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Name: _______________________________________________
P1 6 Mark Questions
Date:
Time:
Total marks available:
Total marks achieved: ______
Questions
Q1.
* Another way of producing electricity from a renewable source is tidal power.
A dam is built across the mouth of a river.
Tidal water gets trapped behind the dam.
The trapped water is used to generate electricity.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using tidal power rather than other methods of generating
electricity.
(6)
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Q2.
* Ultrasound and X-rays are used for medical scans.
Compare and contrast the advantages of using ultrasound and X-rays for medical scans.
(6)
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Q3.
*b While the origin of stars is well understood, there is still much debate about the origin of the Universe.
Two major theories about the origin of the Universe are the Big Bang and the Steady State theories.
Some evidence supports both theories. Other evidence supports only one theory.
By considering the evidence, discuss why one of these theories is preferred by most scientists.
(6)
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Q4.
A long time ago scientists thought that the Universe never changed.
Now there is evidence to show that stars progress through various stages and that the Universe is
expanding.
(a) Our Sun is in its main sequence stage.
(i) Complete the sentence by putting a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer.
A star of much greater mass than the Sun will eventually become
(1)
A a black hole
B a protostar
C a red dwarf
D a white dwarf
(ii) Describe how the Sun reached its main sequence stage.
(3)
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(iii) Scientists can estimate the age of a star. They want to find the age of the oldest star.
Suggest why knowing the age of the oldest star is not enough to tell scientists the age of the Universe.
(2)
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*(b) Edwin Hubble discovered that the Universe was expanding.
He did this by using observations of red-shift.
Explain what red-shift is and how it provides evidence that the Universe is expanding.
(6)
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(Total for Question = 12 marks)
Q5.
*Some students found this information about an energy saving lamp and a filament lamp that give out
almost the same amount of light.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each type of lamp.
(6)
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Q6.
* Some research has been carried out into replacing fluorescent lamp fittings with LED fittings.
The data in the table is taken from the report of a trial using LEDs to light stairwells and corridors in a
large building.
Use the information to discuss the benefits of replacing fluorescent fittings with LED fittings.
(6)
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Q7.
The electromagnetic spectrum is continuous.
Different regions of the spectrum have different properties.
* Radiation from different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum can affect the human body in many
ways.
Discuss the different ways in which excessive exposure to electromagnetic radiations of various
frequencies may cause damage to the human body.
(6)
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Q8.
Distribution of electricity
(a) Scientists say that graph 1 shows an alternating current while graph 2 shows a direct current.
The two graphs differ in several ways.
State the difference between the currents which makes one alternating and the other direct.
(1)
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(b) A transformer is 100% efficient.
It has 200 turns on the primary coil and 3000 turns on the secondary coil. The input voltage is 55 V.
(i) Show that the output voltage is about 800 V.
(3)
(ii) Calculate the current in the secondary coil when the current in the primary coil is 0.50 A.
(2)
current in secondary coil =............................... A
*(c) The diagram shows how electricity produced at a power station is transmitted to distant houses.
Transformers R and S are not 100% efficient.
By using transformers, energy losses in the transmission lines are reduced.
Explain how this reduction is achieved, even though some energy is wasted in the transformers
themselves.
(6)
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Q9.
* The map below shows the positions of some seismic earthquake stations in the UK.
At the seismic stations, scientists record the arrival of earthquake waves.
They use this data to locate where an earthquake happened.
Describe how they use the data to find out where an earthquake happened.
You may add to the diagram above or draw your own diagram to help with your answer.
(6)
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Q10.
(a) Electricity costs 20p for each kW h.
The pictures show a domestic electricity meter at two different times.
(i) Calculate the cost of the electricity used between the two readings.
(2)
cost =...........................................................p
(ii) The time between these two readings is 15 hours.
Calculate the average power supplied.
(2)
average power =...........................................................kW
(b) Explain why step-up transformers are used in the transmission of electricity in the National Grid.
(2)
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*(c) The diagram shows a magnet moving into a coil of wire.
The coil of wire is attached to a sensitive ammeter.
The moving magnet and the coil of wire are producing an electric current.
The size and direction of the current can be changed in a number of ways.
Describe changes that can be made to produce different currents and the effect of each change.
(6)
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(Total for Question = 12 marks)
Q11.
Not all electromagnetic radiation coming from space reaches the Earth's surface.
The diagram shows how far radiation from each part of the electromagnetic spectrum travels down
through the atmosphere.
* Scientists are using a variety of methods to search for life beyond Earth.
Discuss the problems involved in using these methods.
(6)
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Q12.
* There are several large-scale energy resources which are suitable alternatives to fossil fuels in
some situations.
Two of these alternatives are hydro-electric power and solar power.
Compare hydro-electric power with solar power as energy resources for the large-scale generation
of electricity.
(6)
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Q13.
(a) Put a cross (
) in the box next to your answer.
Which of these is the biggest?
(1)
A the Solar System
B a galaxy
C a nebula
D the Universe
(b) These are four stages in the evolution of a star similar to the Sun.
They are not in the correct order.
1. main sequence star
2. white dwarf
3. red giant
4. nebula
Write down the stages in the correct order.
(2)
The first stage has been done for you.
. . . . . . . . . nebula . . . . . . . .
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(c) (i) The chart shows the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum.
Some parts of the spectrum have been labelled.
radio
P
Q
visible light
R
S
gamma
rays
State the name of part Q.
(1)
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(ii) Three telescopes using different parts of the spectrum have been added to the chart.
gamma
P
Q
S
radio
visible light R
rays
Jodrell
Hubble
Compton
Bank
Jodrell Bank is located near Manchester, whereas Hubble and Compton are in space.
Explain why some telescopes are located outside the Earth's atmosphere.
(2)
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*(d) Describe how modern telescopes have contributed to our understanding of the Universe.
(6)
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(Total for Question is 12 marks)
Q14.
* The device shown in the picture was invented not long after the discovery of X-rays.
It emitted X-rays through the window.
In the 1920s, it was used to remove unwanted hair from the arm.
The patient placed her arm in front of the window.
The X-rays destroyed the hair roots.
There is a hair removal device which is currently available in some specialist clinics.
It uses a low energy infrared laser beam. The makers say that this is much less dangerous than the X-ray
device.
By considering the dangers associated with both devices, discuss whether the infrared laser device
should be put on general sale to the public.
(6)
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Q15.
A dynamo generates an electric current by induction.
Explain what is meant by induction of a current.
(3)
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(Total for question = 3 marks)
Q16.
* The diagram shows three identical thermometers placed in a spectrum of visible light.
There is a pattern in the temperature readings shown in the diagram.
The scientist Herschel did a similar experiment and discovered the infrared part of the electromagnetic
spectrum.
Describe how Herschel used the pattern to make his discovery.
