moved quickly to solve the difficult religious problem she inherited from her Catholic half-sister,
Queen Mary Tudor. She repealed the laws favoring
Catholics. A new Act of Supremacy named Elizabeth
as “the only supreme governor” of both church and
state. The Church of England under Elizabeth was
basically Protestant, but it followed a moderate
Protestantism that kept most people satisfied.
Elizabeth was also moderate in her foreign policy.
She tried to keep Spain and France from becoming
too powerful by balancing power. If one nation
seemed to be gaining in power, England would support the weaker nation. The queen feared that war
would be disastrous for England and for her own
rule, but she could not escape a conflict with Spain.
Critical Thinking
Have students discuss the ways
Elizabeth I of England pursued
policies based on moderation.
(religious policy, foreign policy,
stayed out of alliances that might
cause war) L1 SS.A.3.4.6
3 ASSESS
Assign Section 1 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
L2
Section Quiz 14–1
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Score
Chapter 14
Section Quiz 14-1
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
431
Column A
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
At-Risk Students Divide the class into groups. Assign each group one of the three major religious
wars of the period: French Wars of Religion, Philip II’s battles in the Netherlands, and the Spanish
Armada’s battles with England. Allow ten minutes for each group to list the religious, social, and
political issues involved in these wars. Then, as a class, combine the ideas into a chart or poster.
You may want to assign a follow-up writing activity in which each student describes which war was
the most important and explains why. L1 SS.A.3.4.2
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
Column B
1. combative
A. Edict of Nantes
2. French grant of rights to Huguenots
B. ultra-Catholics
3. fleet of warships
C. Act of Supremacy
4. it made Elizabeth governor of church and state
D. armada
5. anti-Huguenot party
E. militant
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. When Henry of Navarre became Henry IV, he
A. invaded England.
C. converted to Catholicism.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
431
Section 1, 429–432
Answer: He had been assured that
the English would rise up against
Elizabeth when the Spanish arrived.
Answers:
1. length: 350 miles (560 km);
width: west end: 112 miles
(180 km); east end: 21 miles
(34 km)
2. getting trapped in narrow east
end of channel
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 14–1
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 14, Section 1
For use with textbook pages 429–433
Reading Check Explaining Why was Philip II confident that the Spanish could successfully invade England?
EUROPE IN CRISIS: THE WARS OF RELIGION
KEY TERMS
militant
combative (page 429)
armada
a fleet of warships (page 433)
Defeat of the Spanish
Armada, 1588
Route of the
Spanish Armada
SCOTLAND
Battle
Shipwreck
North
Sea
IRELAND
50°N
ENGLAND
Portland
Plymouth
Isle of
Wight
Gravelines
Cha n
English
nel Calais
ATLaNTIC
OCEaN
FRANCE
La Coru˜na
GAL
Philip II of Spain had toyed for years with the idea
of invading England. His advisers assured him that
the people of England would rise against their queen
when the Spaniards arrived. In any case, a successful
invasion of England would mean the overthrow of
Protestantism and a return to Catholicism.
In 1588, Philip ordered preparations for an
armada—a fleet of warships—to invade England. The
fleet that set sail had neither the ships nor the manpower that Philip had planned to send. An officer of
the Spanish fleet reveals
the basic flaw: “It is well
known that we fight in
God’s cause. . . . But
unless God helps us by a
miracle, the English, who
have faster and handier
ships than ours, and
many more long-range
guns . . . will . . . stand
aloof and knock us to
pieces with their guns,
without our being able to
do them any serious Defeat of the Spanish Armada
hurt.”
The hoped-for miracle never came. The Spanish
fleet, battered by a number of encounters with the
English, sailed back to Spain by a northward route
around Scotland and Ireland, where it was pounded
by storms. Many of the Spanish ships sank.
40°N
Lisbon
10°W
PORTU
CHAPTER 14
Santander
SPAIN
N
W
E
S
0
200 miles
0
200 kilometers
Chamberlin Trimetric projection
0°
England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.
1. Interpreting Maps Use the map to estimate the length
and width of the English Channel.
2. Applying Geography Skills What were the Spanish
hoping to avoid by taking the northern route back to
Spain?
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
Do you think having a single individual with total power to govern a nation could
ever be good for a nation? Why or why not?
In this section, you will learn how conflict between Catholics and Protestants led to
wars in many European nations. At the same time, many European rulers increased
their power and their territories.
ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII
Use the chart below to help you take notes. Identify the country and religion of the
following rulers, and summarize their achievements.
Ruler
Country
Henry IV
1.
Religion
2.
Achievements
3.
Reteaching Activity
Ask students to give oral summaries of the French Wars of
Religion, Philip II’s reign, and
the Spanish Armada’s defeat. L1
Checking for Understanding
1. Define militant, armada.
2. Identify Huguenots, Henry of Navarre,
Edict of Nantes, King Philip II, William
the Silent, Elizabeth Tudor.
3. Locate Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland.
4. Describe how the Edict of Nantes
appeased both Catholics and
Huguenots.
Critical Thinking
6. Making Generalizations Why did
Philip II send out his fleet knowing
he did not have enough ships or
manpower?
7. Compare and Contrast Use a Venn
diagram like the one below to compare
and contrast the reigns of Henry of
Navarre, Philip II, and Elizabeth Tudor.
9. Persuasive Writing Write a persuasive essay arguing whether it was a
good idea for Philip II to sail against
England. Identify the main reason
the king of Spain decided
to invade.
5. List the ways Elizabeth demonstrated
moderation in her religious policy.
4 CLOSE
Ask students to discuss which
wars of religion they consider
the most important and why. L2
432
CHAPTER 14
Analyzing Visuals
8. Examine the painting of the Saint
Bartholomew’s Day massacre shown
on page 429 of your text. Is the work
an objective depiction of the event, or
can you find evidence of artistic bias in
the painting?
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
SS.A.3.4.2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
432
2
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Huguenots ( p.430); Henry of
Navarre ( p.430); Edict of Nantes
( p.430); King Philip II ( p.430);
William the Silent ( p.430); Elizabeth Tudor ( p.431)
3. See chapter maps.
4. Catholicism: state religion;
Huguenots: gained religious, political rights
5. repealed laws favoring Catholics,
moderate Protestantism
6. believed in cause, had faith in a
miracle
7. Henry: converted to Catholicism,
moderate, kept Catholicism as
state religion, gave Huguenots
rights; Philip: Catholic, militant
champion of Catholic causes; Elizabeth: Protestant, moderate in reli-
gion and politics, Henry/Elizabeth:
moderate policies; Henry/Philip:
Catholicism state religion
8. Answers should be supported by
evidence.
9. Answers will vary. He had been
assured that the English would
revolt against their queen.
TEACH
Queen Elizabeth’s Golden Speech
Analyzing Primary Sources In
this speech, Elizabeth characterizes her feelings toward her subjects. Have students, in a brief
essay, compare and contrast her
ideas about a ruler’s attitude
toward his or her subjects with
Louis XIV’s ideas, as reflected in
his speech excerpted on page 443
of this chapter. How do their
attitudes reflect the difference
between a constitutional monarchy and an absolute monarchy?
Ask students to incorporate specific quotations that support
their conclusions. L2
IN 1601, NEAR THE END OF
her life, Queen Elizabeth
made a speech to Parliament,
giving voice to the feeling that
existed between the queen
and her subjects.
“
I do assure you there is
no prince that loves his subjects better, or whose love can
contradict our love. There is no
jewel, be it of never so rich a
price, which I set before this
jewel; I mean your love. For I
do esteem it more than any
treasure or riches.
And, though God has raised
me high, yet this I count the
glory of my crown, that I have
reigned with your love. This
makes me that I do not so
much rejoice that God has
Queen Elizabeth of England, Faced with the Spanish Armada 1588,
made me to be a Queen, as
Reviews Her Troops by Ferdinand Piloty the Younger, 1861.
to be a Queen over so thankful
a people.
Of myself I must say this: I never was any greedy,
should be for your good. And though you have had
scraping grasper, nor a strait, fast-holding Prince, nor
and may have many princes more mighty and wise
yet a waster. My heart was never set on any worldly
sitting in this seat, you never had nor shall have any
goods, but only for my subjects’ good. What you
that will be more careful and loving.
bestow on me, I will not hoard it up, but receive it
—Queen Elizabeth I, The Golden Speech
to bestow on you again. Yea, mine own properties I
Analyzing Primary Sources
account yours, to be expended for your good. . . .
I have ever used to set the Last-Judgement Day
1. Identify phrases that convey Queen Elizabeth’s
before mine eyes, and so to rule as I shall be judged
feeling for her subjects.
to answer before a higher Judge, to whose judgement seat I do appeal, that never thought was cher2. To whom does Elizabeth feel accountable?
ished in my heart that tended not unto my people’s
good. . . .
3. Which is more important: how subjects
There will never Queen sit in my seat with more
and rulers feel about each other or the
zeal to my country, care for my subjects, and that
policies and laws that rulers develop?
will sooner with willingness venture her life for your
good and safety, than myself. For it is my desire to
live nor reign no longer than my life and reign
FCAT LA.A.2.2.7
Critical Thinking
In her speech, Elizabeth
acknowledges the divine right of
rulers when she says, “God has
raised me high,” and “God has
made me to be a queen.” However, her beliefs about divine
right differ sharply from other
rulers discussed in this chapter.
Have students, in a brief essay,
compare her views about divine
right with the views of Jacques
Bossuet, a seventeenth-century
French bishop, excerpted on
page 441 of this chapter. Ask students to incorporate specific
quotations that support their
conclusions. L2 L3 SS.A.3.4.6
”
433
ANSWERS TO ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES
1. This passage is full of such phrases; for example: “I do
esteem it [your love] more than any treasure or
riches;” “. . . I have reigned with your love;” “. . . that
never thought was cherished in my heart that tended
not unto my people’s good.”
2. God (“a higher Judge”)
3. Answers will vary, but students should support their
point of view with logical arguments. You might wish to
compare and contrast how modern-day citizens feel
about their governments. You might also wish to discuss and compare how citizens living today can
express their feelings toward government with the
means that were available to citizens living during the
time of absolute monarchs.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
433
CHAPTER 14
Social Crises, War,
and Revolution
Section 2, 434–439
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
This section describes the results
of the Thirty Years’ War and
the English and Glorious
Revolutions.
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• The Thirty Years’ War ended the unity
of the Holy Roman Empire.
• Democratic ideals were strengthened as
a result of the English and Glorious Revolutions.
James I, Puritans, Charles I, Cavaliers,
Roundheads, Oliver Cromwell, James II
Summarizing Information As you read
this section, use a chart like the one
below to identify which conflicts were
prompted by religious concerns.
BELLRINGER
Key Terms
Preview Questions
Skillbuilder Activity
inflation, witchcraft, divine right of kings,
commonwealth
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3
ANSWERS
1. the English Revolution 2. not much
offered the throne to William and Mary
Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia
Religious Conflicts
1. What problems troubled Europe from
1560 to 1650?
2. How did the Glorious Revolution
undermine the divine right of kings?
Preview of Events
✦1600
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
14–2
UNIT
Places to Locate
✦1620
✦1640
1603
Elizabeth I dies
✦1660
1642
Civil war in
England begins
3. Parliament
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 14 TRANSPARENCY 14-2
✦1680
1649
Charles I is
executed
✦1700
1688
Glorious
Revolution
Social Crises, War, and Revolution
1
What was the most famous
civil war in England?
2
What was the position of
Parliament on the divine
right of kings?
3
How did the Glorious
Revolution affect the
monarchy?
Voices from the Past
SOURCES OF CONFLICT AND REVOLUTIONS IN
ENGLAND
Roles
in
governing
England
The
divine
right of
kings
The
king’s
strong
defense
of the
Church
of
England
Control
of
Parliament
Desire
to abolish the
monarchy
The
right of
free
public
worship
The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) was a devastating religious war. A resident of
Magdeburg, Germany, a city sacked ten times during the war, reported:
“
There was nothing but beating and burning, plundering, torture, and murder. Most
especially was every one of the enemy bent on securing [riches]. . . . In this frenzied
rage, the great and splendid city was now given over to the flames, and thousands of
innocent men, women and children, in the midst of heartrending shrieks and cries,
were tortured and put to death in so cruel and shameful a manner that no words
would suffice to describe. Thus in a single day this noble and famous city, the pride of
the whole country, went up in fire and smoke.
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: Religious Conflicts: witchcraft craze, Thirty Years’
War, English Civil War, Glorious Revolution
”
—Readings in European History, James Harvey Robinson, 1934
This destruction of Magdeburg was one of the disasters besetting Europe during
this time.
Preteaching Vocabulary
The text defines a commonwealth as
a republic. Using a dictionary, have
students research the archaic meaning of the term commonwealth and
explain how it applies to the idea of
a republic. L1
Economic and Social Crises
From 1560 to 1650, Europe witnessed severe economic and social crises.
One major economic problem was inflation, or rising prices. What caused this rise
in prices? The great influx of gold and silver from the Americas was one factor.
Then, too, a growing population in the sixteenth century increased the demand for
land and food and drove up prices for both.
434
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–2
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–2
• Guided Reading Activity 14–2
• Section Quiz 14–2
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–2
434
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
By 1600, an economic slowdown had begun in
parts of Europe. Spain’s economy, grown dependent
on imported silver, was seriously failing by the 1640s.
The mines were producing less silver, fleets were
subject to pirate attacks, and the loss of Muslim and
Jewish artisans and merchants hurt the economy.
Italy, the financial center of Europe in the Renaissance, was also declining economically.
Population figures in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries reveal Europe’s worsening conditions. Population grew in the sixteenth century. The
number of people probably increased from 60 million
in 1500 to 85 million by 1600. By 1620, population had
leveled off. It had begun to decline by 1650, especially in central and southern Europe. Warfare,
plague, and famine all contributed to the population
decline and to the creation of social tensions.
Reading Check Explaining Explain the causes for
inflation in Europe in the 1600s.
