Name: Period:______ Table Number:______ Download

Transcript
Page 5
45. A(n) ELEMENT is a pure substance that can not be broken down into any other substance by some
physical or chemical method and from which all more complex forms of matter or substances are made when
they are combined together in different ways and in different amounts. P. 9, 70, DVD: Atoms and Molecules,
Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
46. The smallest particle of any element that you can have which still possesses all of the physical and
chemical properties of that element is a single ATOM of that element. P. 10, DVD: Atoms and Molecules,
Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
47. Nearly 2000 years ago the Greek philosopher DEMOCRITUS gave us the word atom
when he said that all matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles called “atomos.” P. 73, DVD: Atoms
and Molecules, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
48. At the present time about 118 different elements have been discovered and officially
recognized and named. P. 84 - 85, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, DVD: Changes in Properties of Matter,
Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
49. An orderly arrangement of the 118 different elements on a chart according to each element’s unique
chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass number, and physical and chemical properties is called the
PERIODIC TABLE of elements. P. 82, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science
Guy Video
50. The periodic table of elements was originally created by a Russian chemist named
DIMITRI
MENDELEEV and later it was modified and changed to the modern version of the periodic table that we use
today by a British chemist named HENRY MOSLEY P. 81
51. Each element found on the periodic table of elements has a unique single letter (Hydrogen – H), two letter
(Helium – He ) or three letter (Unnilquadiam – Unq) abbreviation which is called the CHEMICAL
SYMBOL of that element. P. 83, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
52. JONS BERZELIUS created the unique one, two or three letter chemical symbol for each element.
53. In addition to each element having a unique chemical symbol each element found on the periodic table of
elements also has a unique ATOMIC NUMBER number and
ATOMIC MASS number P. 83, DVD:
Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
54. The atomic number of an element is usually always SMALLER in numerical
value than the atomic mass number of that element. P. 83, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
55. The atomic number of the element
Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
10.811
B
5
is 5 . P. 83, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game,
56. On the periodic table of elements those elements which have an atomic number of 1 (Hydrogen) to 92
(Uranium) are naturally occurring elements which can be found to exist somewhere in the earth’s land, water,
or air. Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
57. On the periodic table of elements those elements which have an atomic number of 93 (Neptunium) to
118 (Ununoctium) are synthetic or man made elements which have a very short life span that only allows
them to be made in a laboratory under very special conditions.
58. The atomic MASS of an element is a measurement of the average mass of all the different kinds of atoms
(isotopes) of an element. P. 83, 79, 81, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy
Video
Example: There are 17 different kinds of Tin (Sn) atoms (isotopes) and the average mass (atomic mass or
weight) of these 17 different kinds of Tin (50 Sn 118.69) atoms (isotopes) is 118.69
59. The atomic mass number of an element is sometimes called the element’s atomic WEIGHT. DVD:
Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
60. The atomic mass number or atomic weight of an element is usually always LARGER in numerical value
than the atomic number of the element. P. 83, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
61. The atomic mass number or atomic weight of the element
and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
3 Li
6.941
is 6.941. P. 83,
DVD: Atoms
62. Any particle which composes an atom that is smaller than the atom that it composes is called a(n)
SUBATOMIC particle. DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
63. The four different forces which hold the subatomic particles that compose an atom of an element together
are: DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
A. STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE
B. WEAK NUCLEAR FIRCE
C. GRAVITY
D. ELECTROMAGNETIC FORMCE
64. The three most important subatomic particles found in an atom of an element which determines most of an
element’s physical and chemical properties and the types of physical and chemical changes that it can undergo
are the PROTONS , NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS. P. 74 - 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro
Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
65. The only atom of an element which does not contain at least one proton, one neutron, and one electron is
an atom of the element HYDROGEN.
66. An atom of the element hydrogen contains 1 proton(s), 0 neutron(s), and 1 electron(s).
67. The subatomic particles which compose an atom of an element are found in either the NUCLEUS or the
ELECTRONS of the atom. P. 75, 76, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy
Video
68. A(n) PROTONS is a subatomic particle which has a positive electrical charge. P. 75, 77, DVD:
Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
69. Protons are only found in the NUCLEUS of an atom. P. 75, 77, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro
Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
70. The chemical abbreviation for one proton is P + and the abbreviation for seven protons is 7 P+
71. The number of the protons found in the nucleus of an atom of an element determines nearly all of an
element’s PHYSICAL properties DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy
Video
72. You can NEVER change (increase or decrease) the number of PROTONS found in the nucleus of the
atom of an element otherwise you would change it into an atom of a different element.
73. An atom of the element mercury (Hg) has 80 protons in its nucleus but if I removed one of those protons
from its nucleus it would no long be an atom of the element mercury instead it would change into an atom of
the element GOLD which has 79 protons in its nucleus.
74. A single proton has a mass of ONE Atomic Mass Unit (AMU). P. 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules,
Intro Game
75. One proton has approximately the same mass as one NEUTRON. P. 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules,
Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
76. Most of an element’s atomic weight or its rounded off atomic mass number is determined by adding the
total number of PROTONS and NEUTRONS found in the nucleus of an atom of that element together.