(6)
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Q17.
Heat transfer
(a) The photographs below show two different types of lamp.
They both produce the same amount of light energy in the same time.
The surface temperatures of the lamps change in the first few seconds after they have been switched
on.
The graph shows this information for both lamps.
(i) Use the graph to state one advantage and one disadvantage of using an energy-saving lamp.
(2)
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(ii) The efficiency of the energy-saving lamp is 40%.
The energy-saving lamp is supplied with 15 J of energy.
Calculate the amount of energy transferred to light energy.
(2)
energy = ...................................................... J
(iii) Why do the lamps reach a constant temperature even though energy is still being supplied to
them?
(1)
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(b) The same amount of very cold water is poured into four metal containers.
Each one has a different coloured surface.
A thermometer is placed in each container.
In which container will the water warm up quickest?
Put a cross (
) in the box next to your answer.
(1)
A
B
C
D
*(c) The exhausts from engines of large ships crossing the Atlantic Ocean contain tiny particles. There
are two types of these particles: sulfates and black soot.
The sulfates remain in the atmosphere and scatter sunlight. The soot eventually falls to the surface,
particularly onto the Arctic ice.
Some people have called for the emissions from these engines to be greatly reduced.
Discuss whether reducing the emissions will be effective in reducing global warming.
(6)
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Q18.
* A long time ago, astronomers thought that the Earth was the centre of the Universe.
This was called the geocentric model.
The evidence for this model came from observations of the sky using the naked eye.
After the telescope was invented, astronomers quickly gathered evidence which showed that the
geocentric model is not correct.
Describe the evidence both for the geocentric model and against the geocentric model.
(6)
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Q19.
The photograph shows a small generator.
When the handle is turned the current produced lights a lamp.
(a) (i) Complete the sentence by putting a cross (
The current produced
) in the box next to your answer.
(1)
A usually comes from a battery
B always has the same frequency
C is always the same size
D is usually alternating in direction
(ii) State the unit in which electric current is usually measured.
(1)
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(b) (i) Describe what happens inside the generator to produce the current.
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(ii) State one way in which the size of the current could be increased.
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*(c) The National Grid is supplied with electricity from large-scale electrical generators.
These generators may be driven using different energy sources.
Compare the use of a non-renewable energy source with the use of a renewable energy source to
produce electricity
for the National Grid.
(6)
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(Total for Question is 12 marks)
Q20.
Generating electrical energy
(a) Complete the sentence by putting a cross (
Electrical energy can be measured in
) in the box next to your answer.
(1)
A amps
B kilowatt-hours
C volts
D watts
(b) Scientists are looking for new ways to produce electricity from renewable resources.
The diagram shows a model of a device to generate electricity from waves.
The coil is fixed to the concrete block.
The magnet can move freely inside the coil.
(i) Explain how this device produces an electric current.
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(ii) Describe how the device can be altered to increase the electric current.
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*(c) Another way of producing electricity from a renewable source is tidal power.
A dam is built across the mouth of a river.
Tidal water gets trapped behind the dam.
The trapped water is used to generate electricity.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using tidal power rather than other methods of
generating electricity.
(6)
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Q21.
(a) Eric owns a small farm where chicks are hatched from eggs.
He is considering generating his own electricity to heat and light a barn rather than using electricity from
the National Grid.
This graph shows how the energy output varies with wind speed for two different wind turbines, A and B.
The average wind speed at Eric's farm is 13 mph.
The total heating and lighting in the barn requires 6000 kW h of electrical energy each year.
(i) Use the data in the graph to recommend the best turbine for Eric's barn.
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(ii) Eric pays 14p per kW h for electrical energy supplied by the National Grid.
Calculate how much he could expect to save each year by using the energy from this wind turbine to
heat and
light the barn.
(2)
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(iii) Eric looks at the cost of installing the turbine.
State how he should work out the payback time.
(1)
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(iv) The chicks need to be kept warm at all times.
Eric uses halogen lamps to provide heat and light for most of the day.
Eric thinks about changing his halogen lamps for energy saving lamps.
Suggest why this might not actually be a benefit.
(2)
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*(b) There are several large-scale energy resources which are suitable alternatives to fossil fuels in
some situations.
Two of these alternatives are hydro-electric power and solar power.
Compare hydro-electric power with solar power as energy resources for the large-scale generation
of electricity.
(6)
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(Total for Question is 12 marks)
Q22.
This picture shows Galileo holding a telescope.
(a) Explain the purpose of the eyepiece in a telescope.
(2)
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(b) Galileo drew pictures of his observations of Jupiter.
Nowadays we can take photographs.
Suggest how photographs would have helped Galileo.
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(c) The telescope collects light reflected from Jupiter.
The light has a frequency of 4.30 × 1014 Hz and a speed of 3.00 × 108 m/s.
Calculate the wavelength of the light.
(3)
wavelength =........................................................... m
*(d) Galileo's observations of the moons of Jupiter disproved the geocentric model.
However, these observations were not enough to prove the heliocentric model of the Solar System.
Explain why Galileo's observations disproved one model but were not enough to prove the other model.
(6)
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(Total for Question = 12 marks)
Q23.
Exploring the Universe
(a) The Hubble Space Telescope orbits the Earth, outside its atmosphere, about 600 km above the
Earth’s surface.
(i) Complete the sentence by putting a cross (
) in the box next to your answer.
The Hubble Space Telescope has enabled us to
(1)
A gain evidence to support the Steady State theory
B observe very distant galaxies
C search for extra-terrestrial intelligence
D relay television and mobile phone signals
(ii) Suggest advantages of the Hubble Space Telescope over a telescope of a similar size on the
Earth’s surface.
(2)
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(b) The diagram shows how the Earth and Jupiter orbit the Sun.
Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, is also shown.
The radii of the orbits are shown by letters a, b and c and have the values given below.
The smallest distance between the Earth and Jupiter = b – a.
(i) Use this equation to calculate the smallest distance between the Earth and Jupiter.
(1)
smallest distance = ................................................. million km
(ii) Complete the equation below for the smallest distance between the Earth and Europa.
Use the letters a, b and c shown on the diagram.
(2)
the smallest distance between Earth and Europa = .................................................
*(c) Some scientists think that there could be simple life on Europa.
We have already sent successful manned expeditions to our Moon.
There is now a proposal to send a manned expedition to Europa.
Using evidence and opinions, discuss why this is unlikely to happen in the near future.
(6)
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Q24.
Scientists have studied stars to discover how stars evolve.
They know that stars form in a nebula when clouds of dust and gas are pulled together by gravity.
Describe how this process continues for stars much more massive than the Sun.
(4)
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Q25.
* Scientists believe that the Universe is expanding.
Describe how careful observation of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies as well as from the
whole of space gave evidence supporting the Big Bang Theory.