CHAPTER 14
The Thirty Years’ War
Section 2, 434–439
Religious disputes continued in Germany after the
Peace of Augsburg in 1555. One reason for the disputes was that Calvinism had not been recognized by
the peace settlement. By the 1600s, Calvinism had
spread to many parts of Europe. Religion played an
important role in the outbreak of the Thirty Years’
War, called the “last of the religious wars,” but political and territorial motives were evident as well. The
war began in 1618 in the lands of the Holy Roman
Empire. At first, it was a struggle between Catholic
forces, led by the Hapsburg Holy Roman emperors,
and Protestant (primarily Calvinist) nobles in
Bohemia who rebelled against Hapsburg authority.
Soon, however, the conflict became a political one as
Denmark, Sweden, France, and Spain entered the
war. Especially important was the struggle between
France and the rulers of Spain and the Holy Roman
Empire for European leadership.
2 TEACH
Answer: influx of gold and silver
from Americas; growing population
increased demand for food and land
Answer: common people, usually
poor, usually women, usually single
or widowed and over 50 years old
Thirty Years’ War,
1618–1648
The Witchcraft Trials
5°E
10°E
Holy Roman Empire, 1618
Catholic victory
Catholic defeat
Prague Town sacked or plundered
15°E
t
Bal
DENMARK
UNITED
PROVINCES
20°E
i
Stralsund
El
be POMERANIA
R.
BRANDENBURG
Amsterdam
Answers:
1. Students should list the names of
those towns that are printed in
green.
2. Answers will vary depending on
battle selected.
SWEDEN
ea
cS
55°N
PRUSSIA
N
Frankfurt
Magdeburg
E
W
Breitenfeld, 1631
WESTPHALIA
Brussels
S
L¨
u
tzen,
1632
Leipzig
SPANISH
Cologne
NETHERLANDS
Dresden
SAXONY
White Mountain, 1620
Rocroi, 1643
SILESIA
Prague BOHEMIA
Heidelberg
50°N
Verdun
WÜRTTEMBERG
Jankau, 1646
Nuremberg
MORAVIA
FRANCE N¨ordlingen, 1634
Augsburg BAVARIA
Vienna
h i n e R. Munich
Salzburg AUSTRIA Dan
ub
200 miles
0
e
TYROL
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 14–2
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
0
200 kilometers
CARINTHIA
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 14, Section 2
R.
Reading Check Describing What were the characteristics of the majority of those accused of witchcraft?
0°
R
A belief in witchcraft, or magic, had been part of
traditional village culture for centuries. The religious
zeal that led to the Inquisition and the hunt for
heretics was extended to concern about witchcraft.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries an
intense hysteria affected the lives of many Europeans. Perhaps more than a hundred thousand people were charged with witchcraft. As more and more
people were brought to trial, the fear of witches grew,
as did the fear of being accused of witchcraft.
Common people—usually the poor and those
without property—were the ones most often accused
of witchcraft. More than 75 percent of those accused
were women. Most of them were single or widowed
and over 50 years old.
Under intense torture, accused witches usually
confessed to a number of practices. Many said that
they had sworn allegiance to the devil and attended
sabbats, nightly gatherings where they feasted and
danced. Others admitted using evil spells and special
ointments to harm their neighbors.
By 1650, the witchcraft hysteria had begun to
lessen. As governments grew stronger, fewer officials
were willing to disrupt their societies with trials of
witches. In addition, attitudes were changing. People
found it unreasonable to believe in the old view of a
world haunted by evil spirits.
Did You Know
?
After the restoration of King Charles II, Oliver
Cromwell’s embalmed remains were dug out of his Westminster
Abbey tomb and hung up at Tyburn where criminals were executed. His body was then buried beneath the gallows. Cromwell’s
head, however, was stuck on a pole on top of Westminster Hall for
the duration of Charles II’s reign.
Chamberlin Trimetric projection
I.
Economic and Social Crises (pages 434–435)
A. From 1560 to 1650 Europe experienced economic and social crises. One economic problem was inflation—rising prices—due to the influx of gold from the Americas and
increased demand for land and food as the population grew.
B. By 1600 an economic slowdown had hit Europe. For example, Spain’s economy seriously fell by the 1640s because New World mines were producing less silver, pirates
grabbed much of what was bound for Spain, and the loss of Muslim and Jewish merchants and artisans.
C B 1620
l ti
b
t d li
i ll i
t l
d
th
E
The Thirty Years’ War was fought primarily in the German
states within the Holy Roman Empire.
Enrich
1. Interpreting Maps List the towns that were sacked or
plundered during the war.
2. Applying Geography Skills Research one of the battles on the map and describe its impact on the course
of the war.
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
435
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
The Thirty Years’ War began in 1618 as a struggle between Roman Catholics and Protestants over
the crown of Bohemia. Outside help for the Protestants came from King Gustavus Adolphus of
Sweden in 1630. The Catholic army sacked the city of Magdeburg, killing about 25,000 citizens.
Fearing that the Catholics would attack Leipzig, Protestants welcomed the help of Gustavus Adolphus
and the Swedes. On the plains near Breitenfeld, about 80,000 Catholic and Protestant soldiers
met. The Catholics lost 13,000 soldiers, while the Protestants lost fewer than 3,000. Gustavus
Adolphus was applauded as the Protestant champion and laid the foundation for Sweden to
become a leading European country for the next half a century. Gustavus Adolphus was killed at
the battle of Lützen in 1632. France then entered the war, which lasted until 1648. SS.A.3.4.2
Remind students that most people accused of witchcraft were
poor, female, single or widowed,
and over fifty. Ask students why
those accused of being witches
might fit this profile. (people without power, no men to defend them,
considered morally weak) L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
2
435
CHAPTER 14
The Thirty Years’ War was the most destructive
conflict that Europeans had yet experienced.
Although most of the battles of the war were fought
on German soil, all major European powers except
England became involved. For 30 years Germany
was plundered and destroyed. Rival armies
destroyed the German countryside as well as entire
towns. Local people had little protection from the
armies. The Peace of Westphalia officially ended the
war in Germany in 1648. The major contenders
gained new territories, and one of them—France—
emerged as the dominant nation in Europe.
Section 2, 434–439
Answer: all German states could
determine their own religion; ended
Holy Roman Empire by making all its
states independent
Answer: Firearms came to be used
widely, demanding armies that were
better disciplined and trained. This led
governments to fund regularly paid
standing armies, so that wars were
fought by professional soldiers.
G
By 1600, the flintlock musket had made firearms more
deadly on the battlefield. Muskets were loaded from the front
with powder and ball. In the flintlock musket, the powder that
propelled the ball was ignited by a spark caused by a flint striking
on metal. This mechanism made it easier to fire and more reliable
than other muskets. Reloading techniques also improved, making it
possible to make one to two shots per minute. The addition of the bayonet to the front of the musket made the musket
even more deadly as a weapon. The bayonet was a steel blade
used in hand-to-hand combat.
Class
Guided Reading Activity 14-2
Social Crises, War, and Revolution
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 2.
The great influx of gold and silver from the (1)
and a
growing population demanding land and food led to (2)
in
Europe from 1560 to 1650. Spain's economy was seriously falling by the 1640's due to
(3)
producing less silver, fleets subject to
(4)
attacks, and the loss of Muslim and Jewish
(5)
and (6)
A military leader who made effective use of firearms during the
Thirty Years’ War was Gustavus Adolphus, the king of Sweden. The
infantry brigades of Gustavus’s army, six men deep, were composed of
equal numbers of musketeers and pikemen. The musketeers employed
the salvo, in which all rows of the infantry fired at once instead of row
by row. These salvos of fire, which cut up the massed ranks of the
opposing infantry squadrons, were followed by pike charges. Pikes
were heavy spears 18 feet (about 5.5 m) long, held by pikemen massed
together in square formations. Gustavus also used the cavalry in a more
mobile fashion. After shooting a pistol volley, the cavalry charged the
enemy with swords.
.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries more than a hundred thousand
people were charged with (7)
. Under intense torture, accused
witches usually (8)
to a number of practices. By 1650, people
were finding it (9)
to believe in the old view of a world haunt-
ed by evil spirits.
(10)
played an important role in the outbreak of the
Thirty Years' War, as well as (11)
(12)
and
motives. The Peace of (13)
stated
that all German states, including the Calvinist ones, could determine their own
religion.
At the core of the English Revolution was the struggle between king and
(14)
t © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Austrian flintlock pistol, c. 1680
unpowder was first invented by the Chinese in the eleventh
century and made its appearance in Europe by the fourteenth century. During the seventeenth century, firearms
developed rapidly and increasingly changed the face of war.
Guided Reading Activity 14–2
Date
Reading Check Summarizing How did the Peace of
Westphalia impact the Holy Roman Empire?
The Changing Face of War
L1/ELL
Name
The Peace of Westphalia stated that all German
states, including the Calvinist ones, could determine
their own religion. The more than three hundred
states that had made up the Holy Roman Empire
were virtually recognized as independent states,
since each received the power to conduct its own foreign policy. This brought an end to the Holy Roman
Empire as a political entity. Germany would not be
united for another two hundred years.
to determine what role each should play in governing
England. James I of England believed kings receive their (15)
from God and are responsible only to him. Under the armies of
(16)
, Parliament finally proved victorious.
Dutch leader William of (17)
(18)
and his wife
raised an army and invaded England in 1688 in an almost
bloodless (19)
. As William and Mary took the English throne,
they accepted a Bill of Rights setting forth (20)
right to make
The increased use of firearms, combined with greater mobility on
the battlefield, demanded armies that were better disciplined and
trained. Governments began to fund regularly paid standing armies.
By 1700, France had a standing army of four hundred thousand.
Critical Thinking
Ask students to discuss the
causes of the Thirty Years’ War
and results of the conflict. (struggle between Catholicism and
Calvinism, political motives; independence of German states.) Have
students create a thematic map
illustrating this European war.
L1 L2
SS.A.3.4.2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
4
436
2
Soldier firing a musket
Analyzing How did the invention of gunpowder change the
way wars were fought?
436
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
READING THE TEXT
Taking Notes Students can use notes to group, outline, and organize information. As students read
about the Thirty Years’ War, have them take notes on three different aspects of the war: the motives
for the war, the results of the Peace of Westphalia, and the position of Sweden, France, Denmark,
and Spain in the war between the Holy Roman Empire and the Protestants of Bohemia. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities
in the TCR.
CHAPTER 14
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Section 2, 434–439
60°
Boundary of the
Holy Roman Empire
N
W
50
°N
S
E
IRELAND
SWEDEN
KINGDOM
OF NORWAY
AND
DENMARK
SCOTLAND
N
North
Sea
Stockholm
Moscow
Baltic
Sea
RUSSIA
40°
POR
TU
GA
L
ENGLAND
UNITED
PRUSSIA
PROVINCES
London
Amsterdam Berlin
Brussels Cologne
Warsaw
ATLaNTIC
SPANISH
GERMAN
NETHERLANDS
POLAND
OCEaN
STATES
Prague
Paris
Nuremberg
Nantes
Augsburg
Vienna
Buda
Munich
FRANCE
Salzburg
SWITZERLAND
Pest
ITALIAN
STATES
N
Lisbon
10°W
Madrid
SPAIN
Corsica
PAPAL
STATES
Rome
O
NAPLES
Black Sea
TT
OM
AN
Sardinia
0°
0
Sicily
500 miles
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Constantinople
EM
PI
RE
10°E
Mediterranean
Sea
20°E
Revolutions in England
As you read this section, you will
discover that Parliament held the real authority in the
English system of constitutional monarchy.
In addition to the Thirty Years’ War, a series of
rebellions and civil wars rocked Europe in the seventeenth century. By far the most famous struggle was
the civil war in England known as the English Revolution. At its core was a struggle between king and
Parliament to determine what role each should play
in governing England. It would take another revolution later in the century to finally resolve this struggle.
The Stuarts and Divine Right With the death of
Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, the Tudor dynasty came to
an end. The Stuart line of rulers began with the accession to the throne of Elizabeth’s cousin, the king of
Scotland, who became James I of England.
James believed in the divine right of kings—that
is, that kings receive their power from God and are
responsible only to God. Parliament did not think
much of the divine right of kings. It had come to
assume that the king or queen and Parliament ruled
England together.
Religion was an issue as well. The Puritans
(Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas)
did not like the king’s strong defense of the Church of
England. The Puritans were members of the Church
Crete
30°E
Cyprus
The Peace of Westphalia
divided the Holy Roman
Empire into independent
states and allowed separate
states to determine their own
religion.
Answer:
1. The Holy Roman Empire contracted as a result of the Thirty
Years’ War. Students should note
that the Holy Roman Empire lost
parts of Switzerland and Italy.
1. Applying Geography
Skills Compare this
map to the map showing
the height of Spanish
power on page 431 of
your text. What conclusions can you draw
about the effect of the
Thirty Years’ War on
the Holy Roman Empire
from examining these
two maps?
What is the evidence that Parliament
held the real authority in the English
system of constitutional monarchy?
(Parliament’s petition in 1628, Parliament overthrew and executed Charles
I, passed laws after Restoration, the
Glorious Revolution) L1 SS.A.3.4.6
of England but wished to make the church more
Protestant. Many of England’s gentry, mostly well-todo landowners, had become Puritans. The Puritan
gentry formed an important part of the House of
Commons, the lower house of Parliament. It was not
wise to alienate them.
The conflict that began during the reign of James
came to a head during the reign of his son, Charles I.
Charles also believed in the divine right of kings. In
1628, Parliament passed a petition that prohibited the
passing of any taxes without Parliament’s consent.
Although Charles I initially accepted this petition, he
later changed his mind, realizing that it put limits on
the king’s power.
Charles also tried to impose more ritual on the
Church of England. When he tried to force Puritans
to accept this policy, thousands chose to go to America. Thus the religious struggles of the Reformation
in England influenced American history.
Writing Activity
Ask students to use outside
resources to further research the
English Revolution. Then ask
students to write an essay in
which they identify and evaluate
the causes and effects of the
revolution and summarize the
following ideas related to the
revolution: separation of powers,
“divine right of kings,” liberty,
equality, democracy, popular
sovereignty, human rights, constitutionalism, and nationalism.
