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Western Europe
By Amanda Huy, Karina Critten, and
Kayla Harper
Countries and capitals!
United kingdom- London
Ireland: Reykjar’k
Norway- Oslo
Sweden- Stockholm
Germany- Berlin
Denmark- Copenhagen
Belgium- Brussels
France- Paris
Switzerland- Bern
Italy- Rome
Spain- Madrid
Alliances and agreements
 The Western European Union 1948:
 Have a council and secretariat formerly located in
London and based in Brussels since Jan, 1993, and
a parliamentary Assembly in Paris.
 NATO 1949:
 They adopted a “platform on European Security
interests”, in which affirmed their determination both
to strengthen the European pillar of NATO and to
provide an integrated Europe with a security and
defiance dimensions.
 Western Europe has a Parliamentary System of
 There are 3 branches: Executive, legislative, and
 The ministers of the executive branch are drawn from
the legislature and are accountable to that body, such
that the executive and legislative branches are
intertwined. In such a system, the head of government
is both de facto chief executive and chief legislator.
 The prime minister in London is Harold Macmillan
 You can vote at the age of 18.
Economy of Western
- The standard of living in Western
Europe is very wealthy. The average
income is 35,000 dollars.
Exports- Furniture, leather goods, liquor,
cars, cheese, other fine foods
Resources: pigs, root vegetables,
chemicals, iron, coal, wheat
History of western Europe
 human inhabited the European continent
since it was first populated in prehistoric
times to present with the first human
settlement between 45,000 and 25,000
Population characteristics
 There are currently 789,000,000 people living in
western Europe.
 Growth rate 0.098 % (2010 est.)
 Ethnic groups
 The Culture of Europe is better described as a series of
overlapping cultures of Europe. Language is a very
important part of culture, and Europe has a widespread
variety of languages, with most countries having at
least one official language.
Populations characteristics
Populations characteristics
Biomes of Europe and surrounding regions:
alpine tundra
montane forest
temperate broadleaf forest
mediterranean forest
temperate steppe
dry steppe
Climate and topography
 Temperatures average between 2°C (January) and
22°C (July) in London
 The climate of Europe has a maritime climate
prevailing on the western coasts and a Mediterranean
climate in the south. The climate is strongly conditioned
by the Gulf stream, which warms the western region.
 Volga – the largest river in Europe. Its length is 3,530
km. Volga basin resembles branched mighty tree,
which stretched for 1 / 3 of the East European Plain.
Source of the river is at the Valdai Hills and it feeds
mostly melted snow water.
Climate and topography
 The Danube – the second largest (2850 km) and basin
area European river. it starts its way into the mountains of
the Black Forest to the north-east of the Alps and flows into
the three main arms of the Black Sea
Dnipro – the third longest river in Europe (2201 km) and
the largest in Ukraine. As well as the Volga, Dnipro rises in
the Valdai Hills and finished his course, falling into Dnipro
estuary of the Black Sea
Located in south-central Europe, they extend for almost
700 miles in a crescent shape from the coastline of
southern France (near Monaco) into Switzerland, northern
Italy and Austria, then southeast through Slovenia, Croatia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Yugoslavia) as the (Dinaric Alps).
They end in Albania on the rugged coastline of the Adriatic
Climate and topography
Time Line
 476 AD- Dark Ages- began roughly with the fall of the western
roman empire. It lasted until the 11th century.
 1340- black death kills a third of Europe’s population
 1707- the kingdom of Great Britain is form by the union of England
and Scotland.
 1789- French Revolution
 1919- league of Nations founded.
 1919- signing of treaty of Versailles.
 1940- Nazis invade France, Belgium, Luxemburg, and
 1949- NATO- was established in Washington D.C , the most
important and long-lasting international agreement of the postwar
era, comprising the US, Britain, Canada, France, Italy, and other
western European democracies.
Current Events In West
Julian Assange, the founder of Wikileaks turned himself in to
authorities in London in December of 2010.