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Q26.
* For many years scientists have searched for evidence of intelligent life in our Solar System and in the
rest of the Universe.
Describe the methods scientists have used to help with this search in both our Solar System and the rest
of the Universe.
(6)
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Q27.
* The diagram shows how some of the energy released by the Sun is converted into electrical energy.
A student boils some water using energy which came from the Sun.
Using the information in the diagram, describe the energy transfers involved in producing the electrical
energy he used.
(6)
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Q28.
(a) The table shows most of the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum.
One type of wave is missing.
(i) Write the missing wave in the space in the table.
(1)
(ii) State which type of wave can be split into different colours.
(1)
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(iii) State which type of wave has the longest wavelength.
(1)
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(iv) State one type of wave that is ionising.
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(b) The Sun emits all the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Explain why all these waves take the same time to travel to Earth from the Sun.
(2)
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*(c) Infrared and ultraviolet waves have different frequencies.
Both types of wave can have harmful effects on human beings.
Describe the harmful effects of infrared and ultraviolet waves, relating them to the frequencies of the
waves.
(6)
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(Total for Question = 12 marks)
Mark Scheme
Q1.
QWC
Question
Number
*
Indicative Content
A discussion linking
some of the following
Advantages of tidal
power• renewable
energy source
• reduction in
greenhouse
gases/atmospheric
pollution (compared
to fossil fuel)
• reduces reliance
on fossil fuels
• conserves stocks
of fossil fuels
• predictable source
of energy
• regular/reliable
supply of energy
• barrages at
different areas would
give energy supply
at different times
Disadvantages of
tidal power• does
not give continuous
supply of energy
• destruction of
plant/animal/bird
habitats • problems
Mark
(6)
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
with passage of
ships • affects
migration of fish
• high capital cost
/very long payback
time • pollution
caused from
producing
/transporting building
materials • visual
pollution This list is
not exhaustive. Give
credit for other
plausible
suggestions
No rewardable material
• there is limited discussion of the
advantages or disadvantages of tidal power
ie gives one advantage OR one
disadvantage of tidal power. e.g. tidal power
is not available 24 hours a day/ The barrage
will save fuel for motorists going to the town
on the other side ( of the estuary) • the
answer communicates ideas using simple
language and uses limited scientific
terminology • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• there is some discussion of the
advantages and disadvantages of tidal
power ie gives one advantage AND one
disadvantage of tidal power e.g. an
advantage of tidal power is that it uses a
renewable energy resource and a
disadvantage is that they damage birds’
habitats • the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with some accuracy
• there is detailed discussion of the
advantages and disadvantages of tidal
power ie gives one advantage AND one
disadvantage of tidal power, one of which is
detailed, AND a clear link to another method
e.g. tidal power stations are a good idea
because they use a renewable energy
resource and will help to conserve fossil fuel
stocks. However, it causes problems for
migrating fish • the answer communicates
ideas clearly and coherently uses a range of
scientific terminology accurately • spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with few
errors
Q2.
Question
Number
QWC
Indicative Content
*
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
Mark
A description linking
some of the following
• ultrasound does
not cause damage to
(healthy) cells / ORA
• idea of real-time
image with
ultrasound
• ultrasound uses
non-ionising
radiation • idea that
(consultant) can
change image
position during
ultrasound scan
• 3D image possible
with ultrasound
• ultrasound safer
for consultant
• ultrasound
machines more
portable
• ultrasound can be
used to measure
blood flow rates
• ultrasound gives
detail of soft tissue
• X-rays are more
suitable for bony
structures • X-rays
produce higher
resolution images
• X- rays are more
suitable for parts of
body containing gas
(lungs, intestines)
This list is not
exhaustive. Give
credit for other
plausible
(6)
suggestions
No rewardable material
• a limited description with no comparison
or contrast ie describes a use/fact about
ultrasound OR X-rays eg Ultrasound can be
used to look at a foetus (unborn child) • the
answer communicates ideas using simple
language and uses limited scientific
terminology • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• a description giving some attempt at
comparison or contrast ie describes a use of
ultrasound AND X-rays eg Ultrasound can
be used to look at a fetus. X-rays are used
to detect broken bones OR Ultrasound can
3
5-6
be used to look at a fetus because it’s safer
(than X-rays) • the answer communicates
ideas showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with some accuracy
• a detailed description with clear
comparison and/or contrast ie describes a
use of ultrasound AND X-rays, one of which
is detailed, AND a clear comparison
Ultrasound can be used to monitor a fetus.
In ultrasound the waves reflect off soft
tissue. X-rays (are used to look at bones
because they) are absorbed by bones OR
Ultrasound can be used to monitor a fetus.
In ultrasound the waves reflect off soft
tissue. X-rays are used to look at bones but
not used for fetus because they can damage
DNA/cause mutations of cells • the answer
communicates ideas clearly and coherently
uses a range of scientific terminology
accurately • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with few errors
Q3.
Question
Number
QWC
Indicative Content
*
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
Mark
A discussion linking
some of the following
points red shift •
• linked to
movement • both
theories have
expanding Universe
• redshift support
both CMB • linked
to ageing Universe
• Big Bang ageing ,
SS not • CMB
supports Big Bang
only • because only
Big Bang has single
(6)
origin
No rewardable material
• a limited discussion stating both pieces
of evidence or limited detail about either red
shift or CMB e.g. change in wavelength /red
shift shows galaxies / stars moving away
• the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• a simple discussion including both
pieces of evidence and simple detail about
either red shift or CMB e.g. a change in
wavelength shows galaxies / stars moving
away • the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with some accuracy
• a detailed discussion describing both
pieces of evidence and drawing a
conclusion e.g. a change in wavelength
shows galaxies / stars moving away and
CMB shows Universe has been changing
with time and redshift supports both
theories, CMB supports only Big Bang
because Steady State has constant
Universe • the answer communicates ideas
clearly and coherently uses a range of
scientific terminology accurately • spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with few
errors
Q4.
Q5.
Indicative Content
Mark
(6)
QWC
*
A discussion
including some of
the following points
Level
1
0
1-2
No rewardable content
 A limited description of one advantage or
one disadvantage
e.g. energy saving lamps last a long time/
filament lamps get very hot
OR
A correct value quoted from information with
no comparison.
 The answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology
 Spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy
2
3-4
 A simple description of two different
advantages / disadvantages
e.g. energy saving lamps cost more but last
longer / filament lamps have a short life time
and use more power
OR
Correct values quoted from table and used
to provide two comparisons without
calculations
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
3
5-6
 A detailed description of two different
advantages / disadvantages using a
quantitative comparison.
e.g. energy saving lamps cost 5 times more
but last 10 times longer. / Energy saving
lamps produce 4 times as much light energy
for every 100J of electrical energy supplied
and are much more efficient. / Energy saving
lamps last 9,000 hours longer than and they
use less power.
 the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors
Q6.
