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Women, 1877-1929 KEY THEMES & ISSUES 1. “Separate Spheres” 2. Women and Social Reform 3. The Suffrage Campaign 4. After the Vote: Manners & Morals in the 1920s Before the Vote Separate Spheres Women occupy the “domestic sphere” morality, education, family values Men occupy the “public sphere” competition, individualism Women and Social Reform Progressive causes: Settlement Movement Jane Addams, Hull House Social Purity Movement Prohibition Women’s activism in social reform extends moral concerns of domestic sphere to public sphere The Suffrage Campaign, 1 Seneca Falls Declaration, 1848 Ratification of 19th Amendment, 1920 National American Woman Suffrage Association Pre-1910 targets individual states Only 4 western states grant full suffrage Post-1910 seeks federal amendment Alice Paul more militant protest tactics Wilson and women’s role in WW1 Suffrage Campaign, 2: Opposition Vote is a challenge to “separate spheres” & gender norms Many men & women believed women’s interests served by household suffrage Vote acknowledged women’s individuality & distinctive interests Liquor interests Elements in white South fear that federal voting legislation could be extended to blacks Ratification After the Vote low political participation dissension among feminists Equal Rights Amendment, 1923 Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party ERA & special protection Muller vs Oregon, 1908 Manners & Moral in the 1920s, 1 The Flapper Drinking Dancing Jazz Fashion Smoking Manners & Moral in the 1920s, 2 Women as consumers Magazines & Movies Dating, Marriage & Sexuality cars college co-eds Freud contraception sex State Street Swingers, “You Drink Too Much” Conclusions Continuity & Change in the Lives of American Women 1. Women were important in social reform movements prior to getting the vote. 2. Vote was an important victory for women, yet most did not exercise it and left politics to men. 3. Women entered the work-place, especially in WW1 & became increasingly important consumers. 4. Flappers used “leisure” & “style” to register a limited revolt against old gender codes & social values. 5. Most women in the 1920s were not Flappers. 6. Even the Flappers were usually looking toward marriage not a career, & were largely indifferent to politics and social causes.