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National parks
• 1 . Generalities
• 2. Benefits
• 3. Landowners’
opposition
Banff - Canada
1 . Definition
In 1969 IUCN (International Union for
Conservation of Nature) defined a
national park as being a large area
having the following characteristics :
1. one/several ecosystem(s) not
altered by human exploitation
and occupation
2. highest competent authority that
prevents exploitation and
enforces respect of the aesthetic
feature that has been established
3. visiting and tourism are restricted
by the park’s authority
In 1971 the following criteria have
been added :
1. a minimum size of 1000 hectares
(10 km2)
2. Statutory legal protection
3. Budget and staff sufficient to
provide sufficient effective
protection
4. Prohibition of exploitation of
natural resources
Jasper - Canada
Teberdinsky - Russia
1. Statistics
There are about 3028 recognized national
parks. They make up to 10% of Earth’s surface
(51 007 200 km2).
Australia is the country that hosts the
biggest number of national parks. Making up a
surface of 335 000 km2, there are 685 parks in
Australia.
Kakadu - Australia
Uluru-Kata Tjuta - Australia
Zion - USA
2. Conservation
National parks preserve habitats for a
wide range of native plants and wildlife.
Parks maintain biodiversity and protect
endangered species. They provide people
with opportunities to learn about natural
flora and fauna as well as to explore and
admire the beauty of diverse environments.
Komodo - Indonesia
Gauja - Latvia
Conservation of biodiversity (the variety of our native
species and the ecosystems they form) is the central
purpose of protected areas. High levels of biodiversity
keep ecosystems healthy and resilient, which means
that they continue providing vital ecosystem services
such as nutrient cycling, climate regulation, air and
water purification and pollination. Protecting
biodiversity is vital to safeguard our economy; our
cultural, spiritual and aesthetic values; and the intrinsic
value of species and ecosystems.
2. Economical
Protected Public lands such as national parks can
play an important economic role for local
communities. Visitation and tourism directly
related to national parks can annually contribute
millions to regional economies while creating
thousands of jobs. In today’s economy the
greatest value of natural amenities often lies in
the ability of protected lands to attract and retain
people, entrepreneurs ,their businesses and the
growing number of retirees.
Kenai Fjords - Alaska
Also, many protected areas provide a water
catchment and filtration service, which is
important for urban use, agriculture and
industry, as well as for native species and
ecological processes. Natural areas also play an
important role in improving air quality.
Undisturbed natural forests are also vital
resources because they store large amounts of
carbon in their soils and wood. Deforestation
and degradation of native forests are major
sources of greenhouse gas emissions.
Koli - Finland
3. The Opposition
Land owners usually oppose setting up
national parks because of the rich reserves
of oil and gas that lies beneath their land.
All national parks are propriety of the state
so landowners won’t sell their lands for
public use if there is a natural resources
conflict. But there are situations where
landowners do sell their land to gas or oil
companies. If their land is near a national
park or other land that has large amounts
of oil and gas, they frack the private land
neighboring the one that has the resources
to extract the oil and gas.
fracking
Berchtesgaden-Germany
Peneda-Gerês - Portugal
National Parks in Romania
In Romania there are 14 national parks and 17 nature parks. The difference between national parks
and nature parks is that national parks are defined by IUCN and are as well under their protection and
nature parks are set up, protected and managed by the state of the country in which they are. Added up
their surface covers an area of 17016 km2 , which represents 7,2 % of the total surface of Romania.
Nature parks
National parks
Retezat National Park
It covers a surface of 380 km2 . There are about 1000 species of plants out of which 100 are endemic, over 20 peaks over 2000 meaters
approximately 100 lakes and over 180 species of birds.
Rodna Mountains National Park
46,000 hectares are home to the most impressive relief in Rodna Mountains, many peaks over 2000 meters high, dozens of
glacial lakes and rich alpine and subalpine flora and fauna areas feature with various rare species. Fauna is represented by
brown bears, deer , lynx, mountain eagles and bison.
Danube Delta National Park
Delta area is 4152 square kilometers. In continuous consolidation, the Danube Delta is a place favorable to the development of a unique flora
and fauna in Europe. There can be distinguished several major ecosystems: rivers, stagnant water, swampy areas and floodplains. There are
over 100 species of fish, over 1200 species of plants and about 300 species of birds. Birds in the delta belong to European , Siberian arctic,
Mongolian, Chinese and Mediterranean types.
The End
Made by Luca Tudor
sources : the Internet