Indicative Content
QWC
Level
1
*
0
1-2
Mark
A discussion
including some of
the following points
 improved lighting
levels for LEDs
 energy savings
per year for LEDs or
calculation of
payback time
 calculation of
energy savings over
lifetime of LEDs or
calculation of
monetary savings by
using LEDs per year
 link to savings in
fossil fuels for LEDs
or link to reduced
CO2 produced for
LEDs and reduced
global warming
 comparison of
lifetimes and
(6)
maintenance cost
No rewardable content
 a limited discussion of benefits using
some pieces of the information provided,
e.g. LEDs last 40 000 hours longer and the
lighting levels are 200% brighter.
 the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy
2
3-4
 a simple discussion of benefits using
some pieces of the information and
processing one of them OR 2 processed
pieces of information. e.g. LEDs save 3000
kW h of energy each year and are much
brighter. The money they save each year
compared to fluorescents is £420. OR The
payback time for the LEDs is about 5 years
and in that time they would have to pay for
the fluorescent lights to be replaced 5 times.
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
3
5-6
 a detailed discussion of benefits using
processed information covering more than
half of the data points in the table e.g. LEDs
use less energy each year and this means
that fossil fuel reserves are not used up as
quickly. The LEDs save £420 each year and
have a payback time of about 5 years.
 the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors
Q7.
Indicative Content
QWC
Level
1
*
0
1-2
Mark
A discussion
including some of
the following points
Possible
dangerous e-m
radiations
Microwaves
Infrared
Ultraviolet (UV)
X-rays
gamma rays
Correctly linked to
Internal heating of
body cells
(microwaves)
Skin burns
(infrared)
Damages skin
cells/sunburn (UV)
Damages eyes
(UV)
Can cause skin
cancer (UV)
Can cause
cataracts (UV)
Damage to cells
inside the body( Xrays)
Mutate/ kill cells
in the body (gamma)
Damages DNA
(X-rays and gamma
rays)
Link to frequency
As the frequency
increases/wavelengt
h decreases
(microwave ->
gamma) the waves
become more
penetrating and
do more
damage/danger as
they have
(6)
more energy.
No rewardable content
 a limited description e.g. gives at least 2
correct radiations and links both to correct
damage OR at least 2 correct radiations
named with link to correct damage from one
and idea that frequency is linked to damage
OR just has link between higher frequency
and more damage/dangerous e.g. infrared
burns your skin and X-rays can damage
cells. OR X-rays have a higher frequency
than microwaves and can cause cancer OR
Higher frequencies cause more damage to
cells.
 the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy
2
3-4
 a simple description e.g. gives most of
the correct radiations and links to correct
damage, at least one with detail of the
damage that is caused OR links two to detail
of the damage, AND has a link between
frequency and energy/danger e.g.
Microwaves are absorbed by water in body
cells. UV can cause skin cancer and
damages your eyes. Xrays and gamma rays
can damage cells inside your body OR
Gamma and X-rays can penetrate deep into
the body. Gamma does most damage as it
has the highest frequency.
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
3
5-6
 a detailed description e.g. gives most of
the correct radiations with links to detail of
the damage AND explains the link between
frequency and energy/danger. e.g
Microwaves heat up the water in cells. UV
can cause cataracts. Gamma rays are the
most penetrating and can mutate cells inside
the body because they have the highest
frequency.
 The answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors
Q8.
Question
Number
(a)
Answer
Acceptable answers
Mark
alternating current
can take positive and
negative values RA
(1)
Question
Number
(b)(i)
Answer
a.c. above and
below zero /the line
a.c. goes one way
and then the other
RA
Acceptable answers
(1)
Mark
substitution: (1)
Allow substitution
and transposition in
either order if clear
transposition: (1)
Question
Number
(b)(ii)
Question
Number
QWC
evaluation /
comment: (1) 825(V)
/ which is about 800
(V)
Answer
• power input =
power output (1) • I
= 0.033 (A) (1)
*(c)
Correct comparison
of ratios scores 3 (15
and 14.5, 0.067 and
0.069)
Acceptable answers
(3)
Mark
power input = 55 x
0.5 (W) power input
= 27.5 (W) I = 0.034
(A) Give full marks
for correct answer no
working
Indicative Content
(2)
Mark
An explanation
linking some of the
following points
Basic ideas•
• transmission lines
have resistance
• the current warms
the transmission
wires • energy is
wasted as heat
• transformers
change voltage
and/or current • R
increase the voltage
/ RA for S • R
decrease the current
/ RA for S Linked
ideas• the long
transmission lines
have high resistance
• power depends on
both current and
voltage • power =
current × voltage (P
= I × V) • at high
voltage, the same
(6)
power needs less
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
current • correct
mention of turns ratio
related to voltage
change • a smaller
current in a wire
produces less heat
• high voltage
transmission saves
more energy than is
lost in the
transformers
No rewardable material
• a limited explanation including some
relevant details e.g. R steps up the voltage,
S steps it down • the answer communicates
ideas using simple language and uses
limited scientific terminology • spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with
limited accuracy
• a simple explanation relating operation of
transformers to heat loss in transmission
lines and/or transformers e.g. R steps up the
voltage so that less heat is lost in
transmission lines or high voltage
transmission saves more energy than is lost
in the transformers • the answer
communicates ideas showing some
evidence of clarity and organisation and
uses scientific terminology appropriately
• spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
• a detailed explanation relating operation
of transformers to current and energy losses
in transmission lines and/or transformers
e.g. R steps up the voltage so that, for the
same power, I is less meaning less heat is
lost in transmission lines • the answer
communicates ideas clearly and coherently
uses a range of scientific terminology
accurately • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with few errors
Q9.
Q10.
Q11.
Indicative Content
*
Level
1
0
1-2
Mark
A discussion
including some of
the following points
 Methods
 space probes
 soil experiments
by landers
 SETI
 telescopes
 robotic machines
 Problems
 expense /
international
collaboration needed
 large distances
involved
 if problem
difficult to correct
 time to react to
problem is long
 time to respond
to any
communication
would be long
 complex
technology
 for human visit
 for robot
investigation
 fuel
 recognition of
alternative life-forms
 pattern
recognition
 for SETI
 communication if
intelligent life-form
 possibility of
cross-contamination (6)
No rewardable content
 a limited discussion including EITHER
two named problems, OR two named
methods, OR a named problem + a named
method e.g. It would be expensive and the
distances are large OR Space probes and
SETI can be used OR can listen for
communications, life beyond Earth may not
be water based.
 the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology.
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy.