Arid Uka, a radicalized Muslim killed two American soldiers in a
military bus in Frankfurt, Germany last Wednesday.
Italy suspends the friendship treaty with Libya.
The royal wedding of Prince William(2nd in line to the British
throne) to Kate Middleton will be on April 29th in Westminster
Italy’s capital
About Italy
 . The capital of Italy is Rome
 Italy is located in Southern
Europe, on a peninsula that
extends out into the central
Mediterranean Sea, northeast of
Tunisia. It stands out
distinctively like a large boot on
the map.
Alliances and Agreements
 The Triple Alliance was the military alliance between
Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy that lasted from
1882 until the start of World War I in 1914. Each
member promised mutual support in the event of an
attack by any two other great powers, or for Germany
and Italy, an attack by France alone.
Italy’s government
Italy has been a democratic republic since June 2, 1946, when the
monarchy was abolished by popular referendum. The constitution was
promulgated on January 1, 1948.The Italian state is centralized. The
prefect of each of the provinces is appointed by and answerable to the
central government. In addition to the provinces, the constitution provides
for 20 regions with limited governing powers Many regional governments,
particularly in the north of Italy, are seeking additional powers.
Executive--president (chief of state), Council of Ministers (cabinet),
headed by the president of the council (prime minister).
Legislative--bicameral parliament: 630-member Chamber of Deputies,
315-member Senate (plus a varying number of "life" Senators).
Judicial--independent constitutional court and lower magistracy.
Italt’s government
Foreign Minister--Franco
President--Giorgio Napolitano Prime Minister--Silvio Berlusconi
Economy of Italy
The Italian economy has changed dramatically since the end of World
War II. From an agriculturally based economy, it has developed into an
industrial state ranked as the world's sixth-largest market economy. Italy
belongs to the Group of Eight industrialized nations; it is a member of the
European Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD).
Italy has few natural resources. With much land unsuited for farming, Italy
is a net food importer. There are no substantial deposits of iron, coal, or
oil. Proven natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore in
the Adriatic, constitute the country's most important mineral resource.
Most raw materials needed for manufacturing and more than 80% of the
country's energy sources are imported. Italy's economic strength is in the
processing and the manufacturing of goods, primarily in small and
medium-sized family-owned firms. Its major industries are precision
machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electric goods,
and fashion and clothing.
 GDP (purchasing power parity, 2009): $1.8
GDP per capita (purchasing power parity,
2009): $29,500.
GDP growth: -5.0% (2009)
Natural resources: Fish and natural gas.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, rice, grapes,
olives, citrus fruits, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans beef, dairy products
History and culture
 Italy has the fifth-highest population density in Europe-about 200 persons per square kilometer (about 500 per
sq. mi.). Minority groups are small, the largest being
the German-speaking people of Bolzano Province and
the Slovenes around Trieste.
 Roman Catholicism is the majority religion--85% of
native-born citizens are nominally Catholic--all religious
faiths are provided equal freedom before the law by the
Population characteristics
 Population (November 2009 est.): 60.3 million.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 0.07%, mostly
due to immigration.
Ethnic groups: Primarily Italian, but there are small groups
of German-, French-, Slovene-, and Albanian-Italians.
Religion: Roman Catholic (majority).
Language: Italian (official).
Education: Years compulsory--16. Literacy--98%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--3.7/1,000 live births. Life
expectancy--78.8 years for men; 84.1 years for women.
Work force (24.97 million, 2009): Services--67%; industry
and commerce--29%; agriculture--4%. Unemployment rate
is 7.8%.
Climate and topography
 The climate of Italy is mainly temperate, though it
varies slightly according to region. The north of Italy is
warm in summer, with occasional rain; the central area
of the country is very humid; and the south is hot and
dry. The northern cities of Milan, Turin and Venice
experience cold, damp foggy winter weather, and in
Tuscany the mercury drops close to freezing. Winter
weather in the south of Italy is more pleasant.
 Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean
Sea 0 m
 highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de
Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont
 Major Rivers: The major rivers in Italy are: the
Po River (which flows from the Alps near the
French border, through Turin, and eastward
into the Adriatic Sea), the Arno River (which
flows from the north-central Apennines,
through Florence, and into the Tyrrhenian
Sea), and the Tiber River (which flows from the
north-central Apennines, south through Rome,
and into the Tyrrhenian Sea).
Present day Italy
 Italy's state TV network is facing accusations of
censorship after it banned a trailer for a
documentary critical of Silvio Berlusconi,
claiming it pokes fun at the prime minister's late
 Italy is the latest Western European country
turning the screws on an expanding immigrant
population by demanding language skills in
exchange for work permits, or in some cases,
About Spain
 The capital and largest city is Madrid.
 It is located in southwestern Europe on the
Iberian Peninsula. Its mainland is bordered to
the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea
except for a small land boundary with the
British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar; to the
north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of
Biscay; and to the northwest and west by the
Atlantic Ocean and Portugal.
City of Madrid!
Alliances and Agreements
The Pact of Madrid
 It was signed in 1953 by Spain and the US. It ended a period of virtual
isolation for Spain. The1953 accord took the form of three separate
executive agreements that pledged the US to furnish economic and
military aid to Spain. The US in turn was to be permitted to construct
and to utilize air and naval bases on Spanish Territory.
American Revolutionary War
 Spain sided with France against Britain.
Treaty of Paris
 In the treaty with Spain, the colonies of the East and West Florida
were ceded to Spain, as was the island of Minorca, while the Bahama
Islands, Grenada and Montserrat, captured by the French and
Spanish, were returned to Britain.
Spain’s Government
Parliamentary Democracy and Constitutional Monarchy.
 Executive- president of government nominated by monarch, subject to
approval by democratically elected Congress of Deputies.
 Legislative- bicameral Cortes: a 350 seat Congress of Deputies and a
senate. 4 senators are elected in each of 47 peninsular provinces, 16 are
elected from the three island provinces, and Ceuta and Melilla elect two
each. This accounts for 208 senators.
 Judicial- Constitutional Tribunal has jurisdiction over constitutional
issues. Supreme tribunal heads system comprising territorial ,provincial,
regional, and municipal courts.
Political Parties
 Spanish Socialist Workers Party, Popular Party, and the United Left.
 Key regional Parties are the Convergence and Union, in Catalonia and
the Basque Nationalist Party in the Basque country.
Legal System
 The Spanish legal system is excruciatingly slow. There is a backlog of
hundreds of thousands of cases throughout Spain, which means that it
takes years for many cases to come to court.
 Voting:
 A resident of spain may vote if:
 They are registered on the population census
 They have signed the voting form
The government building in Murica City, Spain.
King Juan Carlos the first
Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero
Economy of Spain
Spain is a mixed capitalist economy and is the 12th largest in the
GDP Per Capita:
 $ 29,875
 Processed foods, textiles, footwear, petrochemicals, steel, automobiles,
consumer goods, and electronics.
 Automobiles, fruits, minerals, metals, clothing, footwear, textiles,
Natural Resources:
 Coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum,
zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, hydroelectric power.
Average Exchange Rate:
 1 euro= U.S $1.39
History of Spain
The first known peoples of present-day Spain were the
Celts and the Iberians. After an arduous conquest, the
Iberian Peninsula became a region of the Roman Empire
known as Hispania. During the early Middle Ages it came
under Germanic rule but later was conquered by Muslim
invaders. Through a very long and fitful process, the
Christian kingdoms in the north gradually rolled back
Muslim rule, finally extinguishing its last remnant in
Granada in 1492, the same year Columbus reached the
Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain
become the strongest kingdom in Europe and the leading
world power in the 16th century and first half of the 17th
Celts and Iberians!
Time line of some of
Spain's history!
