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Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Piedmont Middle School
6th Grade Social Studies
• How did the geography of Rome impact its development?
– Rivers
– Bodies of Water
– Mountains
How did the geography of Rome impact its development?
• City was located at the top of 7 hills
– This made it easier to defend
• The city was built 15 miles inland along the Tiber River
– This made it hard to attack from the sea but still allowed for trade and was a
fresh water source
• On the Italian Peninsula (surrounded by water)
– Good for trade and navy
– Islands that surrounded the peninsula were also important for trade and
• Protected by Mountains
– The Alps and Apennines
• Good climate and farmland
– Able to grow beans, veggies, fruits, olives, and grapes
Roman Republic
Brainpop- The Roman Republic
• Lasted from 509 BCE – 49 BCE
– Almost 500 years
Roman Republic
Brainpop- The Roman Republic
• The Republic had 3 branches of governments,
very similar to what we have today:
– Senate: Noble and wealthy people
– Consul: Judges and military commanders
– Assembly: Common people (elected)
Roman Republic
Brainpop- The Roman Republic
• The United States uses a system called “checks
and balances” so that no one branch of
government becomes too powerful
– Legislative: Make laws
– Executive: Enforce laws
– Judicial: Decided if laws are fair, if someone broke
a law
Civil War
• A civil war is a war between groups of
the same country
– The United States Civil War lasted from
– The Union (North) defeated the
Confederacy (South)
• In Rome, a civil war broke out between
the people in 49 BCE
– The working class felt that they did not
have as many rights as the wealthy
Civil War
• During this time, Julius Caesar
became the most powerful figure
in the Roman Republic
• The Republic began to expand,
conquering areas around the
– Julius Caesar and his armies were
capturing more land for Rome
Roman Republic
• Many generals and other nobles
from Rome didn’t approve of
Julius Caesar
• They ordered Julius Caesar to
come back to Rome without his
• Caesar came back to Rome with
his army and fought the generals
and nobles in a civil war
Roman Republic shifts to the Roman Empire
Brainpop- Rise of the Roman Empire
• Caesar won the civil war and declared
himself dictator (Rome was no longer
a republic)
– He was allied with Cleopatra from Egypt
– She provided him with money and
Roman Republic shifts to the Roman Empire
Brainpop- Rise of the Roman Empire
• Although Caesar was now a dictator,
he was still well-liked by the people
• Caesar did some good things for the
people while in control
– Gave land to soldiers
– Gave food to the poor
– Granted citizenship to those who were
not citizens
End of the Roman Republic
• Even though most people in Rome liked
Caesar, the nobles and senators did not
because they lost all of their power
• In 44 BCE, Julius Caesar was stabbed to death
on the senate floor
Roman Empire
• After Caesar’s death, there was a
lot of fighting for control of Rome
• Octavian was crowned emperor
after all of the fighting
• Octavian was also known as
– Julius Caesar was his great-uncle
Roman Empire
• Augustus changed the government so that the
wealthy citizens and normal citizens were equally
– However, Augustus still maintained the power of an emperor