2
3-4
 a simple discussion including EITHER a
problem with its associated method + some
other named problem OR a detailed problem
+ one other named problem e.g. It is
expensive to send a space probe to Mars;
the distance to Mars very large OR It is
difficult to search through the data from
space because there is a huge amount of it.
Also, any message would be hard to
decode.
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately.
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy.
3
5-6
 a detailed discussion including EITHER
two problems with their associated
method(s) + some other named problem OR
two detailed problems + one other named
problem OR a problem with its associated
method + a detailed problem + one other
named problem e.g. We can analyse
radiowaves from space, but they take so
long to arrive that the aliens that sent them
could have already died out. It is very
expensive to develop the technology needed
to go to other planets. Also, we might not
recognise alien life-forms there. OR It is
difficult to search through the data from
space because there is a huge amount of it.
Radiowaves in space take a long time to
arrive because the distances are so vast. It
all costs a lot of money. OR It is very
expensive to develop the technology needed
to go to other planets. It is difficult to search
through the data from space because there
is a huge amount of it. Also, we might not
recognise alien life-forms there.
 the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately.
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors.
Q12.
Indicative Content
Level
1
0
1-2
Mark
A discussion
including some of
the following points
 Both HEP and
Solar power are
renewable
 Both HEP and
Solar power would
save fossil fuels
 HEP only
possible in some
locations
 HEP requires
reservoirs and
damming of rivers
 This can
damage environment
/takes a lot of land
(6)
out of use
 Energy from
solar power
installation is
currently much less
than energy from
fossil fuel powered
station
 Solar power only
suitable in certain
locations
 Solar power
reliability dependent
on constant
sunshine
 Neither of them
cause atmospheric
pollution
No rewardable content
 a limited description such as at least
one relevant detail of each resource eg:
Solar power doesn't give off atmospheric
pollution. HEP generates more power than
solar power.
 the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy
2
3-4
 a simple discussion such as one which
gives comparisons between the two or at
least an advantage and disadvantage of
both. eg: HEP does not use fossil fuels but it
can damage the environment where is it
located. Solar power will never run out but it
requires lots of light/land.
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
3
5-6
 a detailed comparison such as one
which relates advantages and
disadvantages of both HEP and solar power
to a particular situation for possible large
scale use e.g.: Solar power uses a
renewable energy source but it currently
does not produce as much energy as fossil
fuel station where there is little sunlight. HEP
can produce a lot more energy where there
are hills and water but only possible in
certain geographical locations.
 the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors
Q13.
Answer
(a)
(b)
(c)i
(c)ii
D the Universe (1)
(nebula) main
sequence (star) (1)
AND
red giant
white dwarf (1) All
three in correct order
for 2 marks
infrared
(radiation)/(rays) (1)
An explanation
linking any two from
 above the
clouds / no clouds/
no weather (1)
 image is
clearer/more
detailed/ not
distorted/not blurred
(1)
 no light pollution
(1)
 (some)
telescopes use
gamma/ Xrays/ultraviolet
/infrared/microwaves
(1)
 no absorption
(by atmosphere) of
gamma/ Xrays/
ultraviolet /infrared/
microwaves (1)
QWC
*(d)
Acceptable
answers
Mark
(1)
Red Giant
White Dwarf
(Main sequence) (1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
Credit to be given for
stating that all
telescopes would be
better in space, but
size and weight may
exclude e.g. Jodrell
Bank from space. no
air/dust/pollution
wider field of view/
can use anytime
IGNORE 'see
further'
IGNORE 'it is closer
(to the stars/planets)'
IGNORE:
references to
improving
understanding /
knowledge of space
Indicative Content
Mark
A description
including some of
the following points
 improved
QUALITY eg higher
or better
magnification/
detail/resolution or
clearer/brighter
image
OR MORE
INFORMATION
(than with naked
eye) of image/data
eg new
planets/stars/nebula
e/pulsars (This could
(6)
Exp
Level
1
0
1-2
be extra detail for
greater
magnification/resoluti
on only)
 detection of
(non-visible)
electromagnetic
WAVES eg Xray /
UV / IR/ radio
 TECHNOLOGY
that enable collection
of more data eg
reflecting
telescope/arrays
and/or additions eg
computer-aided
/photographic
connections or larger
(objective)
lens/mirror
 POSITION of
telescopes – eg
orbital/outside
atmosphere/on top
of mountains/away
from
atmosphere/rays not
absorbed/obscured/s
cattered by
atmosphere. Ignore
'Hubble' or
'Compton'.
No rewardable content
 a limited description e.g. mention of any
one example such as "magnifies
stars/planets" OR "discovering new
planets/stars"
 the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy
2
3-4
 a simple description e.g. mention of
either two of the improvements OR extra
detail about one of the improvements eg
improvement plus example (ie Magnifies
planets so that craters/mountains may be
seen)
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
3
5-6

a detailed description e.g. mention of
three (or more) improvements OR two
improvements plus extra detail about one
of them (ie Telescopes in space can
detect XRays that would be absorbed by
the atmosphere)
 the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors
(Suitable extra detail shown in italics in examples above)
Total for Question = 12 marks
Q14.
Question
Number
QWC
*
Indicative Content
Mark
A discussion to
include some of the
following facts
• infrared frequency
much lower than Xrays • X-rays very
penetrating • X-rays
potentially more
dangerous to the
operator • laser is
very concentrated
• specialised clinics
are controlled
environments • safe
operation depends
on training • our
knowledge of EM
radiation is still not
complete The
discussion makes
some of the following
links • lower
frequency of infrared
makes it potentially
less dangerous than
X-rays • high
penetration of X-rays
makes it difficult
provide adequate
shielding • the
concentration of
energy by the
infrared laser makes
it more dangerous
than otherwise
• controlled
environment of a
clinic provides better
safety and more
thorough training
• difficulty of
ensuring proper
maintenance /correct
dosage if used
domestically • lack
of knowledge could
mean there are long
term effects still not
known The
discussion makes
some of the following
conclusions • easier
shielding of infrared
compared to X-rays
means there is less
(6)
Q15.
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
risk to operators and
/or patient
• difficulty of
ensuring proper
control means it is
not suitable for
domestic use • lack
of full understanding
of long term effects
means it is better to
err on side of caution
No rewardable material
• the discussion gives at least two basic
facts with no links OR a fact and a
conclusion with no links e.g. Infrared can
cause burns so it could be dangerous. • the
answer communicates ideas using simple
language and uses limited scientific
terminology • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• the discussion gives a link (or
comparison) between at least two facts for
infrared and X-rays, eg. infrared has lower
frequency than X rays so is less dangerous.
We do not know enough about the dangers
of infrared and it could still burn you • the
answer communicates ideas showing some
evidence of clarity and organisation and
uses scientific terminology appropriately
• spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
• a detailed discussion which has at least
two links or comparisons supporting a
justified conclusion (about selling or
dangers) eg. infrared has lower frequency
than X rays so is potentially less dangerous
but without proper training there is a danger
of overexposure if people used it at home
(therefore it should not be sold to the public)
• the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately • spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with few
errors
Q16.