Teachers may want to divide
students into groups in which
each student is assigned a particular topic or group of topics
to research. L2 FCAT LA.E.2.2.1
Civil War and the Commonwealth Complaints
grew until England slipped into a civil war in 1642
between the supporters of the king (the Cavaliers or
Royalists) and the parliamentary forces (called the
Roundheads because of their short hair). Parliament
proved victorious, due largely to the New Model
Army of Oliver Cromwell, a military genius. The
New Model Army was made up chiefly of more
extreme Puritans, known as the Independents. These
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
437
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
Charles I In 1628, the English Parliament forced Charles I to sign a Petition of Right before granting the king funds to fight his wars. The Petition stated that the king could not collect taxes without
Parliament's consent, imprison anyone without just cause, house troops in private homes without
the owner's consent, or declare martial law (under which individual rights were limited) unless the
country was at war. Nearly a year later, however, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled for 11
years without its consent. During this time, Charles ignored the Petition and continued to collect
taxes and imprison opponents at will. Religious freedoms also suffered as Puritans were denied
the right to preach or publish. The king's actions and desire for absolute power eventually led to
the English Revolution. SS.A.3.4.6
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
437
CHAPTER 14
men believed they were doing battle for God. As
Cromwell wrote, “This is none other but the hand of
God; and to Him alone belongs the glory.” We might
also give some credit to Cromwell; his soldiers were
well disciplined and trained in the new military tactics of the seventeenth century.
The victorious New Model Army lost no time in
taking control. Cromwell purged Parliament of any
members who had not supported him. What was
left—the so-called Rump Parliament—had Charles I
executed on January 30, 1649. The execution of the
king horrified much of Europe. Parliament next abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords and
declared England a republic, or commonwealth.
Cromwell found it difficult to work with the
Rump Parliament and finally dispersed it by force.
As the members of Parliament departed, he shouted,
“It is you that have forced me to do this, for I have
sought the Lord night and day that He would slay
me rather than put upon me the doing of this work.”
After destroying both king and Parliament,
Cromwell set up a military dictatorship.
Section 2, 434–439
Answers:
1. Answers may include: the cost of
rebuilding can be very high and can
affect the economy for years to
come; whole families, neighborhoods, or cities can be wiped out.
2. Answers will vary, depending on the
location.
The Restoration Cromwell ruled until his death in
1658. More than a year later, Parliament restored the
Government Have students
research and prepare a chart that
compares rights in the English Bill of
Rights with those in the United States
Bill of Rights. Ask students to indicate
on their charts the rights common to
both countries’ bills of rights. L2
Natural Disasters in History
SS.A.3.4.6
The religious wars in Europe, which led to many
deaths, were manmade disasters that created economic, social, and political crises. Between 1500 and
1800, natural disasters around the world also took
many lives and led to economic and social crises.
One of the worst disasters occurred in China in 1556.
A powerful earthquake in northern China buried alive
hundreds of thousands of peasants who had made
their homes in cave dwellings carved out of soft clay
hills.
In later years, earthquakes shattered other places
around the world. On the last day of 1703, a massive
earthquake struck the city of Tokyo. At the same time,
enormous tidal waves caused by earthquakes flooded
the Japanese coastline, sweeping entire villages out to
sea. An earthquake that struck Persia in 1780 killed
100,000 people in the city of Tabriz.
Europe, too, had its share of natural disasters. A massive earthquake leveled the city of Lisbon, Portugal, in
3 ASSESS
Assign Section 2 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self Assessment CD-ROM.
L2
Section Quiz 14–2
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
✔
Chapter 14
Score
Section Quiz 14-2
monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of
Charles I. With the return of monarchy in 1660, England’s time of troubles seemed at an end.
After the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, Parliament kept much of the power it had gained earlier
and continued to play an important role in government. One of its actions was to pass laws restoring
the Church of England as the state religion and
restricting some rights of Catholics and Puritans.
Charles II was sympathetic to Catholicism, and his
brother James, heir to the throne, did not hide the fact
that he was a Catholic. Parliament was suspicious
about their Catholic leanings, especially when
Charles suspended the laws that Parliament had
passed against Catholics and Puritans. Parliament
forced the king to back down on his action.
In 1685, James II became king. James was an open
and devout Catholic, making religion once more a
cause of conflict between king and Parliament. James
named Catholics to high positions in the government, army, navy, and universities.
Parliament objected to James’s policies but
stopped short of rebellion. Members knew that James
was an old man, and his successors were his Protestant daughters Mary and Anne, born to his first wife.
1755, killing over 50,000 people and destroying more
than 80 percent of the buildings in the city. The massive
eruption of Mount Etna on the island of Sicily in 1669
devastated Catania, a nearby port city.
Earthquake 䊳
at Lisbon
in 1755
1. How do natural disasters lead to economic and
social crises?
2. What natural disasters can occur where you live?
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. rising prices
A. inflation
2. magic in traditional European village culture
B. Roundheads
3. William and Mary’s 1688 “invasion” of England
C. Puritans
4. parliamentary forces in the 1642 civil war
D. Glorious
Revolution
5. English Calvinist Protestant group
438
CHAPTER 5
Rome and the Rise of Christianity
E. witchcraft
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. James I of England strongly believed in
A. sharing power with Parliament.
C. Catholicism.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
438
2
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
Gifted and Talented Have students imagine they have been selected by Parliament to write a letter either to Charles II asking him to return as king, or to William and Mary inviting them to be
monarchs. Remind students to include reference to the current political problems and the conditions under which the monarchs will rule. Students may also choose to write a response letter or
journal entry from the point of view of the potential monarch articulating reservations and concerns he or she may have about accepting the invitation. Suggest that students research styles for
writing letters in the 1600s. Encourage students to share their completed letters with the class. L3
History
Here Cromwell is shown dismissing Parliament. After
Cromwell’s death, Parliament restored the monarchy. In
1689, Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary,
shown above right. Why did English nobles want William
and Mary to rule England, and not the heirs of James II?
However, in 1688, a son was born to James and his
second wife, a Catholic. Now, the possibility of a
Catholic monarchy loomed large.
A Glorious Revolution
A group of English noblemen invited the Dutch leader, William of Orange, husband of James’s daughter Mary, to invade England.
William and Mary raised an army and in 1688
“invaded” England, while James, his wife, and his
infant son fled to France. With almost no bloodshed,
CHAPTER 14
England had undergone a “Glorious Revolution.” The issue was not if there would be a
monarchy but who would be monarch.
In January 1689, Parliament offered
the throne to William and Mary.
They accepted it, along with a Bill of
Rights. The Bill of Rights set forth
Parliament’s right to make laws and
levy taxes. It also stated that standing armies could be raised only with
Parliament’s consent, thus making it
impossible for kings to oppose or to do
without Parliament. The rights of citizens
to keep arms and have a jury trial were also confirmed. The Bill of Rights helped create a system of
government based on the rule of law and a freely
elected Parliament. This bill laid the foundation for a
limited, or constitutional, monarchy.
Another important action of Parliament was the
Toleration Act of 1689. This act granted Puritans, but
not Catholics, the right of free public worship. Few
English citizens, however, would ever again be persecuted for religion.
By deposing one king and establishing another,
Parliament had destroyed the divine-right theory of
kingship. William was, after all, king by the grace of
Parliament, not the grace of God. Parliament had
asserted its right to be part of the government.
Section 2, 434–439
History
Answer: The nobles were concerned
about the possibility of James II and
his heirs instituting a Catholic monarchy in England.
Answers: Students should list the
New Model Army of Cromwell, the
Restoration, the Catholic king James
II, and the invitation to William and
Mary.
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 14–2
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 14, Section 2
For use with textbook pages 434–439
SOCIAL CRISES, WAR, AND REVOLUTION
KEY TERMS
Reading Check Describing Trace the sequence of
inflation
witchcraft
events that led to the English Bill of Rights.
rising prices (page 434)
magic performed by witches (page 435)
divine right of kings the belief that kings receive their power from God and are responsible
only to God (page 437)
commonwealth
(page 438)
a republic (used especially for the government of England from 1649 to 1660)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
Are you concerned about inflation? How have you been affected by inflation? How
many times has the price of a postage stamp increased in your lifetime?
Checking for Understanding
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
1. Define inflation, witchcraft, divine right
of kings, commonwealth.
6. Drawing Conclusions Which nation
emerged stronger after the Thirty
Years’ War? Did thirty years of fighting
accomplish any of the original motives
for waging the war?
8. Examine the cameo of William and
Mary shown above. How does this
painting compare to portraits of other
rulers, such as the one of Louis XIV on
page 444? How is the purpose of this
painting different from the purpose of
other royal portraits?
2. Identify James I, Puritans, Charles I,
Cavaliers, Roundheads, Oliver
Cromwell, James II.
3. Locate Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia.
4. Explain why Oliver Cromwell first
purged Parliament and then declared a
military dictatorship.
5. List the countries involved in the Thirty
Years’ War.
7. Cause and Effect Use a graphic organizer like the one below to illustrate the
causes and effects of the Thirty Years’
War.
Effect
CHAPTER 14
Have students list the causes
of the English Revolution and
Glorious Revolution. (Charles I
believed in divine right, added
more ritual to Church of England;
Charles II sympathized with
Catholicism; James II was a
Catholic, his wife and his son were
Catholic.) L1 SS.A.3.4.6
9. Expository Writing Write an essay
on why population increased and
decreased in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England. Include
a population graph.
Thirty Years’ War
Cause
Reteaching Activity
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
5. Bohemia, Holy Roman Empire,
1. Key terms are in blue.
Denmark, Sweden, France, Spain
2. James I ( p. 437); Puritans ( p. 437);
Charles I ( p. 437); Cavaliers
6. France. Protestants made some
( p. 437); Roundheads ( p. 437);
gains; Germany did not fare well.
Oliver Cromwell ( p. 437); James II
( p. 438)
7. Causes: Calvinism not recognized;
3. See chapter maps.
Calvinist nobles rebelled against
4. removed those who had not aided
Hapsburgs; France, Spain, and
him; found Parliament difficult to
Holy Roman Empire wanted Eurowork with
4 CLOSE
439
pean leadership; Effects: all German states could determine own
religion; major contenders gained
new lands; Holy Roman Empire
ended
8. They look like an ordinary couple,
not rulers by divine right.
9. Students should consult outside
sources.
Have students evaluate the political effects of both the Thirty
Years’ War on the German states
and the English Revolution on
England. L1
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
2
4
439
TEACH
Making Generalizations
Making Generalizations Write
the following statement on the
chalkboard: “Our school produces great football players (or
debaters, or cheerleaders, etc.).”
Ask students what information
should be gathered in order to
validate this generalization.
(number of awards; similar statistics for other schools in the area,
etc.) Then have students read the
skill and complete the practice
questions. L1
Why Learn This Skill?
Generalizations are broad statements or principles derived from specific facts. Here are some facts
about Michigan and Florida:
Average monthly temperature (ºF)
Grand Rapids,
Michigan
Vero Beach,
Florida
April
46.3
July
71.4
October
50.9
61.9
71.7
81.1
75.2
One generalization that can be made from these
facts is that Florida is warmer than Michigan.
Generalizations are useful when you want to summarize large amounts of information and when
detailed information is not required.
Additional Practice
Learning the Skill
L1/ELL
Skills Reinforcement
Activity 14
Name
✎
January
22
From 1560 to 1650, Europe witnessed severe economic and social crises, as well as political upheaval. The
so-called price revolution was a dramatic rise in prices
(inflation) that was a major economic problem in all of
Europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
What caused this price revolution? The great influx of gold
and silver from the Americas was one factor. Perhaps
even more important was an increase in population in the
sixteenth century. A growing population increased the
demand for land and food and drove up prices for both.
By the beginning of the seventeenth century, an economic slowdown had begun in some parts of Europe.
Spain’s economy, which had grown dependent on
imported silver, was seriously failing by the decade of the
1640s. Italy, once the financial center of Europe in the
age of the Renaissance, was also declining economically.
Date
To make a valid generalization, follow these steps:
• Identify the subject matter. The example above compares Michigan to Florida.
Class
• Gather related facts and examples. Each fact is about
the climate of Michigan or Florida.
Skills Reinforcement Activity 14
Making Generalizations
Historians must be careful when they
make generalizations based on observed
data. They must back up each generalization they make with specific references to
the sources they have used, so that others
• Identify similarities among these facts. In each of the
examples, the climate of Florida is more moderate than the climate of Michigan.
can trace the reasoning that went into making the generalization. A generalization
made without reference to specific historical sources is usually viewed as an opinion
and therefore not necessarily accurate.
DIRECTIONS: Read The England of Elizabeth, pages 431–432 of your text. Then read the following excerpt from a reply made by Elizabeth I to some English Bishops who wanted to
continue Mary’s pro-Catholic policies. Answer the questions below in the space provided.
• Use these similarities to form a general statement
about the subject. You can state either that Florida
is warmer than Michigan or that Michigan is
colder than Florida.
On Religion, 1559
Sirs,
As to your entreaty for us to listen to you we waive it; yet do return you this our answer. Our
realm and subjects have been long wanderers, walking astray, whilst they were under the tuition
of Romish pastors, who advised them to own a wolf for their head (in lieu of a careful shepherd)
whose inventions, heresies and schisms be so numerous, that the flock of Christ have fed on poisonous shrubs for want of wholesome pastures. And whereas you hit us and our subjects in the
teeth that the Romish Church first planted the Catholic within our realm, the records and chronicles of our realm testify the contrary; and your own Romish idolatry maketh you liars; witness the
ancient monument of Gildas unto which both foreign and domestic have gone in pilgrimage
there to offer. This author testifieth Joseph of Arimathea to be the first preacher of the word of
This interactive CD-ROM reinforces
student mastery of essential social
studies skills.
1 Multiple factors can contribute to inflation.
2 If the government had taken measures to control an increase in population, inflation would
have been prevented.
3 Nations should refrain from importing goods
from other countries.
4 Less dependency on the importing of silver
would have helped Spain’s economy.
Practicing the Skill
Applying the Skill
Europe experienced economic crises and political
upheaval from 1560 to 1650. Read the following
excerpt from the text, then identify
valid and invalid generalizations
about what you have read.
