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UNIT 1 REVIEW GUIDE ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS OF THE MIDDLE EAST Terms to Define: Artisans Scribes Cultural Diffusion Fertile Crescent City-state Ziggurat Cuneiform Polytheism Indo-European Carthage Nineveh Babylon Persepolis Satrap Questions: 1. What was the significance of the Neolithic Revolution? 2. What five key traits were necessary for the emergence of civilization? 3. Why is the region of the Sumerians known as Mesopotamia? 4. What environmental challenges did the Sumerians face? 5. How did the Sumerian solve these environmental challenges? 6. Describe Sumerian religion and its role in their daily lives. 7. What work of literature gives us information about the Sumerians? 8. What were the key technological advancements of the Sumerians? 9. What were the social classes of Sumerian society? 10. What were the key principles of Hammurabi’s Code? 11. Explain the origins of the Hittites and where they migrate to. 12. What accomplishments are the Hittites known for? 13. Explain the geography and resources of the Phoenicians and how they influenced their civilization. 14. What unique goods did the Phoenicians trade? 15. What is special about the Phoenician alphabet? 16. Describe the Phoenician religion. 17. What were the Assyrian people like? 18. How did the Assyrians treat the people they conquered? 19. What was the significance of King Ashurbanipal? 20. What military & technological advancements are attributed to the Assyrians? 21. What was the significance of King Nebuchadnezzar of the Chaldeans? 22. What were some accomplishments of the Chaldeans? 23. What is Cyrus the Great most known for? 24. How was Cambyses different from Cyrus? 25. Explain Darius’ rise to the throne. 26. How did Darius maintain control over the vast Persian Empire? 27. What were the main beliefs of Zoroastrianism? 28. How was Hittite law different from Sumerian/Babylonian laws? 29. How did the Persians treat the people they conquered?