Question
Number
*QWC
Indicative content
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
Mark
Description of
(6)
pattern• temperatur
e shown is different
at different parts of
the spectrum
• pattern (trend)
shows temperature
rises towards the red
end (long
wavelength part) of
spectrum Extension
outside
spectrum• decided
to see if the trend
continued
• investigated by
placing thermometer
beyond the red end
• where there is no
visible light • found
temperature rise was
(even) higher here
Conclusion• there
must be some light
which was invisible
no rewardable material
• a limited description of the pattern
• there is a limited description of what
Herschel found • there is little or no attempt
to relate his findings to the conclusion • the
answer communicates ideas using simple
language and uses little scientific
terminology. Spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• ideas about both complete and
incomplete combustion but is not
comprehensive • a clear description is
given of the pattern linking
colour/wavelength to temperature • a
limited explanation of why Herschel
extended this investigation and some
attempt to describe what Herschel found
• some attempt to relate his findings to the
conclusion • the answer communicates
ideas showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses some scientific
terminology appropriately. Spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with
some accuracy
• a clear description of the pattern, linking
colour/wavelengths to temperature • there
is a clear explanation of why Herschel
extended this investigation and a clear
description of what he found • clearly
shows how evidence supported his
conclusion • the answer communicates
ideas clearly and uses scientific terminology
appropriately. Spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with few errors
Q17.
Question
Number
(a)(i)
Question
Number
(a)(ii)
Question
Number
(a)(iii)
Question
Number
(b)
Question
Number
*(c)
QWC
Answer
Acceptable answers
advantage –
lower surface
temperature
disadvantage –
longer to reach
maximum brightness
Answer
cooler/not so hot
saying more efficient
is an insufficient
answer
energy per second =
15 × 40 ÷ 100 (1) = 6
(1)
transposing equation
(ignore errors
involving % e.g. 15 ×
40) gets this mark
ignore unit
Mark
Answer
Acceptable answers
energy is emitted at the
same rate it is supplied
Answer
C
Mark
(2)
Mark
(2)
(1)
Mark
(1)
Indicative content
Reasons for being
effective• black
surfaces absorb heat
better than white
surfaces • currently
the (white) ice
reflects much solar
radiation back from
the surface • (black)
soot will reduce
reflection of
heat/sunlight from
the ice • reduction
of soot emissions will
mean less heat
absorbed/more heat
reflected and so
reduces overall
warming of the Earth
Reasons for not
being
effective• sulfates
currently reduce the
amount of heat
reaching
earth’s
surface • if amounts
of sulfate in
emissions are
reduced then more
heat will reach the
earth’s
Mark
(6)
1
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
surface • this
accelerates melting
of ice and reduces
reflection from the
ice • increases
overall amount of
heat absorbed and
global warming
Actual effect
depends on the
balance of the
effects of these two
factorsOther creditworthy
arguments• may
be possible to
reduce soot particles
without reducing
sulfates; in which
case this would be
effective overall
Ignore references to
acid rain caused by
sulfates.
• basic statements such as less soot on the
ice will stop it from melting as quickly or less
sulfates will mean more heat reaches the
surface • many of the points are missing.
Probably only effective/not effective will be
mentioned • no mention of balance • the
answer uses everyday language and the
response lacks clarity and organisation.
Spelling, punctuation and the rules of
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• a detailed description of some positive
effects • a detailed description of some
negative effects • there may be limited
reference to the balance of the two effects
• the answer uses some terms and shows
some focus and organisation. Spelling,
punctuation and the rules of grammar are
used with some accuracy
• a thorough description of the positive
effects and • a thorough description of the
negative effects • a clear understanding
that there is a balance to be struck • the
answer uses a range of appropriate terms
and shows good focus and organisation.
Spelling, punctuation and the rules of
grammar used with considerable accuracy
Q18.
Q19.
Answer
(a)(i)
(a)(ii)
(b)(i)
(b)(ii)
D
ampere(s), amp(s), A
A description linking
magnet (1)
(in/near) coil (1)
(magnet/coil)
spins/moves/turns
(1)
Any one from the
following: Increase
strength of magnet
(1) Increase number
of coils/turns of wire
(1) Increase speed
of rotation (1)
*(c)
Acceptable
answers
Mark
(1)
(1)
IGNORE handle
turns
add another
magnet / move
magnets closer
turn
handle/magnet/coil
faster IGNORE
bigger magnet/coil/
generator / longer
wire
Indicative Content
A comparison
including some of
the following points
Non- renewable
sources
 coal, oil, gas and
nuclear
 coal, oil, gas are
fossil fuels
 fossil fuels will
run out
 fossil fuels burn
and produce CO2
 fossil fuels burn
to produce
atmospheric pollution
 CO2 contributes
to global warming
 are a more
expensive source
 Nuclear power
stations do not
produce CO2
 Nuclear power
produces radioactive
waste
 Radioactive
waste is dangerous
and difficult to store
safelyRenewable
resources
 Wind, waves,
solar, biofuels,
geothermal and
hydroelectric
(3)
(1)
Mark
(6)
Level
1
0
1-2
 are a
free/cheaper source
 The energy
source is unreliable
 No (net) CO2
produced
 No atmospheric
pollution (except
biofuels)
 Waves and
hydroelectric cause
environmental
changes
 Wind farms and
solar panels give
visual pollution
 Wind farms can
be built off shore
Comparison
 Fossil fuel power
stations are cheaper
to build than wind
farms for the same
power output
 Coal, oil, gas and
nuclear fuel will run
out, wind, waves and
sun will always be
available
 Fossil fuel power
stations produce
CO2 which may
increase global
warming, renewable
energy generators
(wind farms) do not
 Renewable
energy generators
have a free/cheaper
source of fuel
 fossil fuels have
to be taken out of the
ground
 Nuclear power
stations produce
radioactive waste,
which is dangerous,
none of the other
energy generators
do this.
 Wind, waves and
sun are unreliable
sources of energy
but fossil and
nuclear fuels are
always available
No rewardable content
 a limited statement about either
renewable or non-renewable e.g. Coal is
non-renewable OR renewable energy will
not run out OR oil will run out
 the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology.
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy.
2
3-4
 a simple comparison including 2
statements covering renewable and nonrenewable e.g. Coal is non-renewable and
solar power is renewable OR renewable
energy sources will not run out and
nonrenewable sources do not pollute the
atmosphere OR oil will run out, solar will not
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately.
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy.
