Unit I: Forensic Science Introduction Download

Transcript
CHE106 Fall 2006 Study Guide 1
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Unit 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 + lecture notes and handouts
The study guide is not comprehensive. Study notes, handouts, reading assignments.
1. There may be more than 1 correct answer per question.
Protein
Cholesterol
Triglyceride
DNA
Disaccharide
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b.
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d.
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g.
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k.
l.
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t.
Monosaccharide
Lipid
Stereoisomers
Polysaccharide
________________Composed of amino acid building blocks
________________ Needed for steroid hormone synthesis
________________Composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules
________________Composed of nucleotide building blocks
________________ examples include neurotransmitters, hemoglobin, skin pigment
________________ Wax, oil, and adipocere
________________ All enzymes
________________ glucose and fructose
________________ cushions body organs and provides insulation
________________ molecule in the form of a double helix
________________ shape is critical to function, may have 3D structure
________________ starch
________________ starting molecule in the saponification reaction
________________ 4 main classes of biomolecules
__________________ simple sugars
__________________ lactose and sucrose
__________________ handed molecules
__________________Vicks Vapo-rub and methamphetamine
__________________ insoluble in water (hydrophobic)
__________________ the genetic material found in cells
2. Fill in the blank.
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__________________.The study of molecules important to living systems
____________.A carbohydrate consisting of two simple sugars units linked together
__________________ the two main classes of carbohydrates
_________________.Digestion of dietary carbohydrates produces these.
_________________.All naturally occurring carbohydrates are this form of isomer.
________.Proteins are macromolecules formed when these building blocks are chemically united.
____________________. Is an example of a lipid is
____________________.The functional group found in triglycerides is
____________________. Many of these are found in a saturated oil
___________ three letters commonly found at the end of the name of a carbohydrate
CHE106 Fall 2006 Study Guide 1
3. Fill in
a. ________________ a stiffening of muscles that peaks around 12 hours after death
b. ___________________ also referred to as "criminalistics"
c. ____________________________________ = 4 federal crime labs
d. ___________________ when body loses temperature of ~1.5o F/hour
e. ___________branch of forensics that utilizes insect stages to estimate time of death
f. ____________ branch of forensics that is involved in identification of human remains
g. ___________________ principle that every criminal leaves a trace
h. ___________________ one natural cause of death (you pick)
i. ___________________ an example of manner of death (you pick)
j. __________________ branch of forensics that uses dental information
k. Eyewitness testimony is one type of evidence, list 3 other types
________________________________________________
l. ___________________ amendment that covers the use of search warrants
m. ________________________________________________________ 9 types of physical
evidence that might be sent to a forensics lab
n. _______________________ branch of forensics that utilizes autopsy.
Unit 1 Learning Objectives
Introduction
1. What is science?
2. What is forensic science?
3. Discuss Locard’s Principle “every contact leaves a trace”.
4. Who were/are Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson?
5. Why has there has been a dramatic increase in the number of forensic labs in the last few
decades?
6. What are the 4 federal organizations that contain crime labs?
7. What does an autopsy seek to uncover?
8. What are the differences between rigor mortis, algor mortis, and livor mortis?
9. Use evidence to determine and distinguish between manner and cause of death. What are the 5
manners of death?
10. What do forensic anthropologists investigate?
11. What are forensic entomologists? How are insect life stages useful in determining time of death?
12. What tools do forensic odontologists use?
13. How do 4th amendment rights relate to cases in which a warrant less search is acceptable?
14. What are some of the types of documentation that should be recorded from a crime scene?
15. What is physical evidence?
16. What are types of physical evidence one might find at a crime scene?
17. What is a chain of custody and why is it important in the handling, documentation, collection,
custody, preservation, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of evidence.
18. What the safety precautions taken when working or/and cleaning a crime scene?
19. Why are standard/reference samples used in comparative forensic analysis?
20. What type of evidence can be individualized? Hair? Blood? Fingerprint? DNA fingerprint? Fibers?
Semen? Handwriting? Voice?
21. What is a class characteristic?
22. In general, what is the probability of two people having the same fingerprints?
23. What was the OJ Simpson case?
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CHE106 Fall 2006 Study Guide 1
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Chemistry
1. What is chemistry?
2. What is matter? What are the 3 physical states of matter?
3. What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas?
4. What is an element? How does the periodic table group elements? How is the table predictive?
5. What are the groups and periods of the table and who devised the first table?
6. Who Alexander Litvinenko and what happened to him?
7. What happens when sodium or cesium is added to water?
8. What are the CHHNOPS elements and why are they important?
9. What is a compound? A molecule?
10. What is the difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture?
11. How does a chemical formula represent the composition of a compound?
12. How do ionic and covalent bonds differ?
13. What is a chemical reaction? What are reactants, products?
14. How are equations balanced?
15. What were the general details of the Oklahoma City bombing?
16. What is a solution, solute, solvent?
17. How is percent concentration and molar concentration calculated?
18. How does pH relate to acids and bases? What is a neutralization reaction?
19. What is an organic molecule?
20. How many bonds does carbon have (with other atoms)?
21. What is an isomer?
22. How do functional groups relate to compound properties?
23. What is an alkaloid?
Biochemistry
1. What are biochemistry, biomolecules, monomer, polymer?
2. How are simple sugars distinguished from complex carbohydrates? What is glucose?
3. What is a polysaccharide?
4. In what way are Vicks Vaporub and methamphetamine related?
5. What is meant by a "Twinkie" defense?
6. What are some examples of lipids? What are the properties of lipids? What functions do lipids
provide?
7. What is the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fat?
8. What is a triglyceride?
9. How does the saponification reaction relate to the formation of adipocere? What is adipocere?
10. What happens when there is an excess of cortisol or testosterone? What is an anabolic steroid?
11. What are the building blocks of proteins? Provide examples of proteins in the human body. Why is
the shape of a protein important?
12. How does DNA relate to the synthesis of proteins?
13. What is an enzyme? In what way is the hemoglobin on red blood cells useful in an enzymatic
reaction?
14. What is the architecture and function of the DNA molecule?