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Oughton 2011
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Born 100BCE
Julian family
 Aunt married to Marius
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Military service in Asia
Minor
 Civic crown for saving life of
fellow citizen
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Office
 Quaestor – 68
 Aedile- 65
 Praetor- 62
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Security
 Protection of ‘provincia’
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Checking the advance
of the Germans
Promotion for Caesar
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First triumvirate- 59
 Pompey- land reform for veterans in the East
 Crassus- tax benefits for equestrian interests
 Caesar – consulship in 59, governor of Gaul
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Caesar goes to Gaul- 58
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The Great Revolt
 Phase V (52): Gallic revolt unified under
Vercingetorix, various conflicts which set the
stage for the Siege of Alesia!!! (Caesar’s greatest
moment)
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Closing Exchanges
 Phase VI (51-50): Mopping up remaining tribes and
setting up the oncoming conflict with the Senate
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Rome and the Gallic tribes had fought one
another since ca. 4th cent. BCE
 Gallic sack of Rome in 390 BCE
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By the late 3rd cent., Rome had subdued and
organized the province of Cisalpine Gaul
 Centered in and around the Po Valley (No. Italy), leading to
the establishment of Roman colonies there and further
conflict in this area
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Rome expands into Transalpine Gaul to connect
Italy with Spain via land route in late 2nd cent.
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Migration of the Helvetii against the Aedui
forces Caesar to defend the Roman allies
 Phase I (58): Campaigns against Orgetorix and Ariovistus
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Caesar turns against Belgae
 Phase II (57-56): Defeat of Belgae, Lts. attack maritime
tribes in the West
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Crossings and Revolts
 Phase III (55): Crossing the Rhine and the Channel,
interrupted by small revolt
 Phase IV (54): Second Invasion of Britain and Belgic
Revolt, mop up of smaller revolts (53)
55 B.C.
57 B.C.
57 B.C.
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Written 52-51BC
Political purpose
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Came from East of the Rhine
390 took Rome and burned it
123-118BC- Rome conquers part of Gaul
(transalpine) calls it Provincia
113-102- invasion of a group of Gauls called
Cimbri/Teutones; Marius beats them
Factions in Gaul
 Many small, independent states
 Loose confederations
 No strong governments
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Citizen farmer-soldier
Short campaign season
Greek-Influenced Tactics
employed on flat terrain
Group cooperation over
Individual Exploits, but
Timocratic organization
Military service compulsory
on all male citizens of age

Based upon the economic “classes” which were
established by property ownership
 Equites, 5 “infantry” classes, proletarii
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Each class subdivided into “centuries”
Early Republican Hoplite Army: Equites as cavalry;
1st 2 Classes as heavy “hoplite” infantry; 3rd/4th
Classes lighter infantry; 5th Class as skirmishers/
supernumeraries; proletarii in support roles
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Determination
 Ex: Siege of Veii (ca 405-396 BC)
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Reserves of Manpower
 Based on conquest and successful organization of
Italian peninsula
 Nearly continuous wars between 6th and 3rd
Centuries BC
 Crushing defeats at Lake Trasimene (25K dead)
and Cannae (50K) and they raise still another army

Inventiveness and Adaptability
corvus

Contact with the Hellenistic Kingdoms in the
East forces Rome to restructure and adapt its
Military system yet again
 Long term conflicts abroad complicate and call
into question the “soldier-farmer” ideal
 Gradual movement away from structure based on
economic classes, leads to the eventual removal
of property qualifications
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These changes are traditionally credited to Gaius
Marius, but they were more likely a prolonged
series of slight alterations
Property qualifications removed so all citizens
could enlist -> leads to volunteer army, not the
general conscription of the past
Stipendium regularized and equipment provided
to all enlistees
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Regularized Equipment:
 All infantry classes carry
two pila (redesigned), a
gladius, and a scutum
slightly more oval in shape
 They usually wore mail
armor and a semi-spherical
bronze helmet
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New training emphasized
the use of the gladius
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Tunic
Trousers
Sandals
Heavy cloak
Helmet- galea
Coat- lorica
Shield- scutum
Javelin- pilum
Sword- gladius
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century [centum, hundred] = 80 men
2 centuries = 1 maniple = 160 men
3 maniples = 1 cohort = 480 men
10 cohorts = 1 legion = 4800 men
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Legatus- deputies, assistants
 Caesar introduced putting one legate in charge of
every legion during the battle
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Quaestor- financial officer
Praefectus fabrum- chief engineer
Tribunus- each legion had six; some good
military officers, others rich youth
Centurio- commanded centuries; 60 in each
legion; fought in the ranks; must be brave
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Aquilifer- carried the eagle; carried by first
centurion of first cohort
Signifer- standard carrier; gathering point
Tubicen- trumpet player
Baggage train (impedimenta)
Auxilia- infantry; not roman; funditores
(slingers); sagitarii (archers)
Cavalry- no Roman cavalry but did employ
Gauls
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