Over the next three weeks, read the editorials in your
local newspaper. Write a list of generalizations about
the newspaper’s position on issues that have been discussed, either national or local.
CD-ROM
Glencoe Skillbuilder
Interactive Workbook
CD-ROM, Level 2
Identify each following generalization as valid or
invalid based on the information:
Sixteenth-century
gold coins
Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook,
Level 2, provides instruction and practice in key
social studies skills.
440
ANSWERS TO PRACTICING THE SKILL
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
440
1. Valid; the text lists the influx of gold and silver into
Europe and a growing population as two factors that
contributed to inflation.
2. Invalid; controlling population growth would not have
stopped the influx of gold and silver from the Americas.
3. Invalid; not importing goods does not account for
other factors that can cause inflation such as population growth.
4. Valid; since the influx of silver helped cause inflation,
less dependency on silver would have helped improve,
but not necessarily solve, Spain’s economic problems.
Applying the Skill: Answers will vary. Have students bring
in their editorials or copies of editorials to share with the
class. Ask students to analyze their editorials by examining
the generalizations that they have already made.
CHAPTER 14
Response to Crisis:
Absolutism
Section 3, 441–447
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• Louis XIV was an absolute monarch
whose extravagant lifestyle and military
campaigns weakened France.
• Prussia, Austria, and Russia emerged as
great European powers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Louis XIV, Cardinal Richelieu, Frederick
William the Great Elector, Ivan IV, Michael
Romanov, Peter the Great
Summarizing Information As you read
this section, complete a chart like the one
below summarizing the accomplishments
of Peter the Great.
Key Terms
Preview Questions
Places to Locate
Reforms
Prussia, Austria, St. Petersburg
Government
Wars
After studying this section, students should be able to define
absolutism, describe the absolute
monarchs, and explain the basis
for their power.
BELLRINGER
1. What is absolutism?
2. Besides France, what other European
states practiced absolutism?
absolutism, czar, boyar
Skillbuilder Activity
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Preview of Events
✦1600
✦1650
1613
Romanov dynasty
begins in Russia
✦1700
1643
Louis XIV comes to throne
of France at age four
✦1750
1715
Louis XIV dies
1725
Peter the Great dies
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
14–3
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
3
ANSWERS
1. C 2. D 3. B
4. A
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
Chapter 14 TRANSPARENCY 14-3
Response to Crisis: Absolutism
Voices from the Past
DIRECTIONS: The column on the left lists four causes. The column on the right lists four
effects. Match each cause on the left with the appropriate effect on the right.
Cause
Jacques Bossuet, a seventeenth-century French bishop, explained a popular
viewpoint:
“
It is God who establishes kings. They thus act as ministers of God and His lieutenants on earth. It is through them that he rules. This is why we have seen that the
royal throne is not the throne of a man, but the throne of God himself. It appears from
this that the person of kings is sacred, and to move against them is a crime. Since their
power comes from on high, kings . . . should exercise it with fear and restraint as a thing
which has come to them from God, and for which God will demand an account.
”
Bossuet’s ideas about kings became reality during the reign of King Louis XIV.
France under Louis XIV
One response to the crises of the seventeenth century was to seek more stability by increasing the power of the monarch. The result was what historians have
called absolutism.
Absolutism is a system in which a ruler holds total power. In seventeenthcentury Europe, absolutism was tied to the idea of the divine right of kings. It was
thought that rulers received their power from God and were responsible to no one
except God. Absolute monarchs had tremendous powers. They had the ability to
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–3
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–3
• Guided Reading Activity 14–3
• Section Quiz 14–3
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–3
A. Russia’s army was
reorganized and the country
was divided into provinces
2. Louis XII and Louis XIV came
to power as boys
B. Baptiste Colbert granted
subsidies to new businesses
and raised tariffs on imports
3. A crucial need for money to build
palaces, fund wars, and maintain
the court of Louis XIV
C. Absolutism
4. Peter the Great traveled to
the West and was impressed
with European technology
D. The government of France
was left in the hands of
royal ministers
Guide to Reading
—Western Civilization, Margaret L. King, 2000
CHAPTER 14
Effect
1. The desire of seventeenthcentury Europeans for
stability
441
Answers to Graphic: Reforms:
reorganized army; formed navy;
introduced Western customs, practices, and manners; more freedom
for upper-class women;
Government: absolutist monarchy;
divided Russia into provinces; tried to
create “police” state; atmosphere of
fear; built new capital at St. Petersburg; Wars: with Sweden to get a
year-round Baltic port
Preteaching Vocabulary
Have students look up absolutism
and brainstorm a list of synonyms.
(totalitarianism, fascism, dictatorship)
L1
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–3
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
441
CHAPTER 14
make laws, levy taxes, administer justice, control the
state’s officials, and determine foreign policy.
The reign of Louis XIV has long been regarded as
the best example of the practice of absolutism in the
seventeenth century. French culture, language, and
manners reached into all levels of European society.
French diplomacy and wars dominated the political
affairs of western and central Europe. The court of
Louis XIV was imitated throughout Europe.
Section 3, 441–447
2 TEACH
Daily Lecture
Daily Lecture
and and
Discussion
Notes 14–3
Discussion Notes 1–1
Richelieu and Mazarin
French history for the 50
years before Louis was a period of struggle as governments fought to avoid the breakdown of the state.
The situation was made more difficult by the fact that
both Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only boys when
they came to the throne. The government was left in
the hands of royal ministers. In France, two ministers
played important roles in preserving the authority of
the monarchy.
Cardinal Richelieu (RIH•shuh•LOO), Louis
XIII’s chief minister, strengthened the power of the
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 14, Section 3
Did You Know
?
At the time of his father’s death, the four-yearold Louis XIV was, according to the laws of his kingdom, the owner
of the bodies and property of 19 million subjects. Nonetheless, he
once narrowly escaped drowning in a pond because no one was
watching him.
I.
France under Louis XIV (pages 441–444)
A. One response to the crises of the seventeenth century was to seek stability by increasing the monarchy’s power. This response historians call absolutism, a system in which
the ruler has total power. It also held the view of the divine right of kings.
B. Absolute monarchs could make laws, levy taxes, administer justice, control the state’s
officials, and determine foreign policy.
C. The best example of seventeenth-century absolutism is the reign of Louis XIV of
France. French power and culture spread throughout Europe. Other courts imitated
the court of Louis XIV.
D. Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only boys when they came to power. A royal minister
held power for each up to a certain age, Cardinal Richelieu for Louis XIII and
Cardinal Marazin for Louis XIV. These ministers helped preserve the monarchy.
monarchy. Because the Huguenots were seen as a
threat to the king’s power, Richelieu took away their
political and military rights while preserving their
religious rights. Richelieu also tamed the nobles by
setting up a network of spies to uncover plots by
nobles against the government. He then crushed the
conspiracies and executed the conspirators.
Louis XIV came to the throne in 1643 at the age of
four. Due to the king’s young age, Cardinal Mazarin,
the chief minister, took control of the government.
During Mazarin’s rule, a revolt led by nobles
unhappy with the growing power of the monarchy
broke out. This revolt was crushed. With its end,
many French people concluded that the best hope for
stability in France lay with a strong monarch.
Louis Comes to Power
When Mazarin died in
1661, Louis XIV took over supreme power. The day
after Cardinal Mazarin’s death, the new king, at the
age of 23, stated his desire to be a real king and the
sole ruler of France:
E. Richelieu took political and military rights from the Huguenots, a perceived threat to
the throne, and thwarted a number of plots by nobles though a system of spies, executing the conspirators.
F. Louis XIV came to the throne in 1643 at age four. During Marazin’s rule, nobles
rebelled against the throne, but their efforts were crushed. Many French people concluded that the best chance for stability was with a monarch.
G. Louis XIV took power in 1661 at age 23. He wanted to be and was to be sole ruler of
France. All were to report to him for orders or approval of orders. He fostered the
myth of himself as the Sun King—the source of light for his people.
H. The royal court Louis established at Versailles served three purposes. It was the king’s
household, the location of the chief offices of the state, and a place where the powerful
could find favors and offices for themselves. From Versailles Louis controlled the central policy making machinery of government.
I. Louis deposed nobles and princes from the royal council and invited them to
Versailles where he hoped court life would distract them from politics. This tactic often
worked. Louis’ government ministers were to obey his every wish. He ruled with
absolute authority in the three traditional areas of royal authority: foreign policy, the
Church, and taxes.
turn
At the Court of Versailles
201
L1/ELL
I
n 1660, Louis XIV of France decided to
build a palace at Versailles, near Paris.
Untold sums of money were spent and
tens of thousands of workers labored
incessantly to complete the work. The
enormous palace housed thousands of
people.
Life at Versailles became a court ceremony, with Louis XIV at the center of it all.
The king had little privacy. Only when he
visited his wife, mother, or mistress or met
with ministers was he free of the nobles
who swarmed about the palace.
Most daily ceremonies were carefully
staged, such as the king’s rising from bed,
dining, praying, attending mass, and going
to bed. A mob of nobles competed to
assist the king in carrying out these solemn
activities. It was considered a great honor,
for example, for a noble to be chosen to
hand the king his shirt while dressing.
Guided Reading Activity 14–3
Name
Date
Class
Guided Reading Activity 14-3
Response to Crisis: Absolutism
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 3.
I.
is a system in which a ruler holds total
.
A. In seventeenth-century Europe, absolutism was tied to the divine
.
B. The reign of
in France is the best example of absolutism.
1. Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the
by limiting rights and
spying on the nobles.
2. As Louis XIV took power, he proclaimed himself the
3. Louis had complete authority over
and
II.
.
, the
.
and
emerged as European powers after the
Thirty Years' War.
A. Prussia was a small territory with no natural
for defense.
1. Frederick William built the
largest army in Europe.
2. In 1701, Frederick William's son
B. The
officially became king.
had long served as emperors in the Holy Roman Empire.
1. In the seventeenth century, they had lost the
Empire.
2. After the defeat of the Turks in 1687, Austria took control of all of
,
,
, and
.
A. The most prominent member of the
, or caesar.
dynasty was Peter the
Great.
B. Peter was especially eager to borrow European
to modernize
Copyright © by The
III. Ivan IV became the first Russian ruler to take the title of
Critical Thinking
Discuss with students the efforts
of Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin to preserve the
power of the monarchy. (took
away power of Huguenots, spied on
plotting nobles, crushed revolts.) L1
SS.A.3.4.6
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
442
442
Why did the nobles take part in these
ceremonies? Louis had made it clear that
anyone who hoped to obtain an office,
title, or pension from the king had to participate. This was Louis XIV’s way of controlling their behavior.
Court etiquette became very complex.
Nobles and royal princes were expected to
follow certain rules. Who could sit where
View of the vast grounds
and palace of Versailles
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY
Art and Architecture Have students research and write a report on the building of Versailles,
including when it was built, how it was built, the size of the grounds and the palace, and the style
of architecture. Students should also discuss the art that is in the Versailles Museum. Students
should analyze how the art and architecture reflect the power and grandeur associated with the
reign of Louis XIV. They may also want to discuss the current status of Versailles. Students should
design a visual aid to accompany their reports, using models, drawings, or photos to illustrate their
research. The reports may be given orally and the visual aids displayed in the classroom to enhance
the students’ understanding of the architectural and artistic significance of the palace of Versailles.
L2
“
Up to this moment I have been pleased to
entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal. It is now time that I govern them myself. You
[secretaries and ministers of state] will assist me with
your counsels when I ask for them. I request and
order you to seal no orders except by my command.
I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport
without my command; to render account to me personally each day and to favor no one.
”
The king’s mother, who was well aware of her
son’s love of fun and games and his affairs with the
maids in the royal palace, laughed aloud at these
words. Louis was serious, however. He established a
strict routine from which he seldom deviated. He
also fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King—
the source of light for all of his people.
Government and Religion One of the keys to
Louis’s power was his control of the central policymaking machinery of government. The royal court
that Louis established at Versailles (VUHR•SY) served
three purposes. It was the personal household of the
king. In addition, the chief offices of the state were
located there, so Louis could watch over them.
Finally, Versailles was the place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves.
The greatest danger to Louis’s rule came from
very high nobles and royal princes. They believed
they should play a role in the government of France.
Louis got rid of this threat by removing them from
the royal council. This council was the chief administrative body of the king, and it supervised the government. At the same time, Louis enticed the nobles
and royal princes to come to his court, where he
could keep them busy with court life and keep them
out of politics.
Louis’s government ministers were expected to
obey his every wish. Said Louis, “I had no intention of
sharing my authority with them.” As a result, Louis
had complete authority over the traditional areas of
royal power: foreign policy, the Church, and taxes.
CHAPTER 14
Section 3, 441–447
Answers:
1. by keeping them busy with court
activities
2. it kept the nobles busy and out
of politics; it also kept many
nobles in debt and thus without
resources to revolt against the
king
3. nobles were expected to follow
certain rules, such as where to sit
at meals with the king
Critical Thinking
at meals with the king was carefully regulated. Once, at a dinner, the wife of a minister sat closer to the king than did a
duchess. Louis XIV became so angry that
he did not eat for the rest of the evening.
Daily life at Versailles included many
forms of entertainment. Louis and his
nobles hunted once a week. Walks through
the Versailles gardens, boating trips, plays,
ballets, and concerts were all sources of
pleasure.
One form of entertainment—gambling—
became an obsession at Versailles. Many
nobles gambled regularly and lost enormous sums of money. One princess
described the scene: “Here in France as
soon as people get together they do nothing but play cards; they play for frightful
sums, and the players seem bereft of their
senses. One shouts at the top of his voice,
another strikes the table with his fist. It is
horrible to watch them.” However, Louis
did not think so. He was pleased by an
activity that kept the Versailles nobles busy
and out of politics.
Discuss with students why,
after the rule of Richelieu and
Mazarin, many French citizens
and noncitizens “concluded
that the best hope for stability
in France lay with a strong
monarch.” (many plots against
government, revolt of nobles) L1
SS.C.1.4.1
Enrich
The bedroom of Louis XIV at Versailles
CONNECTING TO THE PAST
1. Summarizing How did Louis XIV attempt to control
the behavior of his nobles?