3
5-6
 a detailed comparison including at least
3 statements with a direct comparison
between a renewable and a non-renewable
source, at least one named e.g. Renewables
will not run out but nonrenewables like coal
will. OR Coal is non-renewable. When it is
burnt carbon dioxide is produced. Wind
farms do not produce any carbon dioxide.
OR Carbon dioxide is produced when coal is
used. Wind farms do not produce any
carbon dioxide. Wind farms are noisy. OR
Oil will run out, solar will not. Oil causes air
pollution
 the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately.
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors.
Q20.
Question
Number
(a)
Question
Number
(b)(i)
Question
Number
(b)(ii)
Question
Number
QWC
Answer
B
Answer
Acceptable answers
Mark
Acceptable answers
(1)
Mark
an explanation
linking three of the
following • (waves
cause) float to move
(up and down)(1)
• (this causes)
magnet to move (in
and out of coil) (1)
• (hence) magnetic
field (of magnet) (1)
• cuts across/links/
interacts wire in coil
(1)
• inducing/generatin
g potential difference
across ends of coil
(1)
Answer
magnet moves (in
the coil)
Allowcurrent/voltage
/volts/am ps
induced/generated in
coil
a description
including two of the
following • increase
the number of turns
on the coil (1) • use
a more powerful
magnet (1) • use full
scale device (1)
more coils (of wire)
ignore bigger coil
stronger/more
magnets Ignore
bigger magnet Allow
idea of more/bigger/
faster waves
*(c)
Acceptable answers
(3)
Mark
Indicative Content
(2)
Mark
A discussion linking
some of the following
Advantages of tidal
power• renewable
energy source
• reduction in
greenhouse
gases/atmospheric
pollution (compared
to fossil fuel)
• reduces reliance
on fossil fuels
• conserves stocks
of fossil fuels
• predictable source
of energy
• regular/reliable
supply of energy
• barrages at
different areas would
give energy supply
at different times
(6)
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
Disadvantages of
tidal power• does
not give continuous
supply of energy
• destruction of
plant/animal/bird
habitats • problems
with passage of
ships • affects
migration of fish
• high capital cost
/very long payback
time • pollution
caused from
producing
/transporting building
materials • visual
pollution This list is
not exhaustive. Give
credit for other
plausible
suggestions
No rewardable material
• there is limited discussion of the
advantages or disadvantages of tidal power
ie gives one advantage OR one
disadvantage of tidal power. e.g. tidal power
is not available 24 hours a day/ The barrage
will save fuel for motorists going to the town
on the other side ( of the estuary) • the
answer communicates ideas using simple
language and uses limited scientific
terminology • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• there is some discussion of the
advantages and disadvantages of tidal
power ie gives one advantage AND one
disadvantage of tidal power e.g. an
advantage of tidal power is that it uses a
renewable energy resource and a
disadvantage is that they damage birds’
habitats • the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with some accuracy
• there is detailed discussion of the
advantages and disadvantages of tidal
power ie gives one advantage AND one
disadvantage of tidal power, one of which is
detailed, AND a clear link to another method
e.g. tidal power stations are a good idea
because they use a renewable energy
resource and will help to conserve fossil fuel
stocks. However, it causes problems for
migrating fish • the answer communicates
ideas clearly and coherently uses a range of
scientific terminology accurately • spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with few
errors
Q21.
Answer
(ai)
(aii)
(aiii)
(aiv)
QWC
Model A because
Model A (can
produce up to
)7200kWh per year
(at 13mph) / will
produce 6000 kWh
(with given wind
speed). (1)
Substitution (1)
0.14 × 6000
Evaluation (1)
(£)840
Acceptable
answers
Model B produces
less than 6000kWh
per year at 13mph
/requires wind speed
of more than 13mph
to produce 6000kWh
Allow incorrect
conversion of p to £
such as 0.014 ×
6000 for 1 mark only
84 000 p correct
answer with no
working shown gains
both marks
Divide the installation £840 for annual
cost by the annual
saving
saving (to find the
time in years)
(1)
A suggestion linking
not get hot /
(energy saving
produce so much
lamps) would not
heat
transfer so much
reverse argument
thermal energy (1)
such as insufficient
he may have to use
heat for chicks to
additional heating /
thrive (Ignore
lights (which would
references to light
cost money to run/
output.)
purchase) (1)
*(b)
Mark
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
Indicative Content
Mark
A discussion
including some of
the following points
 Both HEP and
Solar power are
renewable
 Both HEP and
Solar power would
save fossil fuels
 HEP only
possible in some
locations
 HEP requires
reservoirs and
damming of rivers
 This can
damage environment
/takes a lot of land
out of use
 Energy from
(6)
Level
1
0
1-2
solar power
installation is
currently much less
than energy from
fossil fuel powered
station
 Solar power only
suitable in certain
locations
 Solar power
reliability dependent
on constant
sunshine
 Neither of them
cause atmospheric
pollution
No rewardable content
 a limited description such as at least
one relevant detail of each resource eg:
Solar power doesn't give off atmospheric
pollution. HEP generates more power than
solar power.
 the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy
2
3-4
 a simple discussion such as one which
gives comparisons between the two or at
least an advantage and disadvantage of
both. eg: HEP does not use fossil fuels but it
can damage the environment where is it
located. Solar power will never run out but it
requires lots of light/land.
 the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
3
5-6
 a detailed comparison such as one
which relates advantages and
disadvantages of both HEP and solar power
to a particular situation for possible large
scale use e.g.: Solar power uses a
renewable energy source but it currently
does not produce as much energy as fossil
fuel station where there is little sunlight. HEP
can produce a lot more energy where there
are hills and water but only possible in
certain geographical locations.
 the answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately
 spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors
Q22.
Q23.
Question
Number
(a)(i)
Question
Number
(a)(ii)
Question
Number
(b)(i)
Question
Number
(b)(ii)
Question
Number
*(c)QWC
Answer
B
Answer
Mark
(1)
Acceptable answers
Mark
an answer including
two of the following:
atmosphere distorts
images (1)
atmosphere absorbs
some visible light (1)
atmosphere absorbs
other parts of the
electromagnetic
spectrum (1) light
pollution on Earth (1)
Earth based
operation can be
limited by bad
weather/clouds (1)
Answer
any named part of
the electromagnetic
spectrum e.g. X-rays
Acceptable answers
(2)
Mark
629 millions of km (×
106 km)
any correct
alternatives of
powers of ten e.g.
