Unit 3 Slides Download

Transcript
What%have%we%covered%so%far?
• Atomic%Structure%– what%do%we%know%about…
– Protons
– Neutrons
– Electrons
– Net%charge
– Atomic%number
– Mass%number
• Atomic%Theory%– who,%what,%when,%model
Let’s&review&the&worksheet
(HINT:&&answer&these&questions&first)
1. What%is%the%atomic%number?
2. What%does%atomic%number%tell%us%about%the%
number%of%subatomic%particles?
3. What%is%the%difference%between%a%neutral%
atom%and%an%ion?
4. What%is%mass%number?%%What%do%we%need%to%
have%to%know%the%mass%number?%%
5. What%is%isotopic%notation? basic_atomic_structure_w
orksheet.docx
PARTS%OF%AN%ATOM
NUCLEUS:%center%of%the%
atom%(inside):
• Protons,%“p”
– positively charged
– Mass%=%one%atomic%
mass%unit%(~1%amu)
• Neutrons,%“n”
– no%charge%(neutral)
– Mass%=%one%atomic%
mass%unit%(~1%amu)
PARTS%OF%AN%ATOM
OUTSIDE&NUCLEUS
• Electrons,%“e”
– negatively%charged
– very%little%mass%
compared%to%
protons%and%
neutrons
– Mass%=%zero%atomic%
mass%unit%(~0%amu)
What&is&a.m.u.?
• A%unit%that%is%used%to%show%RELATIVE%mass
3&a.m.u.
1&a.m.u.
2&a.m.u.
All%three%are%similar%because%they%are%apples,%but%they%have%
different%characteristics.%%Think%of%atoms%the%same%way.%%They%
are%all%atoms,%but%they%have%different%characteristics.
What&is&atomic&mass&unit?
• A%unit%that%is%used%to%show%RELATIVE%mass%of%atoms%
compared%to%a%REFERENCE%atom
– Carbon\12%is%used%as%the%reference%atom
– Carbon\12%has%a%relative%isotopic%mass%of%~12%amu
• Hydrogen\1%is%the%smallest%atom%and%contains%only%1%
proton.%%It%is%1/12th the%mass%of%carbon\12.
• So…1%amu is%approximately equal%to%the%mass%of%1%
proton%or%1%neutron%since%they%are%the%same%mass
• The%mass%of%an%electron%is%so%small%(1/1840%mass%of%
carbon\12%atom)%it%is%assigned%a%mass%of%0%amu
SUB$
ATOMIC+
PARTICLE
LOCATION
CHARGE
MASS+(amu)
Proton
Inside
Positive1+
1
nucleus
(p+)
Inside
Neutral10
nucleus
(n0)
Outside1
Negative1–
nucleus
(e=)
Neutron
Electron
1
0
What&is&meant&by&the&mass&of&an&
atom?
• Key%Terms%to%Think%About:
– Atomic%Number
– Mass%Number
– Isotope
– Atomic%Mass
• Mass%Simulation
Mass&Number&vs&Atomic&Mass
Atomic&Mass&vs&Mass&Number
What&is&Atomic&Mass?
• Atomic%mass%is%the%weighted average%of%mass%
numbers%of%all%the%naturally%occurring%isotopes%
of%a%given%element
• There%are%many%artificially\created%isotopes%
(created%through%nuclear%reactions).
• Isotopes%of%Elements
Mass&Number&vs Atomic&Mass
Mass&Number
Atomic&Mass
• The&SUM&of&the&protons&
and&neutrons&in&the&
nucleus&of&a&given&isotope&
of&an&atom
• The&WEIGHTED&AVERAGE&of&
all&the&mass&numbers&of&all&
the&isotopes&of&an&element
• NOT&provided&in&the&
periodic&table
• Is&PROVIDED&in&the&periodic&
table
• Listed&in&element&“box”&
with&atomic&number
• Identified&with&name&or&
symbol
LithiumP6,&
6
3
Li
Periodic&Table&Information
Atomic+Number
Atomic+Mass
Nuclear&Particles
Radiation
Type
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Relative
Damage
MOST%
damaging
Less%
damaging
Very little%
tissue%
damage
How
Stopped
Paper
Aluminum%
foil
Thick%lead%
shield
Natural&Radioactive&Decay
Natural&Radioactive&Decay&Equations
During%Beta%
(\)%decay%a%
neutron%
turns%into%a%
proton%and%
an%electron%
is%emitted.%
Radioisotopes&in&Medicine&and&HalfPLife
• Holmium\166%(26%h):%Being%developed%for%diagnosis%and%treatment%
of%liver%tumors.
• Phosphorus\32%(14%d):%Used%in%the%treatment%of%polycythemia%vera%
(excess%red%blood%cells).%Beta%emitter
• Iodine\131%(8%d):%Widely%used%in%treating%thyroid%cancer%and%in%
imaging%the%thyroid;%also%in%diagnosis%of%abnormal%liver%function,%
renal%(kidney)%blood%flow%and%urinary%tract%obstruction.%A%strong%
gamma%emitter,%but%used%for%beta%therapy.
• Iridium\192%(74%d):%Supplied%in%wire%form%for%use%as%an%internal%
radiotherapy%source%for%cancer%treatment%(used%then%removed).%
Beta%emitter.
• Strontium\89%(50%d):%Very%effective%in%reducing%the%pain%of%prostate%
and%bone%cancer.%Beta%emitter.
http://www.world=nuclear.org/info/Non=Power=Nuclear=
Applications/Radioisotopes/Radioisotopes=in=Medicine/
Atomic%Theory%Timeline%Activity
Who
Test%/%Tool%/%
Procedure
Evidence
Discovery%/%
Theory
Model%of%Atom
Items%in%the%same%category%(column)%have%similar%design%and/or%framing
Atomic&Theory&Recap
• History%of%Atomic%Theory