2. Explaining Why did Louis like the gambling that
went on at Versailles?
3. Writing about History In what way was the system of court etiquette another way in which Louis
controlled his nobles?
Ask students to imagine what it
was like to be a visitor to Louis
XIV’s court or to be Louis XIV
himself: surrounded by nobles,
servants, and hangers-on; determined to maintain absolute
authority over foreign policy, the
church, taxation, and the lives of
his subjects. Have students write
a diary entry from either the
point of view of Louis, in which
he confides his feelings about his
court and reign, or from the point
of view of a visitor describing
life at Versailles and daily routines of the king. L2
READING THE TEXT
Synthesizing Assign students to research the court of Louis XIV and to pay special attention to the
development of the powerful cult surrounding Louis. What court ceremonies were involved in creating this cult of power? Have students explore the significance of both the ceremony of the lever
and the coucher. Why were these types of ceremonies so important during his reign? How did they
affect his style of governing? You might also want to have students compare Louis’s court with
cliques in their school or cults surrounding figures of pop culture. Do such cliques or cults exist?
Why? How are they similar to the court of Louis XIV? Ask each student to write a report on his or
her findings and observations. L2 FCAT LA.A.2.4.8
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
443
CHAPTER 14
Section 3, 441–447
History
Answer: Louis XIV developed a strong
central government, improved internal
transportation and communications,
and created a merchant marine, all of
which would have helped the state.
However, his reckless spending and
ambition left France in debt and surrounded by enemies, ultimately
undermining the state.
History
Louis XIV, shown here, had a clear vision of
himself as a strong monarch. He had no
intention of sharing his power with anyone.
What effect did his views on monarchical
government have on the development of
the French state?
Answer: kept the chief ministers at
Versailles where he could watch over
them; removed nobles and royal
princes from the royal council and
kept them busy with court life;
expected his ministers to obey his
wishes; attempted to stamp out
Protestantism to maintain religious
harmony
Although Louis had absolute power over France’s
nationwide policy making, his power was limited at
the local level. The traditional groups of French society—the nobles, local officials, and town councils—
had more influence than the king in the day-to-day
operation of the local governments. As a result, the
king bribed important people in the provinces to see
that his policies were carried out.
Maintaining religious harmony had long been a
part of monarchical power in France. The desire to
keep this power led Louis to pursue an antiProtestant policy aimed at converting the Huguenots
to Catholicism. Early in his reign, Louis ordered the
destruction of Huguenot churches and the closing of
their schools. Perhaps as many as two hundred thousand Huguenots fled to England, the United
Provinces, and the German states.
Etiquette By the time of Louis XIV,
forks were in use, although the king
used his fingers all of his life. People
began to use napkins, and guests no
longer had to use the tablecloth to
wipe their fingers.
decrease imports and increase exports, he granted
subsidies to new industries. To improve communications and the transportation of goods within France,
he built roads and canals. To decrease imports
directly, Colbert raised tariffs on foreign goods and
created a merchant marine to carry French goods.
The increase in royal power that Louis pursued
led the king to develop a standing army numbering
four hundred thousand in time of war. He wished to
achieve the military glory befitting the Sun King. He
also wished to ensure the domination of his Bourbon
dynasty over European affairs.
To achieve his goals, Louis waged four wars
between 1667 and 1713. His ambitions caused many
nations to form coalitions to prevent him from dominating Europe. Through his wars, Louis added some
territory to France’s northeastern frontier and set up
a member of his own dynasty on the throne of Spain.
Legacy of Louis XIV
In 1715, the Sun King died. He
left France with great debts and surrounded by enemies. On his deathbed, the 76-year-old monarch
seemed remorseful when he told his successor (his
great-grandson), “Soon you will be King of a great
kingdom. . . . Try to remain at peace with your neighbors. I loved war too much. Do not follow me in that
or in overspending. . . . Lighten your people’s burden
as soon as possible, and do what I have had the misfortune not to do myself.”
Did Louis mean it? We do not know. In any event,
the advice to his successor was probably not remembered; his great-grandson was only five years old.
Reading Check Describing What steps did Louis XIV
take to maintain absolute power?
Absolutism in Central
and Eastern Europe
After the Thirty Years’ War, there was no German
state, but over three hundred “Germanies.” Of these
states, two—Prussia and Austria—emerged in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as great European powers.
The Economy and War
The cost of building
palaces, maintaining his court, and pursuing his
wars made finances a crucial issue for Louis XIV. He
was most fortunate in having the services of JeanBaptiste Colbert (kohl•BEHR) as controller-general
of finances.
Colbert sought to increase the wealth and power
of France by following the ideas of mercantilism. To
Economics Ask interested students to study mercantilism and to
compare its principles with competing economic theories. L3
444
CHAPTER 14
The Emergence of Prussia
Frederick William the
Great Elector laid the foundation for the Prussian
state. Realizing that Prussia was a small, open territory with no natural frontiers for defense, Frederick
William built a large and efficient standing army. He
had a force of forty thousand men, which made the
Prussian army the fourth-largest in Europe.
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
444
2
English Learners To help students who are English learners, have students work on this section
in small groups of three. For homework, each student should select a part of the section to study,
outline, and prepare to “teach.” In class, students should clearly and logically present their section
to the other members of the group, focusing on the significant people and events of their section.
Each student should write a short quiz for the others to take at the end of the teaching session.
L1 ELL FCAT LA.A.1.4.2
Expansion of Prussia,
1618–1720
15°E
10°E
North
Sea
Baltic
Sea
DENMARK
Berlin
WESTPHALIA
Rhi
ne
R
.
E
El
W
POLAND
Dresden
SAXONY
N
WÜ
Frankfurt
MAGDEBURG
be
R.
SILESIA
0
200 miles
200 kilometers
0
Chamberlin Trimetric projection
S
SAXONY
50°N
Nuremberg
BRANDENBURG
RAVENSBERG
50°N
EAST
PRUSSIA
BOHEMIA
RTAugsburg BAVARIA
TEM
BERG Munich
TYROL
ITALY
Buda
Frederick I
2. Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)
HUNGARY
Pest
TRANSYLVANIA
Da n u
be R.
Belgrade
ri
at
0
ic
Se
a
15°E
SERBIA
Answer: Empire was composed of so
many different national groups that it
remained a collection of territories.
200 miles
0
200 kilometers
Chamberlin Trimetric
projection
20°E
25°E
Charting Activity
䊳
To maintain the army and his
own power, Frederick William set
up the General War Commissariat to
levy taxes for the army and oversee its
growth. The Commissariat soon became an agency
for civil government as well. The new bureaucratic
machine became the elector’s chief instrument to
govern the state. Many of its officials were members
of the Prussian landed aristocracy, known as the
Junkers, who also served as officers in the army.
In 1701, Frederick William’s son Frederick officially gained the title of king. Elector Frederick III
became King Frederick I.
The New Austrian Empire
S
SLAVONIA
Ad
Acquisitions/possessions, 1700–1720
10°E
E
Vienna
CARINTHIA
Po R .
East Prussia and possessions, 1618
Acquisitions/possessions, 1619–1699
Answers:
1. Croatia, Slavonia, and Serbia
N
W
MORAVIA
AUSTRIA
MILAN Venice
45°N
SILESIA
R.
UNITED
PROVINCES
EAST
POMERANIA
be
WEST
POMERANIA
El
Stralsund
Cologne
Austrian Hapsburg lands, 1525
Acquisitions/possessions, 1526–1699
Acquisitions/possessions, 1700–1720
A
55°N
Section 3, 441–447
20°E
SWEDEN
CR
OA
TI
5°E
CHAPTER 14
Expansion of Austria,
1525–1720
The Austrian Hapsburgs had long played a significant role in European
politics as Holy Roman emperors. By the end of the
Thirty Years’ War, their hopes of creating an empire
in Germany had been dashed. The Hapsburgs made
a difficult transition in the seventeenth century. They
had lost the German Empire, but now they created a
new empire in eastern and southeastern Europe.
The core of the new Austrian Empire was the traditional Austrian lands in present-day Austria, the
Czech Republic, and Hungary. After the defeat of the
Turks in 1687 (see Chapter 15), Austria took control
of all of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia as well. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Austrian Hapsburgs had gained a new
empire of considerable size.
Ask students to create a chart
that lists choices regarding local
government, religion, finances,
and war that led to the negative
legacy of Louis XIV’s reign. L1
Prussia and Austria emerged as great powers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
1. Interpreting Maps What did Austria gain by expanding south?
2. Applying Geography Skills What destructive war happened during the time period covered by these maps?
Connecting Across Time
Ask students to describe the
importance of military might to
the practice of absolutism. (military helps to enforce policies, ensure
power) L1 SS.A.3.4.6
The Austrian monarchy, however, never became
a highly centralized, absolutist state, chiefly because
it was made up of so many different national groups.
The Austrian Empire remained a collection of territories held together by the Hapsburg emperor, who
was archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia, and king
of Hungary. Each of these areas had its own laws
and political life. No common sentiment tied the
regions together other than the ideal of service to the
Hapsburgs, held by military officers and government
officials.
Critical Thinking
Have students discuss why the
Austrian Empire, unlike Prussia,
never became a centralized, absolutist state. (composed of many different national groups, each had its
own laws and political life.) L1
Reading Check Examining Why was the Austrian
monarchy unable to create a highly centralized, absolutist state?
Russia under Peter The Great
Enrich
A new Russian state had emerged in the fifteenth
century under the leadership of the principality of
Muscovy and its grand dukes. In the sixteenth
century, Ivan IV became the first ruler to take the title
of czar, the Russian word for caesar.
Both Ivan the Terrible and Peter
the Great were complicated figures whose reigns included great
successes and great failures.
Invite interested students to
research the life of one of these
leaders, considering whether his
reign was, on balance, good or
bad for his people. L2
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
445
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY
EXTENDING
THE CONTENT
Creating a Presentation Have students work in small groups to research and report on the daily
life of women in Russia during the time of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, as well as
women in Russia today. Scholarly works on Russian feminism of the past and the present are available in local libraries. Have groups plan how to delegate the work—some students may research,
and others may write the reports. Topics to consider might be family responsibilities, intellectual
interests, types of work, and political concerns of the women. Groups should provide visuals with
their reports to help the groups describe the life of women then and now. L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
For grading this activity, refer to the Performance Assessment Activities booklet.
445
0426-0453 C14SE-860702
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CHAPTER 14
Ob
.
Ob
Dniep
er
Caspian S
ea
.
r
b
Krasnoyarsk
S i
Tomsk
i
a
60°N
Yakutsk
e
r
i
a
Tomsk
N
W
E
S
Aral
Sea
Krasnoyarsk
1,000 miles
Irkutsk
0
1,000 kilometers
0
Two-Point Equidistant projection
0
Petropavlovsk
Okhotsk
Sakhalin
Yakutsk
Russia, 1462
Acquisitions:
Sakhalin
by 1505 (Ivan III)
by 1584 (Ivan the Terrible)
Russia,
1462
by 1725 (Peter the Great)
Acquisitions:
by
1796 (Catherine the Great)
Lake
by 1505 (Ivan III)
Baikal
by 1584 (Ivan the Terrible)
by 1725 (Peter the Great)
by 1796 (Catherine the Great)
Lake
Baikal
Irkutsk
E
.
R
b e
S i
Okhotsk
Lena
Dniep
er
Petropavlovsk
.
R
Caspian S
ea
120°E
100°E
sei R.
Yeni
R.
S
Astrakhan
Sea
Lena
80°E
sei R.
Yeni
R.
N
W
60°N
80°N
160°E
LE
C. to reduce the size of the army.
Kazan
80°N
LE
E. the Junkers
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
100°E
140°E
60°E
s
D. absolutism
5. members of the Russian nobility
asu
C. Versailles
4. members of the Prussian landed aristocracy
80°E
120°E
40°E
Aral
uc
B. the boyars
3. Russian word for caesar
a
Se
A. czar
2. Louis XIV’s court location
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
V
ga
ol
180°
140°E
ARCTIC OCEaN
20°E
Moscow
Astrakhan
R
a
s C
Column B
1. idea that rulers hold total power
ck
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
asu
Score
Chapter 14
Section Quiz 14-3
6. Peter the Great wanted
A. to westernize or Europeanize Russia.
uc
Name 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Date 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭 Class 㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭㛭
R. lga R
Vo
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE
Constantinople
Bl
a
a
Se
Section Quiz 14–3
Column A
R.
Ca
L2
✔
a UKRAINE
ck
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
60°E
AUSTRIA LITHUANIA
R.
St. Petersburg
Moscow
KievPOLAND Riga
Vienna
Archangel
r UKRAINE Warsaw
Novgorod
R.
Kazan
HUNGARY Smolensk
st e
Dni e
Assign Section 3 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
160°E
0°
40°E
Archangel
Warsaw
Novgorod
e a FINLAND
R. Ba
Elbe
Smolensk
S
HUNGARY
l tic
st e
Dni e
3 ASSESS
180°
20°E
A R C T I C CIR C
SWEDEN
0°
North
a FINLAND
Elbe R. BSea
al t i c S e
AUSTRIA LITHUANIA
SWEDEN
St.
Petersburg
Vienna POLAND Riga
r
SS.A.3.4.6
Expansion of Russia,
1462–1796
ARCTIC
OCEaN
ATLaNTIC
OCEaN
Constantinople
Bl
Kiev
Have students write a brief essay
in which they identify and evaluate the measures taken by Peter
the Great to westernize Russia.
What were the effects of these
measures on his subjects? Ask
students to discuss in their
essays the ways in which Russian women benefited from
Peter’s reforms. (removed veils,
mixed more freely with men) L1
A R C T I C CIR C
ATLaNTIC
OCEaN
North
Sea
Writing Activity
Page 446
Expansion of Russia, 1462–1796
Section 3, 441–447
Answers:
1. a “window to the west,” an icefree seaport with year-round
access to Europe
2. The climate becomes unfavorable
and very cold north of 60° N latitude.
10:37 AM
1,000 miles
1,000 kilometers
0
Two-Point Equidistant projection
Peter the Great organized Russia into provinces in an
attempt to strengthen the power of the central government.