P. 77, 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
77. The total number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of an element is equal to the ATOMIC
number of that element. P. 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
78. How many protons are found in a neutral atom of the element 9 F 19
77, 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
9
P.
protons
79. A(n) ELECTRONS is a subatomic particle which has a negative electrical charge. P. 74, 77, DVD:
Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
80. The negative electrical charge of one electron is equal to but opposite the positive electrical charge of one
PROTONS. P. 77, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
81. The abbreviation for one electron is e - and the abbreviation for seven electrons is 7e-.
82. Electrons are only found in the ELECTRON CLOUD of an atom. P. 76, 77, DVD: Atoms and
Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
83. The number and arrangement of the electrons found in the electron cloud of an atom determines nearly all
of an element’s CHEMICAL properties. P. 125, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
84. The total number of electrons found in the electron cloud of an atom adds very little to the mass of an atom
since it takes nearly 2000 electrons to equal the mass of one proton or one neutron. P. 78, Bill Nye the
Science Guy Video
85. The electrons found in the electron cloud of an atom are arranged in layers called SHELLS,
ORBITALS or ENERGY LEVELS of electrons. P. 76, 125
86. The names of the different energy levels, shells or orbitals of electrons which compose the electron cloud
of an atom, starting with the shell of electrons which is closest to the nucleus are the K shell, L shell, M
shell, and N shell.
87. The maximum number of electrons which can be placed in the K shell or orbital of electrons is 2
88. The maximum number of electrons which can be placed in the L shell or orbital of electrons is 8
89. The maximum number of electrons which can be placed in the M shell or orbital of electrons is 18 .
90. The maximum number of electrons which can be placed in the N shell or orbital of electrons is 32 .
91. The last or outer most shell of electrons in an atom is called the VALENCE shell of
electrons in that atom. P. 125, Intro Game
92. The electrons which compose the valence shell of electrons in an atom are called VALENCE electrons
in that atom. P.125
93. The number and arrangement of the VALENCE ELECTRONS in the valence shell of an atom of an
element primarily determines if and how an atom of that element will chemically bond to another atom of an
element during a chemical reaction to form a molecule of a compound.
P. 125, Intro Game
94. The number of electrons and protons found in an atom of an element are normally the SAME since
atoms of elements are usually neutral in charge. P. 77, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the
Science Guy Video
95. The total number of electrons found in the electron cloud of an atom of an element is equal to the
ATOMIC number of that element. P. 77 – 78, VCR: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the
Science Guy Video
96. How many electrons are found in a neutral atom of the element 63.55 Cu 29
P. 77 - 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
29 electrons
97. A(n) NEUTRON is a subatomic particle which has no electrical charge. P. 77,
Molecules, Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
DVD: Atoms and
98. Neutrons are only found in the NUCLEUS of an atom. P. 77, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro
Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
99. The abbreviation for one neutron is No and the abbreviation for seven neutrons is 7no .
100. A single neutron has a mass of ONE Atomic Mass Unit (AMU). P. 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules,
Intro Game
101. One neutron has approximately the same mass as one PROTON. P. 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules,
Intro Game, Bill Nye the Science Guy Video
102. Most of an element’s atomic weight or its rounded off atomic mass number is determined by adding the
total number of PROTONS and NEUTRONS found in the nucleus of an atom of that element together.
P. 77, 78, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
103. The number of neutrons found in the nucleus of a neutral atom of an element is determined by rounding off
the ATOMIC MASS number of that element to the nearest whole number if it hasn’t already been rounded off
and then SUBTRACTING its ATOMIC number from it. DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
104. How many neutrons are found in the nucleus of a neutral atom of the element
Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
11
Na
23
P. 73 – 77, DVD:
12 neutrons
105. Draw a planetary model of a neutral atom of the element 30 Zn 65.39 showing the total number,
abbreviation, and electrical charge of the protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of that atom and the total
number, abbreviation, and electrical charge of the electrons found in each of that atom’s shells. Also, don’t
forget to label each shell of electrons with its appropriate letter name.
2e18e-
8e2e-
30 p+
35 n o
L
N
K
M
106. An atom of an element which has a positive or negative electrical charge is called a(n) ION of that
element. P. 131 – 132, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
107. An ion of an element is formed when ELECTRONS are added to or removed from
the valence shell of a neutral atom of that element. P. 131, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
108. A(n) POSITIVE ion of an element if formed when one or more electrons are removed from the valence
shell of a neutral atom of that element. P. 131
109. For each electron you remove from the valence shell of a neutral atom of an element the ion of that
element will become more POSITIVE by ONE each time. P. 131
11
110. Draw a planetary model of a positive two ion of the element
B5
2e–
5p+
6no
K
111. A(n) NEGATIVE ion of an element is formed when one or more electrons are added to the valence
shell of a neutral atom of that element. P. 131, Intro Game
112. For each electron you add to the valence shell of a neutral atom of an element the ion of that element will
become more NEGATI VE by ONE each time. P. 131
113. Draw a planetary model of a negative two ion of the element
5e–
5
B
10.811
2e–
5p+
6no
K
L
114. A neutral atom of an element which has a mass that is greater than or less than the mass of a neutral atom
of that element is called a(n) ISOTOPE of that element. P. 79, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
115. An isotope of an element is formed when one or more NEUTRON are added to or removed from the
nucleus of a neutral atom of that element. P. 79, DVD: Atoms and Molecules, Intro Game
116. A(n) HEAVY isotope of an element is formed when one or more neutrons are added to the nucleus of a
neutral atom of that element.
P. 79, Intro Game
117. Draw a planetary model of a heavy isotope of the element
3e–
2e–
5p+
K
5
B
11
L
118. A(n) LIGHT isotope of an element is formed when one or more neutrons are removed from the nucleus
of a neutral atom of that element. P. 79, Intro Game
119. Draw a planetary model of a light isotope of the element
3e–
2e–
5p+
5no
K
L
10.811
B
5