628 000 × 103 km
628 000 000 km
Acceptable answers
(1)
Mark
Answer
b - (a + c) or b - (c +
a) 1st mark for b at
front 2nd mark for a
and c subtracted
ignore brackets
Indicative content
Description of
problemsProblems
to consider could be:
• very large
distance from the
Earth to
Jupiter/Europa
• much larger than
the distance to our
Moon • time
involved is very
large/much longer
than lunar mission
• problems of
external help/control
at large
distance/time-delay
of signalsd • need
to secure sufficient
funding • possibility
of cross-
(2)
Mark
(6)
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
3
5-6
contamination if life
is indeed present on
Europa • need for
all life-support
facilities on
spacecraft itself
• alternatives (such
as robot probes)
could be available
• too
difficult/technology
not yet available
• inadvisable/too
much risk • could
not guarantee (long
term) commitment to
mission
• alternatives could
provide more
information than
humans (for the
same payload).
Advantages and
disadvantages of
problemsDiscussion
of whether each
problem mentioned
are insurmountable
or can be overcome.
Conclusion/judgem
entDiscussion of
how, overall, the
problems may
prevent travel to
Europa.
no rewardable material
• there is a limited attempt to identify one or
two of the factors that would impact on a
manned journey to Jupiter/Europa in the
near future • a limited attempt to explain the
severity of the problems • limited, if any,
conclusion • the answer communicates
ideas using simple language and uses
limited scientific terminology. Spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with
limited accuracy
• there is an identification of at least several
problems • some discussion of the severity
of each problem • some discussion of how,
overall, the problems will affect the likelihood
of future travel • there is an attempt to draw
a conclusion based on at least one of these
factors • the answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses some scientific
terminology appropriately. Spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with
some accuracy
• there is a clear description of at least
three main problems • clear discussion of
the severity of these problems • clearly
shows why the conclusion has been reached
• the answer communicates ideas clearly
and uses scientific terminology
appropriately. Spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with few errors
Q24.
Answer
A description
including the
following stages (up
to 3 marks)
Protostar (1) Main
sequence star (1)
(super) red giant (1)
supernova (1)
neutron star (1)
(even more massive
star can become)
black hole (1) more
massive stars have
shorter life (1) Three
stages in the correct
sequence (1)
Acceptable
answers
Mark
(4)
Q25.
Question
Number
QWC
Indicative Content
*
Level
1
0
1-2
Mark
A description to
include some of the
following facts:
• observation of
visible light led to
discovery of redshift. • galaxies are
moving away from
each other • CMBR
detected in radio
telescopes • space
telescopes (such as
COBE) gave more
detail of CMBR
• Big Bang and
Steady State
theories were
proposed
• distances to
galaxies could be
determined • Big
Bang could explain
red-shift • Steady
State could explain
red-shift The
description gives
some of the following
details: • red-shift
means lower
frequency / longer
wavelength • redshift was greatest for
the most distant
galaxies • red-shift
means universe is
expanding • Big
Bang / Steady State
can explain an
expanding universe
• only Big Bang
could explain CMBR
• CMBR is residual
radiation from the
Big Bang The
description gives
some of the following
reasons for scientists
beliefs
• observation of
increasing red-shift
with distance is a
reason to believe in
(6)
expanding universe
No rewardable material
• a limited description of either red-shift or
2
3-4
3
5 -6
CMBR, e.g. light from galaxies was redshifted OR Red-shift is evidence for Big
bang. • the answer communicates ideas
using simple language and uses limited
scientific terminology • spelling, punctuation
and grammar are used with limited accuracy
• a description giving full detail of either
red-shift or CMBR OR some detail of both
red-shift and CMBR, e.g. light was seen to
be shifted towards a longer wavelength. This
means that the galaxies are moving away
from each other. • the answer
communicates ideas showing some
evidence of clarity and organisation and
uses scientific terminology appropriately
• spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
• a detailed description of how both redshift and CMBR give supporting evidence for
the Big Bang theory, e.g. light was seen to
be shifted towards a longer wavelength. This
means that the galaxies are moving away
from each other so the Universe must be
expanding. This is evidence for the Big Bang
theory. Cosmic Background Radiation
coming from all directions provides further
evidence for the Big Bang. • the answer
communicates ideas clearly and coherently
uses a range of scientific terminology
accurately • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with few errors
Q26.
Indicative Content
QWC
Level
1
*
0
1-2
A description
including some of
the following points
In Solar System
 Use of
telescopes
 Search for
evidence of
conditions needed
for life e.g.
water/oxygen/bacteri
a on other planets
 Manned
missions (to the
Moon)
 Unmanned
missions/probes to
other planets e.g.
Mars, Jupiter,
Saturn, Mercury
 Landers / robots
/ rovers sample soil
 Information
transmitted back to
Earth Throughout
the Universe
 Search for extraterrestrial intelligence
(SETI)
 Use radio
telescopes
 Search for
(regular pattern of)
radio signals
 Search for other
planetary systems
 Discovery of
other planetary
systems (capable of
supporting life)
 Broadcasting
signals/ sending out
messages (to extra
terrestrial
intelligences)
No rewardable content
Mark
(6)
 A limited description giving a (named)
way of searching for evidence e.g. SETI OR
using telescopes OR send messages to
space OR spacecraft
 The answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology
 Spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with limited accuracy
2
3-4
 A simple description of any TWO of the
searches for evidence e.g space probes go
to other planets and telescopes are used OR
radio telescopes and looking for radio waves
from space.
 The answer communicates ideas
showing some evidence of clarity and
organisation and uses scientific terminology
appropriately
 Spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
3
5-6
 A detailed description of searches for
evidence within AND outside the solar
system
e.g. Unmanned space probes go to other
planets and radio telescopes search for
radio signals from space.
 The answer communicates ideas clearly
and coherently uses a range of scientific
terminology accurately
 Spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with few errors
Q27.
Question
Number
QWC
Indicative Content
*
Level
1
0
1-2
2
3-4
Mark
A description
including some of
the following
Similarities• solar /
heat / light
• photosynthesis
• chemical / fossil
fuel • burning
• thermal • in
steam • kinetic • in
turbine • electrical
(6)
• in generator
No rewardable material
• a limited description which identifies an
energy in an appropriate place e.g. thermal
energy in the boiler OR e.g. the (same)
energy flows from the boiler to the turbine
• the answer communicates ideas using
simple language and uses limited scientific
terminology • spelling, punctuation and
grammar are used with limited accuracy
• a simple description which includes
details of a relevant energy transfer e.g.
(steam causing) the turbine to rotate turns
3
5-6
the coil in the generator transferring kinetic
energy into electrical energy • the answer
communicates ideas showing some
evidence of clarity and organisation and
uses scientific terminology appropriately
• spelling, punctuation and grammar are
used with some accuracy
• a detailed description to includes details
of a sequence of transfers e.g. chemical
energy stored in the coal is transferred in the
boiler to thermal energy producing steam.
The steam turns the turbine which turns the
coil. • the answer communicates ideas
clearly and coherently uses a range of
scientific terminology accurately • spelling,
punctuation and grammar are used with few
errors
Q28.
Document related concepts
no text concepts found
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