1. Interpreting Maps What did Russia gain by acquiring
PeteronthetheGreat
lands
Balticorganized
coast? Russia into provinces in an
attempt toGeography
strengthen Skills
the power
themost
central
government.
2. Applying
Whyofare
cities
in
1. Interpreting
Maps
did Russia
by acquiring
eastern
Russia located
nearWhat
or south
of 60°Ngain
latitude?
lands on the Baltic coast?
2. Applying Geography Skills Why are most cities in
Russiathe
located
near or of
south
of 60°N
latitude?
Ivan eastern
expanded
territories
Russia
eastward.
He also crushed the power of the Russian nobility,
known as the boyars. He was known as Ivan the TerIvan expanded
the territories
of Russia
rible because
of his ruthless
deeds, among
themeastward.
stabthe power
of theargument.
Russian nobility,
bingHe
hisalso
owncrushed
son to death
in a heated
known
as thedynasty
boyars. came
He was
thea TerWhen
Ivan’s
to known
an endasinIvan
1598,
ribleofbecause
of known
his ruthless
deeds,
among
them stabperiod
anarchy
as the
Time
of Troubles
bing his
own
son to
death
a heated
argument.
followed.
This
period
did
not in
end
until the
Zemsky
Ivan’s dynasty
came to
an end
in 1598, a
Sobor, When
or national
assembly,
chose
Michael
periodasofthe
anarchy
known
as the Time of Troubles
Romanov
new czar
in 1613.
followed.
This
periodlasted
did not
end1917.
untilOne
theofZemsky
The
Romanov
dynasty
until
its
or members
national was
assembly,
Michael
mostSobor,
prominent
Peter thechose
Great. Peter
as the czar
new czar
in 1613.
the Romanov
Great became
in 1689.
Like the other
The czars
Romanov
lasted
until
1917.
Oneanof its
Romanov
whodynasty
preceded
him,
Peter
was
most prominent
was Peter
the Great.
absolutist
monarch members
who claimed
the divine
rightPeter
the Great became czar in 1689. Like the other
to rule.
who preceded
him,made
Petera trip
was an
ARomanov
few years czars
after becoming
czar, Peter
absolutist
monarch
who claimed
the divine
to the
West. When
he returned
to Russia,
he wasright
to rule. to westernize, or Europeanize, Russia.
determined
A few years after becoming czar, Peter made a trip
to theCHAPTER
West. When
he returned
to Russia,
he was
14
Crisis
and Absolutism
in Europe
446
determined to westernize, or Europeanize, Russia.
He was especially eager to borrow European technology. Only this kind of modernization could give
him the army and navy he needed to make Russia a
was especially
eager
to borrow
greatHe
power.
Under Peter,
Russia
became European
a great mil-techthisdeath
kind of
could
itarynology.
power.Only
By his
in modernization
1725, Russia was
angive
him the
army and
navy he needed to make Russia a
important
European
state.
great power. Under Peter, Russia became a great military power.
By his death inChanges
1725, Russia
Military
and Governmental
Onewas
of an
important
European
state.
Peter’s
first goals
was to
reorganize the army. He
employed both Russians and Europeans as officers.
Militarypeasants
and Governmental
He drafted
for 25-year stintsChanges
of serviceOne
to of
Peter’s
first army
goals of
was
to reorganize
build
a standing
210,000
men. Peterthe
hasarmy.
also He
both
Europeans
officers.
beenemployed
given credit
forRussians
forming and
the first
Russianasnavy,
Hewas
drafted
peasants for
25-year stints of service to
which
his overriding
passion.
a standing
210,000
men. Petermore
has also
Tobuild
impose
the rule army
of theof
central
government
been given
credit for
the divided
first Russian
navy,
effectively
throughout
theforming
land, Peter
Russia
was He
his hoped
overriding
passion.
into which
provinces.
to create
a “police state,” by
To meant
imposeathe
rule of thecommunity
central government
which he
well-ordered
governedmore
effectively
throughout
thebureaucrats
land, Peter divided
Russia
by law.
However,
few of his
shared his
into of
provinces.
He hoped
create
a “police
concept
honest service
andto
duty
to the
state. state,”
Peter by
which
meant
well-ordered
governed
hoped
for ahesense
ofacivic
duty, butcommunity
his own personlaw. However,
few ofofhis
shared
alityby
created
an atmosphere
fearbureaucrats
that prevented
it. his
concept
honest
service and
duty to thetostate.
He wrote
to of
one
administrator,
“According
thesePeter
hoped
sense
of civic
duty,
but but
his own
personorders
act, for
act,aact.
I won’t
write
more,
you will
an atmosphere
of fearorders
that prevented
pay ality
withcreated
your head
if you interpret
again.” it.
wrotethe
to one
administrator,his“According
to these
PeterHe
wanted
impossible—that
administrators
ordersand
act,free
act,men
act. at
I won’t
write
more, but you will
be slaves
the same
time.
pay with your head if you interpret orders again.”
Peter wanted the impossible—that his administrators
be slaves and free men at the same time.
EXTENDING THE CONTENT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
446
St. Petersburg In 1703, Peter the Great obtained a pathway to Europe by gaining control of the
Neva River from Sweden. On May 16, 1703, Russian workers laid the foundations for St. Petersburg
at the mouth of the river. The city was built at an unprecedented speed; it became the capital of
the Russian Empire only nine years after it was created. It was built by thousands of forced laborers, many of whom died from sickness, hunger, and accidents. St. Petersburg quickly became a
major industrial center and, by 1726, it was the country’s largest center of trade. The best artists in
Europe and Russia created its masterpieces. Dozens of higher education establishments in St.
Petersburg gave the country generations of prominent scientists and researchers. It is also the city
of the great writers Pushkin, Gogol, Tolstoy, and Dostoevsky.
0426-0453 C14SE-860702
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Page 447
CHAPTER 14
Cultural Changes
1672–1725—Russian czar
the Great
PeterPeter
the Great,
the man
who
made1672–1725—Russian
Russia a great power, czar
was an
unusual character. He was a towering, strong
feet, 9 inches
(2 m)who
eterman
the6 Great,
the man
tall. He
wasRussia
coarse
in hispower,
tasteswas
andan
made
a great
rude unusual
in his behavior.
a low
character.HeHeenjoyed
was a towerkind ing,
of humor
(belching
and
strong man
6 feet, contests
9 inches (2
m) crude
jokes)tall.
andHevicious
punishments
impaling, and
was coarse
in his (flogging,
tastes and
roasting).
Peter
often assisted
dentistsa and
rude in
his behavior.
He enjoyed
low enjoyed
pulling
their
kind
of patients’
humor teeth.
(belching contests and crude
During
visit topunishments
the West, Peter
immersed
him- and
jokes)his
andfirst
vicious
(flogging,
impaling,
self in
the life of
the often
people.assisted
He once
dressedand
in the
roasting).
Peter
dentists
enjoyed
clothes
of a Dutch
sea captain
and spent time with Dutch
pulling
their patients’
teeth.
sailors. ADuring
German
him: Peter
“He told
us that himhis princess
first visit said
to theofWest,
immersed
he worked
showedHeusonce
his hands,
andin the
self in inthebuilding
life of ships,
the people.
dressed
madeclothes
us touch
callous
places that
of athe
Dutch
sea captain
and had
spentbeen
timecaused
with Dutch
by work.”
sailors. A German princess said of him: “He told us that
he worked in building ships, showed us his hands, and
made us touch the callous places that had been caused
by work.”
P
A long and hard-fought war with Sweden enabled
Peter to acquire the lands he sought. On a marshland
on the Baltic in 1703, Peter began the construction of
long
hard-fought
with on
Sweden
enabled
a new A
city,
St.and
Petersburg,
his war
window
the West.
Peter to acquire
lands during
he sought.
On alifetime
marshland
St. Petersburg
was the
finished
Peter’s
the Baltic
1703, Peter
began
construction of
and on
remained
theinRussian
capital
untilthe
1918.
a new city, St. Petersburg, his window on the West.
Reading
Checkwas
Evaluating
was it Peter’s
so important
St. Petersburg
finished Why
during
lifetime
that
Peter
the
Great
have
a
seaport
on
the
Baltic?
and remained the Russian capital until 1918.
Answer: It was the only place where
the Russians could have an ice-free
port with year-round access to
Europe.
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 14–3
Name
Date
Class
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Chapter 14, Section 3
For use with textbook pages 441–447
RESPONSE TO CRISIS: ABSOLUTISM
KEY TERMS
absolutism
a system of government in which a ruler holds total power (page 441)
czar the Russian word for caesar, which became the title of the Russian rulers beginning with
Ivan IV (page 445)
boyars
the Russian nobility (page 446)
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
What do you think is the purpose of dress codes? Do you think dress codes should be
enforced in public schools? Why or why not?
In the last section, you read about the wars, revolutions, and economic problems in
Europe during the seventeenth century. In this section, you will learn how monarchs in
certain countries gained absolute power during this time. One of these absolute monarchs, Peter the Great, even told people how they should dress.
ORGANIZING YOUR THOUGHTSII
Use the chart below to help you take notes. Identify the countries of the following
monarchs and summarize their achievements.
Reading Check Evaluating Why was it so important
Monarch
Country
Achievements
Louis XIV
1.
2.
Frederick William
the Great Elector
3.
4.
Peter the Great
5.
6.
211
World History
that Peter the Great have a seaport on the Baltic?
Checking for Understanding
1. Define absolutism, czar, boyar.
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
6. Explain What were Cardinal Riche8. Examine the photograph of the king’s
lieu’s political goals? How did he
bedroom shown on page 443. How
2. IdentifyChecking
Louis XIV,for
Cardinal
Richelieu,
Understanding
Critical
reduce the power
of theThinking
nobility and
does this roomAnalyzing
reflect theVisuals
nature of
Frederick William the Great Elector,
the6.Huguenots
in France?
kingship
underthe
Louis
XIV?
1. Define absolutism, czar, boyar.
Explain What
were Cardinal Riche8. Examine
photograph
of the king’s
Ivan IV, Michael Romanov, Peter the
lieu’s political goals? How did he
bedroom shown on page 443. How
Great.
Information Use a chart
2. Identify Louis XIV, Cardinal Richelieu, 7. Summarizing
reduce the power of the nobility and
does this room reflect the nature of
like the one below to summarize the
Frederick William the Great Elector,
the Huguenots in France?
kingship under Louis XIV?
3. Locate Prussia, Austria, St. Petersburg.
reign of Louis XIV of France.
Ivan IV, Michael Romanov, Peter the
9. Expository Writing Historians have
Great.the Western customs, prac7. Summarizing Information Use a chart
4. Describe
long considered the reign of Louis
Government
Economics
Religionthe
like theWars
one below
to summarize
tices, and manners that Peter the Great
XIV to be the best example of the
3. Locate Prussia, Austria, St. Petersburg.
reign of Louis XIV of France.
introduced to Russia.
practice
of absolute
monarchy
in thehave
9. Expository
Writing
Historians
4. Describe the Western customs, pracseventeenth
century. Do
long considered
the you
reignbelieve
of Louis
5. List the purposes of the royal court at
Government Wars Economics Religion
tices, and manners that Peter the Great
the statement
or why
XIV to be isthetrue?
bestWhy
example
of the
Versailles.
introduced to Russia.
not? Write
anofessay
supporting
yourin the
practice
absolute
monarchy
opinion.
seventeenth century. Do you believe
5. List the purposes of the royal court at
the statement is true? Why or why
Versailles.
not? Write an essay supporting your
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism
447
opinion. in Europe
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. Louis XIV ( p. 442); Cardinal Richelieu ( p. 442); Frederick William the
Great Elector ( p. 444); Ivan IV
( p. 445); Michael Romanov
( p. 446); Peter the Great ( p. 446)
3. See chapter maps.
4. etiquette, shave beards, women
remove veils, mix freely in society
Section 3, 441–447
Peter the Great
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
After his first trip to the West,
Peter began to introduce Western customs, practices,
and manners into Russia. He ordered the preparation
Cultural
Changes
After
his first
trip to
the West,
of the
first Russian
book of
etiquette
to teach
Western
Peter began
introduce
Western
customs,
practices,
manners.
Amongtoother
things,
the book
pointed
out
manners
intoto
Russia.
ordered
that and
it was
not polite
spit onHe
the
floor orthe
topreparation
scratch
of the
first Russian book of etiquette to teach Western
oneself
at dinner.
manners.
Among other
things,
book
Because
Westerners
did not
wear the
beards
orpointed
the tra- out
that long-skirted
it was not polite
spit on the
floorhad
or to
ditional
coat,toRussian
beards
to scratch
be
oneself
dinner.
shaved
and at
coats
shortened. At the royal court, Peter
did not
beards
or the
shavedBecause
off his Westerners
nobles’ beards
andwear
cut their
coats
at traditional
long-skirted
coat, Outside
Russianthe
beards
had
the knees
with
his own hands.
court,
bar-to be
and coats
shortened.
At thecut
royal
bersshaved
and tailors
planted
at town gates
thecourt,
beardsPeter
offthose
his nobles’
beards and cut their coats at
and shaved
cloaks of
who entered.
the knees
own hands. Outside the
court, barOne
groupwith
of his
Russians—upper-class
women—
bersmuch
and tailors
plantedcultural
at townreforms.
gates cutHaving
the beards
gained
from Peter’s
and cloaks
of mixing
those who
entered.
watched
women
freely
with men in Western
group
of Russians—upper-class
women—
courts,One
Peter
insisted
that Russian upper-class
gained
muchthe
from
Peter’s
cultural
reforms.covHaving
women
remove
veils
that had
traditionally
women
mixing
with men
in Western
eredwatched
their faces
and move
outfreely
into society.
Peter
also
Peter
thatsexes
Russian
heldcourts,
gatherings
in insisted
which both
could upper-class
mix for
women remove
the veils
that hadhetraditionally
conversation
and dancing,
a practice
had learnedcovered
their faces and move out into society. Peter also
in the
West.
held gatherings in which both sexes could mix for
had learned
St. conversation
Petersburg and
Thedancing,
object aofpractice
Peter’shedomestic
in thewas
West.
reforms
to make Russia into a great state and
military power. An important part of this was to
St.a Petersburg
object
of Peter’s
“open
window to theThe
West,”
meaning
a port domestic
with
reforms
to make
Russia
a great state
ready
access was
to Europe.
