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Jefferson Era Test Study Guide Vocabulary to know: John Adams- American statesman, he was a delegate to the Continental Congress, a member of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence, vice president to George Washington and the second president of the United States Thomas Jefferson-American statesman, and member of two Continental Congress, credited with writing the Declaration of Independence and signing it, and the third president of the United States. John Marshall-Federalist leader who served in the House of Representatives and as U.S. Secretary of State, he later became the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, establishing the Marbury vs. Madison the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review. William Clark-American soldier and friend of Lewis Meriwether, he was invited to explore the Louisiana Purchase and joined what is known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Meriwether Lewis-Former Army captain selected by President Thomas Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase, he led the expedition that became known as the Lewis and Clark expedition. Zebulon Pike-Army officer sent on a mission to explore west, he was ordered to find the headwaters of the red River. He attempted to climb what is known today as “Pike’s Peak”. Sacagawea- Shoshone woman who, along with her French fur-trapper husband, accompanied and aided Lewis and Clark on their expedition Tecumseh-Shawnee chief who attempted to form an Indian confederation to resist white settlement in the Northwest Territory. James Madison-American statesman, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, author of the Federalists Papers and is called the Father of the Constitution for his addition of the Bill of Rights, he was our fourth president who led us through the War of 1812. (Dolly Madison saved the pic of George!) Andrew Jackson-Nicknamed “Old Hickory”, he was an American hero in the Battle of New Orleans. As commander of the Tennessee militia, he defeated the Creek Indians securing 23 million acres of land. His election as the seventh president of the United States marked an era of democracy called Jacksonian Democracy. Places/Things/Etc.: 1. Describe the Embargo Act. The Embargo Act banned trade with all foreign countries. It was supposed to punish France and Britain, but it failed. American merchants lost money. 2. Which Act passed during the Road to the Revolution can be compared to the Embargo Act? The Navigation Acts and the Embargo Act both restricted trade. 3. What did President Adams do before leaving office? Appoints 16 new federal judges, called “Midnight Judges.” 4. Why is Marbury vs. Madison important? Marbury vs. Madison is a supreme court case between James Madison (Secretary of State) and William Marbury (judge appointed by John Adams). Marbury lost the Supreme Court case and establish judicial review- can declare a law unconstitutional. 5. What does Congress replace the Embargo Act with? What does it do? Non-Intercourse Act (1809) only bans trade with France, Great Britain, and their colonies. 6. What did Thomas Jefferson believe were the jobs of the government? What did he do to protect the people and cut down the national debt? Protect the nation from foreign threats, make sure the mail is delivered, and collect customs duties. He protected the people by cutting taxes, like the tax on whiskey. He tried to reduce the national debt by lowering military spending and reducing the size of the navy. 7. Why are the Mississippi River and New Orleans important to the United States? Used for trading and shipping, especially for merchants and farmers. 8. Explain the Louisiana Purchase. Napoleon need money to fund his wars. Jefferson needed New Orleans for American shipping. T.J. sent Robert Livingston and James Monroe to France to buy New Orleans. Napoleon sold the entire Louisiana territory for 15 million dollars. 9. How did the Constitution change after the Election of 1800? Added the 12th amendment that called for a separate ballot for president and vice president. 10. Why was Jefferson hesitant in purchasing Louisiana? How did the purchase change the U.S? The Constitution did not mention the power of the president to purchase foreign lands. He did not want to add to the national debt. It doubled the size of the U.S. and gave access to New Orleans. 11. What were Lewis and Clark sent to find? What was the result of Zebulon Pike’s expedition? Lewis and Clark were sent to find the Northwest Passage- water route to the Pacific. It does not exist. Pike gave Americans their first description of the Southwest. 12. Why was Tecumseh angry? Tecumseh was angry because white settlers were moving onto Indian lands. Thought white settlers were dangerous. He did not agree with the Treaty of Greenville (Gave U.S. Indian lands in NW territory in return for $20,000 dollars of goods). 13. Who was President during the War of 1812? What were the causes of the war? What was the nickname of the members of Congress who wanted to go to war? James Madison. The causes were: impressment of American sailors, interference with American shipping, and British aiding Native Americans. Warhawks. 14. Define impressment. Forcing people to serve in a foreign country’s army or navy. 15. Compare the U.S. navy and the British navy in the War of 1812. British had hundreds of ships, but spread out around the globe. U.S. had fewer than 20 warships, but powerful. U.S. had well trained sailors. 16. Who is Francis Scott Key? Wrote the Star Spangled Banner as he watched the American victory at Fort McHenry. 17. What was the last major conflict of the War of 1812? Who led American troops to victory at this conflict? The Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson. 18. Which treaty ended the War of 1812? Treaty of Ghent- conquered territory returned to the United States and settled boundary between U.S. and Canada. 19. What were the effects of the War of 1812? Increased sense of national pride, American manufacturing boosted, Native American resistance weakened, Andrew Jackson a war hero. Maintenance: 20. Define Eminent Domain. The government’s right to take personal property to benefit the public. 21. What are the requirements to qualify for a position of Supreme Court Justice? How long is their term? How many Justices on the Supreme court? No requirements. Until the resign or die. 9 justices. 22. What are the qualifications for members of the House of Representatives? What is the term limit? How many members in the House of Representatives? The qualifications are that a person must be 25, live in the state where they were elected, have been a citizen for 7 years. 2-year term limit. 435 members in the House. 23. Explain veto override. If the president vetoes a law, Congress can pass it without his signature with a 2/3rds majority vote. 24. Define strict construction. A way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions that the Constitution specifically says it can take.