This
couldinto
be achieved
only and
military
part ofthe
this
was to
on the
Baltic power.
Sea. AtAn
thatimportant
time, however,
Baltic
a windowby
to Sweden,
the West,”
a port with
coast“open
was controlled
themeaning
most important
ready
access toEurope.
Europe. This could be achieved only
power
in northern
on the Baltic Sea. At that time, however, the Baltic
coast was controlled by Sweden, the most important
power in northern Europe.
5. housed state offices, court life kept
nobles out of politics
6. strengthen monarchy; revoked
Huguenots’ political and military
rights, spied on nobles, executed
conspirators
7. Government: absolute ruler; Wars:
four wars, added lands in northeast, put relative on Spanish
throne; Economics: mercantilism,
subsidies to new industries, built
roads and canals, created merchant marine, left France in debt;
Religion: anti-Protestant, destroyed
Huguenot churches, closed schools
8. extravagant; reflects public court
life
9. Answers will vary.
Reteaching Activity
Have students analyze the information in this section by summarizing the achievements and
the acts of oppression of each
major ruler discussed. L1
SS.A.3.4.6
4 CLOSE
Ask students to choose one of
the monarchs from this period
and discuss positive and negative effects of absolutism on their
people and countries. L1
SS.A.3.4.6
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
447
CHAPTER 14
The World of
European Culture
Section 4, 448–451
1 FOCUS
Guide to Reading
Section Overview
This section discusses important
artistic movements, writers, and
philosophers of the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries.
BELLRINGER
Skillbuilder Activity
Project transparency and have
students answer questions.
Daily Focus Skills Transparency
14–4
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
UNIT
3
DAILY FOCUS SKILLS
ANSWERS
1. a famous playwright and actor 2. as a universal genius
3. Queen Elizabeth; great works of drama and literature and a
“cultural flowering” occurred during her reign
Chapter 14 TRANSPARENCY 14-4
Main Ideas
People to Identify
Reading Strategy
• The artistic movements of Mannerism
and the baroque began in Italy and
both reflected the spiritual perceptions
of the time.
• Shakespeare and Lope de Vega were
prolific writers of dramas and comedies
that reflected the human condition.
El Greco, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, William
Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Miguel de
Cervantes, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
Summarizing Information As you read
this section, complete a chart like the one
below summarizing the political thoughts
of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
Key Terms
1. What two new art movements
emerged in the 1500s?
2. Why are Shakespeare’s works
considered those of a “genius”?
Places to Locate
1575
Baroque movement
begins in Italy
John Locke
Preview Questions
Mannerism, baroque, natural rights
Preview of Events
✦1575
✦1590
Thomas Hobbes
Madrid, Prague, Vienna, Brussels
✦1605
1580
Golden Age of English theater begins
✦1620
1599
Globe Theater
built
✦1635
✦1650
1615
Cervantes completes
Don Quixote
✦1665
1651
Leviathan by Hobbes
is published
The World of European Culture
1
Who was William
Shakespeare?
2
How was Shakespeare
viewed?
3
From whom did the
Elizabethan Era get its
name and why?
Voices from the Past
In the play Richard II, William Shakespeare wrote the following lines about England:
royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle,
“This
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-Paradise,
This fortress built by Nature for herself
Against infection and the hand of war,
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall
Or as a moat defensive to a house
Against the envy of less happier lands—
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England.
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: Hobbes:
humans struggled for self-preservation,
agreed to be governed by absolute
ruler, absolute power needed to preserve order; Locke: original state one
of equality and freedom, have natural
rights, established government to
protect rights, if government breaks
contract the people have right to
form new one
Preteaching Vocabulary
Ask students to brainstorm a list of
what they believe to be natural
rights. L1
”
—Richard II, William Shakespeare
In this play, one of the greatest playwrights of the English world expressed his patriotic enthusiasm.
Mannerism
The artistic Renaissance came to an end when a new movement, called Mannerism, emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s. The Reformation’s revival of religious values brought much political turmoil. Especially in Italy, the worldly
448
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
SECTION RESOURCES
Reproducible Masters
• Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–4
• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–4
• Guided Reading Activity 14–4
• Section Quiz 14–4
• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–4
448
Transparencies
• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–4
Multimedia
Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM
ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM
Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
CHAPTER 14
enthusiasm of the Renaissance declined as people
grew anxious and uncertain and wished for spiritual
experience.
Mannerism in art reflected this new environment
by deliberately breaking down the High Renaissance
principles of balance, harmony, and moderation. The
rules of proportion were deliberately ignored as elongated figures were used to show suffering, heightened emotions, and religious ecstasy.
Mannerism spread from Italy to other parts of
Europe and perhaps reached its high point in the
work of El Greco (“the Greek”). El Greco was from
the island of Crete. After studying in Venice and
Rome, he moved to Spain.
In his paintings, El Greco used elongated and contorted figures, portraying them in unusual shades of
yellow and green against an eerie background of
stormy grays. The mood he depicts reflects well the
tensions created by the religious upheavals of the
Reformation.
Section 4, 448–451
2
Answer: The tension created by
the religious upheavals of the Reformation.
History through Art
Answer: Answers will vary, but might
include to inspire awe or to impress
the viewer with the power of the
church.
Reading Check Describing What did the mood of
El Greco’s paintings reflect?
The Baroque Period
Mannerism was eventually replaced by a new
movement—the baroque. This movement began in
Italy in the last quarter of the sixteenth century and
eventually spread to the rest of Europe and even
Latin America. The Catholic reform movement most
wholeheartedly adopted the baroque style. This can
be seen in the buildings at Catholic courts, especially
those of the Hapsburgs in Madrid, Prague, Vienna,
and Brussels.
Baroque artists tried to bring together the classical
ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of
the sixteenth-century religious revival. The baroque
painting style was known for its use of dramatic
effects to arouse the emotions. In large part, though,
baroque art and architecture reflected the search for
power that was such a part of the seventeenth century. Baroque churches and palaces were magnificent
and richly detailed. Kings and princes wanted other
kings and princes as well as their subjects to be in
awe of their power.
Perhaps the greatest figure of the baroque period
was the Italian architect and sculptor Gian Lorenzo
Bernini, who completed Saint Peter’s Basilica in
Rome. Action, exuberance, and dramatic effects mark
the work of Bernini in the interior of Saint Peter’s.
Bernini’s Throne of Saint Peter is a highly decorated
cover for the pope’s medieval wooden throne. The
TEACH
History through Art
Throne of Saint Peter by Bernini, 1666
It took Bernini eleven years to complete this
monumental throne. How do you think Bernini
wanted his work to impact the viewer?
Answer: through magnificence and
rich details
throne seems to hover in midair, held by the hands of
the four great theologians of the early Catholic
Church. Above the chair, rays of heavenly light drive
a mass of clouds and angels toward the spectator.
Artemisia Gentileschi is less well-known than the
male artists who dominated the seventeenth-century
art world in Italy but prominent in her own right.
Born in Rome, she studied painting with her father. In
1616, she moved to Florence and began a successful
career as a painter. At the age of 23, she became the
first woman to be elected to the Florentine Academy
of Design. Although she was known internationally
in her day as a portrait painter, her fame now rests on
a series of pictures of heroines from the Old Testament. Most famous is her Judith Beheading Holofernes.
Daily Lecture and
Discussion Notes 14–4
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 14, Section 4
Did You Know
?
The word quixotic, meaning “foolishly impractical” and “marked by rash, lofty, romantic ideas,” is derived from
the title character of Miguel de Cervantes’s novel Don Quixote.
I.
Mannerism (pages 448–449)
A. The artistic Renaissance ended when the movement called Mannerism emerged in
Italy in the 1520s and 1530s. The movement fit Europe’s climate of the time, as people
grew uncertain about worldly experience and wished for spiritual experience.
B. Mannerism broke down the High Renaissance values of balance, harmony, moderation, and proportion. Elongated figures showed suffering, heightened emotions, and
religious ecstasy.
C. Mannerism perhaps reached its height with the painter El Greco (” the Greek”). Born
Reading Check Identifying How did baroque art
and architecture reflect the seventeenth-century search for
power?
A Golden Age of Literature
In both England and Spain, writing for the theater
reached new heights between 1580 and 1640. Other
forms of literature flourished as well.
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
449
Literature Assign students to read
all or part of a play by Shakespeare
or Lope de Vega, or all or part of
Don Quixote. Discuss with the class
how the wider audiences for these
works, “nobles, lawyers, merchants,
and vagabonds,” might have reacted
to the themes and characters of
these works. L3
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY
Art Have students research and write a brief report on a major work of art by El Greco, Bernini,
and Gentileschi. For each work they should describe the subject matter. They should also prepare a
statement comparing and contrasting the subject matter of each of the works of art. Using what
they have learned from the text, they should then identify the characteristics of each of the representative styles of Mannerism and Baroque as seen in the work of art and explain how each work
of art achieves the goals of that particular style. Students should also identify symbols used by each
artist. Finally, students should tell how they are affected by each of the works. L3
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
FCAT LA.A.2.4.4
449
CHAPTER 14
Section 4, 448–451
HISTORY
A cultural flowering took
place in England in the
Web Activity Visit
late sixteenth and early
the Glencoe World
seventeenth centuries.
History Web site at
The period is often called
wh.glencoe.com and
the Elizabethan Era,
click on Chapter 14–
because so much of it fell
Student Web Activity
within the reign of Queen
to learn more about
Elizabeth. Of all the
William Shakespeare.
forms of Elizabethan literature, none expressed
the energy of the era better than drama. Of all the
dramatists, none is more famous than William
Shakespeare.
When Shakespeare appeared in London
in 1592, Elizabethans already enjoyed the stage. Elizabethan theater was a very successful business. London theaters ranged from the Globe, which was a
circular, unroofed structure holding three thousand
people, to the Blackfriars, a roofed structure that held
only five hundred.
The Globe’s admission charge of one or two pennies enabled even the lower classes to attend. The
higher prices of the Blackfriars brought an audience of
the well-to-do. Because Elizabethan audiences varied
greatly, playwrights had to write works that pleased
nobles, lawyers, merchants, and vagabonds alike.
William Shakespeare was a “complete man of the
theater.” Although best known for writing plays, he
was also an actor and shareholder in the chief theater
company of the time, the Lord Chamberlain’s
Men.
Shakespeare has long been viewed as a
universal genius. He was a master of the
English language and his language skills
were matched by his insight into human
psychology. Whether in his tragedies or
his comedies, Shakespeare showed a
remarkable understanding of the human
condition.
Answer: between 1580 and 1640;
Lope de Vega
L1/ELL
Guided Reading Activity 14–4
Name
Date
Class
Guided Reading Activity 14-4
The World of European Culture
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below as you read Section 4.
1.
in art used elongated figures to show
heightened
, and religious
,
.
2. The mood depicted by El Greco reflected well the tensions created by the religious
upheavals of the
.
3. The
painting style was known for its use of dramatic effects to
arouse the emotions and reflect a search for power.
4. Perhaps the greatest figure of the baroque period was the Italian architect and sculptor
, who completed St. Peter's
5. Of all the
in Rome.
of the seventeenth century, none is more famous than
.
6. The Globe theatre's admission charge of one or two pennies enabled even the
to attend.
7. Beginning in the 1580's, the standard for playwrights was set by
who wrote perhaps 1,500 plays in all.
8. Miguel de Cervantes' novel
has been hailed as one of the greatest
literary works of all time.
9. Hobbes called the state “that great
to which we owe our peace
and defense.”
e McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. Locke believed
people would act
should protect the rights of the people, and the
toward government.
11. John Locke's ideas were used to support demands for
govern-
ment, the rule of law and the protection of rights.
Philosophy and Government
Assign students to read the Declaration of Independence and to find
those passages that reflect the political views of John Locke. L2
SS.A.3.4.5
The following literature from the
Glencoe Literature Library may
enrich the teaching of this chapter:
Hamlet by William Shakespeare
England’s Shakespeare
Beginning in the 1580s, the standard for playwrights was set by Lope de Vega. He wrote an
extraordinary number of plays, perhaps 1,500 in all.
Almost 500 of them survive. They have been characterized as witty, charming, action-packed, and
realistic.
Lope de Vega made no apologies for the fact that
he wrote his plays to please his audiences and satisfy
public demand. He remarked once that if anyone
thought he had written his plays for fame, “undeceive him and tell him that I wrote them for money.”
One of the crowning achievements of the golden
age of Spanish literature was the work of Miguel de
Cervantes (suhr•VAN•TEEZ). His novel Don Quixote
has been hailed as one of the greatest literary works
of all time.
In the two main characters of this famous work,
Cervantes presented the dual nature of the Spanish
character. The knight, Don Quixote from La Mancha,
is the visionary so involved in his lofty ideals that he
does not see the hard realities around him. To him,
for example, windmills appear to be four-armed
giants. In contrast, the knight’s fat and earthy squire,
Sancho Panza, is a realist. Each of these characters
finally comes to see the value of the other’s perspective. We are left with the conviction that both visionary dreams and the hard work of reality are
necessary to the human condition.
Reading Check Describing When was the “golden
age” of Spanish literature? Who set the standard for
playwrights?
Spanish Literature The theater was one
of the most creative forms of expression
during Spain’s golden century as well. The
first professional theaters, created in Seville
and Madrid, were run by actors’ companies, as they were in England. Soon, every
large town had a public playhouse, including Mexico City in the New World. Touring
companies brought the latest Spanish
plays to all parts of the Spanish Empire.
450
CHAPTER 14
Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
READING THE TEXT
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
450
Reading Primary and Secondary Sources Have students read together the section “A Golden Age
of Literature” without pausing. Then have the students utilize note-taking skills and provide the
following major topics:
I. Literature in England
II. Literature in Spain
A Elizabethan Era
A. Lope de Vega
B. Shakespeare
B. Miguel de Cervantes
Ask students to take notes on this handout as the class carefully rereads the selection. Use this
outline as a basis for a quiz. This activity is useful for students with memory difficulties. L1
Political Thought
The seventeenth-century concerns with order and
power were reflected in the political thought of the
time. The English revolutions of the seventeenth century prompted very different responses from two
English political thinkers, Thomas Hobbes and John
Locke.
Hobbes Thomas Hobbes was alarmed by the revolutionary upheavals in England. He wrote Leviathan,
a work on political thought, to try to deal with the
problem of disorder. Leviathan was published in 1651.
Hobbes claimed that before society was organized,
human life was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and
short.” Humans were guided not by reason and
moral ideals but by a ruthless struggle for selfpreservation.
To save themselves from destroying one another,
people made a social contract and agreed to form a
state. Hobbes called the state “that great Leviathan to
which we owe our peace and defense.” People in the
state agreed to be governed by an absolute ruler who
possessed unlimited power. Rebellion must be suppressed. To Hobbes, such absolute power was needed
to preserve order in society.
Locke
John Locke, who wrote a political work
called Two Treatises of Government, 1690, viewed the
exercise of political power quite differently. He
argued against the absolute rule of one person.
CHAPTER 14
Unlike Hobbes, Locke believed that before society
was organized, humans lived in a state of equality
and freedom rather than a state of war. In this state of
nature, humans had certain natural rights—rights
with which they were born. These included rights to
life, liberty, and property.
Like Hobbes, however, Locke believed that problems existed in the state of nature. People found it
difficult to protect their natural rights. For that reason, they agreed to establish a government to ensure
the protection of their rights.
The contract between people and government
involved mutual obligations. Government would
protect the rights of the people, and the people
would act reasonably toward government. However,
if a government broke the contract—if a monarch, for
example, failed to live up to the obligation to protect
subjects’ natural rights—the people might form a
new government.
To Locke, people meant the landholding aristocracy, not landless masses. Locke was not an advocate
of democracy, but his ideas proved important to both
Americans and French in the eighteenth century.
These ideas were used to support demands for constitutional government, the rule of law, and the protection of rights. Locke’s ideas can be found in the
American Declaration of Independence and the
United States Constitution.
Section 4, 448–451
Answer: to preserve order in society
3 ASSESS
Assign Section 4 Assessment as
homework or as an in-class
activity.
Have students use Interactive
Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
L2
Section Quiz 14–4
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✔
Chapter 14
Score
Section Quiz 14-4
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.
Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
Column B
1. Thomas Hobbes’ political work
A. Leviathan
2. Cervantes’ novel
B. de Vega
3. author of Two Treatises of Government
C. John Locke
4. Spanish playwright
D. Don Quixote
5. English playwright
E. Shakespeare
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best
completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. Thomas Hobbes claimed that any ungoverned society made human life
A. solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
Reading Check Explaining According to Hobbes,
why was absolute power needed?
L1/ELL
Reading Essentials and
Study Guide 14–4
Name
Checking for Understanding
1. Define Mannerism, baroque, natural
rights.
2. Identify El Greco, Gian Lorenzo
Bernini, William Shakespeare, Lope de
Vega, Miguel de Cervantes, Thomas
Hobbes, John Locke.
3. Locate Madrid, Prague, Vienna,
Brussels.
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
6. Describe How did the Elizabethan theater experience provide a full reflection
of English society?
8. Examine the photograph of Bernini’s
Throne of Saint Peter shown on page
449 of your text. How does Bernini’s
artistic masterpiece reflect the political
and social life of the period in which it
was created?
7. Compare and Contrast Using a Venn
diagram, compare and contrast Mannerism and baroque art.
Mannerism
Class
Chapter 14, Section 4
For use with textbook pages 448–451
THE WORLD OF EUROPEAN CULTURE
KEY TERMS
Mannerism a movement in art that emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s, which emphasized
emotions, suffering, and religious ecstasy (page 448)
baroque a movement in art that began in Italy in the late sixteenth century, which tried to
bring together the classical ideals of Renaissance art and the spiritual feelings of the sixteenthcentury religious revival (page 449)
natural rights
(page 451)
rights with which humans are born, including rights to life, liberty, and property
DRAWING FROM EXPERIENCEII
Baroque
Reteaching Activity
9. Persuasive Writing In an essay,
argue whether Shakespeare is
stereotyping in this quote: “Frailty,
thy name is woman.” Support your
position with quotes from other
authors.
4. Describe what Don Quixote reveals
about the nature of Spanish character.
5. Summarize the mutual obligations
between people and government as
understood by Locke.
CHAPTER 14
1. Key terms are in blue.
2. El Greco ( p. 449); Gian Lorenzo
Bernini ( p. 449); William Shakespeare ( p. 450); Lope de Vega
( p. 450); Miguel de Cervantes
( p. 450); Thomas Hobbes ( p. 451);
John Locke ( p. 451)
3. See chapter maps.
4. dual nature of visionary dreams
and realism
Date
Reading Essentials and Study Guide
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
5. government: protect people’s
rights; people: act reasonably
toward government
6. The Globe: inexpensive; Blackfriars: served rich; playwrights had to
please all classes
7. Mannerism: rejected Renaissance
balance, harmony, moderation;
ignored rules of proportion;
Baroque: return to ideals of
Have students list the major
artists and writers of this period
and their major works. L1
451
Renaissance art; action, exuberance, dramatic effects; detailed
and ornate; Both: began in Italy;
emotional, religious themes
8. highly ornate, rich details suggests
awe at the power of pope
9. Answers should be supported by
examples.
4 CLOSE
Review with students how the
art and literature of the period
reflects the political conflicts discussed earlier in the chapter. L2
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
2
3
451
CHAPTER 14
Assessment and Activities
MJ
Using Key Terms
MindJogger Videoquiz
Use the MindJogger Videoquiz to
review Chapter 14 content.
1. Philip II sent a fleet of warships called an
to invade
England in 1588.
2. Parliament abolished the monarchy and declared England a
republic or
.
3. The
hysteria began to end in 1650.
Available in VHS.
Using Key Terms
1. armada 2. commonwealth 3. witchcraft 4. divine right of kings 5. Mannerism 6. Absolutism 7. Baroque 8. czar
9. boyars 10. natural rights
Reviewing Key Facts
11. Huguenots
12. It gave Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy political privileges
in Catholic France.
13. Turks
14. Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Africa
15. 1618 to 1648, the Holy Roman
Empire
16. France
17. to try to keep peace with his neighbors, not to love war too much, not
to overspend, lighten his people’s
burden
18. for the money
19. One needs to balance visionary
dreams with the reality of hard work
in life.
20. to protect citizens’ rights
Critical Thinking
21. Since Baroque art and architecture
is ornate and detailed, the palace
at Versailles is a perfect example.
Its vastness alone projects power,
as does its extravagance.
22. The more Philip cracked down on
the Netherlands, the more rebellious
the people became. The nobles
resented the loss of their privileges
and opposed his efforts. When he
tried to crush Calvinism, the Calvinists—especially nobles—began to
destroy statues in Catholic churches.
He sent troops to crush the rebel-
452
The rulers of Europe during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries battled to expand their borders, power, and religion.
The chart below summarizes some of the events of this chapter.
4. The belief that the monarch receives power directly from
God is called
.
5. In
, elongated figures show suffering and heightened
emotions.
6.
refers to the political system in which ultimate
authority rests with the monarch.
7.
artists paired ideals of Renaissance art with sixteenthcentury spiritual feelings.
8. The Russian monarch was called a
.
9. The
were Russian nobility defeated by Ivan the
Terrible.
10. John Locke believed people had certain
—to life,
liberty, and property.
Reviewing Key Facts
Conflict
Spanish and English monarchs engage in a dynastic struggle.
• Philip II, a champion of Catholicism, resents English
tolerance of Protestants.
• The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 means that
England will remain Protestant.
Change
Tudor monarchs bring stability and prosperity to England.
• The Act of Supremacy is passed.
• Foreign policy is moderate.
• Spain is defeated in 1588.
Uniformity
France’s Louis XIV strengthens absolute monarchy in France
and limits the rights of religious dissenters.
• He removes nobles and princes from royal council and
keeps them busy with court life.
• He bribes people to make sure his policies are followed
in the provinces.
Conflict
Dynastic and religious conflicts divide the German states.
• Two German states emerge as great powers in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: Prussia and Austria.
• Prussia has to build an army to protect its borders. Austria
is diverse with no common culture or political rule.
Innovation
Peter the Great attempts to modernize Russian society.
• He introduces Western customs, practices, and manners.
• He prepares a Russian book of etiquette to teach Western
manners.
• He mixes the sexes for conversation and dancing.
452
CHAPTER 14
11. Religion What is the name given to French Calvinists?
12. Government Why is the Edict of Nantes sometimes called
the Edict of Tolerance?
13. History Whom did Spain defeat in the Battle of Lepanto in
1571?
14. Geography At the beginning of the seventeenth century,
Spain controlled territory on which continents?
15. History When and where was the Thirty Years’ War fought?
16. History After the Thirty Years’ War, which country emerged
as the most dominant in Europe?
17. Government On his deathbed, what advice did Louis XIV
give to his great-grandson, the future king?
18. Culture What reason for writing did Lope de Vega give
those who asked?
19. Culture What is the essential message of Don Quixote by
Cervantes?
20. Philosophy According to John Locke, what was the purpose
of government?
Critical Thinking
21. Analyzing Baroque art and architecture reflected a search
for power. How can a particular style of art be more powerful than another? (Consider the palace at Versailles.)
22. Explaining “Repression breeds rebellion.” Explain how this
quote relates to the history of the Netherlands during the
reign of Philip II.
23. Compare and Contrast Compare the political thought of
John Locke to the American form of government. What
would Locke support? What would he not support?
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
lion, resulting in growing resistance, war, and eventual
independence for the Netherlands.
23. Locke believed that humans had certain natural rights
to life, liberty, and property. This belief is reflected in
our belief in the “inalienable rights” to “life, liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness.” He believed that the government had a duty to protect the rights of the people and,
when it fails, that the people have a right to form a new
government. This is similar to what happened when the
American colonists declared independence from
Britain. He would probably approve wholeheartedly of
the American system of government.
Writing About History
24. Answers will vary. Students should support their positions with facts from the chapter.
CHAPTER 14
Growth of France under
Louis XIV, 1643–1715
HISTORY
SPANISH
50°N
Calais NETHERLANDS
R hi n e
Self-Check Quiz
Assessment and Activities
ver
Ri
W
HISTORY
Ri
e
N
in
Se
Visit the Glencoe World History Web site at
wh.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 14–Self-Check
Quiz to prepare for the Chapter Test.
E
ve
r
Paris
Verdun
Have students visit the Web site at
wh.glencoe.com to review Chapter 14
and take the Self-Check Quiz.
S
r
ive
L oi r e R
Writing About History
24. Persuasive Writing Which monarch described in this
chapter do you most and least admire? Write an essay
supporting your answer.
Basel
FRANCE
SWITZERLAND
45°N
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Analyzing Sources
0
Read the following quote about absolutism by Jacques Bossuet,
a seventeenth-century French bishop.
France, 1643
Acquisitions,
1643–1715
“
It is God who establishes kings. They thus act as
ministers of God and His lieutenants on earth. It is
through them that he rules. This is why we have seen
that the royal throne is not the throne of man, but the
throne of God himself. It appears from this that the person of kings is sacred, and to move against them is a
crime. Since their power comes from on high, kings . . .
should exercise it with fear and restraint as a thing
which has come to them from God, and for which God
will demand an account.
”
25. According to the quote, how should kings rule?
26. How do these words justify divine right of kings, and what
does it mean that God will demand an account? What questions would you ask Bossuet about his ideas? How might he
answer?
200 miles
0
200 kilometers
Chamberlin Trimetric projection
Nice
Marseille
Mediterranean Sea
0°
5°E
10°E
Analyzing Maps and Charts
29. What natural borders help to define France during this
period?
30. Study the map carefully. What means of transportation
do you think most French people used for trade?
31. Using this map and your text, describe how Louis XIV
expanded France. What was the legacy of Louis XIV’s
expansion for his successor?
32. How does the extent of France in 1715 compare to the extent
of France today? Use an atlas to research your answer.
Applying Technology Skills
27. Using the Internet or library, research the political status of
France, Great Britain, Spain, and Germany. List the current
leader and the type of government (for example: Mexico,
President Fox, constitutional democracy).
Making Decisions
28. Assume the role of King Louis XIV, or Queen Elizabeth I.
Write a speech to your people about raising taxes and religion. Assess the needs of the state, the military, the court,
and the people. Is it necessary to raise taxes? Which group is
demanding the increase? How will this action affect each of
these groups? Who will benefit the most, and who will suffer
the most from the increase? After you have weighed options
and considered the consequences, write a speech to your
subjects announcing your decision. Persuade them that the
increase is in the best interest of all.
29. Rhine River, the Alps, Mediterranean
Sea, Pyrenees, English Channel
30. overland transportation and transportation by sea and fresh water
(rivers)
31. By waging war, Louis added territory
to France’s northeastern frontier and
along border with Spain. He left a
legacy of debt and enemies.
32. France is larger today than in 1715.
Standardized
Test Practice
Answer: J
Answer Explanation: Remind
students how important it is to
read a question carefully and then
separate the answers that fit or do
not fit the question.
Standardized
Test Practice
Directions: Choose the best answer to the
following question.
The controversy that led to the English “Glorious
Revolution” was
F a Tudor-Stuart struggle for the throne.
G the restoration of a monarch in England.
H increased religious freedom for Catholics.
J a power struggle between Parliament and the king.
Test-Taking Tip: Remember the date of the Glorious
Revolution to help eliminate answers.
CHAPTER 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
453
Analyzing Sources
Applying Technology Skills
25. with fear and restraint, keeping in mind that they will
be called on by God for an account
27. Answers will vary, depending on country chosen and
its current political status.
26. It says that the power to rule comes directly from God,
and that God is the only one that the king has to
answer to. Answers to last part of question will vary.
Making Decisions
28. Answers will vary, but should be consistent with
material presented in this chapter.
STUDENT EDITION
SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS
1
3
2
453
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