 1533: Francisco Pizarro conquered the South American Inca
 1588: Phillip launched the Spanish Armada which the English
 1939-1945: world war 1- Spain remained neutral.
 1975: Franco died and Juan Carlos became King.
 July 17, 1821: Spain ceded Florida to the United Kingdom.
 1898: the Spanish were defeated in the Spanish- American
War. Cuba was given its independence and Guam, the
Philippines, and Puerto Rico were given to the United States.
Culture of Spain
 The culture of Spain is a European culture
based on a variety of influences. These include
the pre-Roman cultures, mainly the Celts and
the Iberians cultures; but mainly in the period
of Roman influences. The subsequent course
of Spanish history also added elements to the
countries cultural development. In addition, the
history of the nation and its Mediterranean and
Atlantic environment have played a significant
role in shaping its culture.
culture cont.
 Catholicism is the major religion in Spain. Spain is dominated by the
Roman Catholics. According to statistics about 76% of the population is
Catholic. People of other faith comprise of 2% and people of no faith are
about 19%.
 The official language is Spanish. Recognized languages are Aranesse
and Basque. Regional languages are Catalan/ Valencian and Galician.
 The population of Spain is 46,030,109.
 The Growth Rate as of 2010 is .49%
which was a big change from 2009 which
was 7%
 Ethnic groups: the Basques, Catalan
and Galician.
 Unemployment rate: 20%
Population Pyramid!
 The climate of Spain is extremely varied . The northern
coastal regions are cool and humid. The central plateau is
cold in the winter and hot in the summer.
 Land use: arable land : 27.18%, permanent crops: 9.85%,
other: 65.97%
 Elevations:
lowest point- Atlantic Ocean 0 M. highest point- Pico De Teide
on Canary Islands 3,718 M.
 Rivers:
 There are some 18000 rivers in Spain. Some of these are the:
Bidasoa, Nervion, Navia, Eo.
 Land Forms: Iberian Peninsula, Meseta Plateau.
Climate Graph of Spain
 Spain is Mired in a deep recession. It faces a budget gap of more
than 10% of GDP, an overhang of 800,000 unsold new home and
an economy expected to shrink by .4% in 2010.
 Spain's leader Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero has replaced his
right hand woman in a major cabinet reshuffle.
 Health Minister Trinidad Jemenez replaces Miguel Angel
Moratinos at Foreign Affairs.
 Shakira is going to be bringing her European tour to Spain!
 Victims of Spain's stolen Babies scandal say that they need help
from the government to pay for DNA testing.
The Nation as a Whole
Capital: Brussels
Alliances: Belgium is a member in both NATO, and the EU.
Location: It is below the Netherlands, above France, and to the West of
Luxembourg and Germany.
It’s government is a parliamentary democracy with a
constitutional monarchy.
The Executive branch is composed of a chief of state (King
Albert II, with a prime minister who is currently resigned, but
remains caretaker of the head of government. The cabinet is
a Council of Ministers that are fomally appointed by the King.
The Legislative branch is a bicameral Parliament that consists
of a senate (71 seats: 40 members directly elected by popular
vote, 31 inderectly) , and a Chamber of Deputies (150 seats:
members directly elected by popular vote.)
The Judicial Branch is a Supreme Court of Justice where the
judges are appointed for life by the government.
Voting is allowed at the age of 18.
King Albert
Minister-Yves Leterme
Council of
Legislative: a
with a
Senate (71
seats) and a
Chamber of
(150 seats)
Judicial: a
court of
where the
judges are
for life by
Economy of Belgium
Income: 30,000 Euro
Produce: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco, beef, veal, pork,
and milk
Exports: machinery and equipment, chemicals, finished diamonds, metals and
metal products, foods
Resources: Chemicals, metal, farm lands
Neanderthals occupy Belgium as well as the majority of Europe.
•The northernmost part of the Roman Empire was established in Belgium.
Nov 1, Duke of Brabant ordered the execution of all Jews in Brussels.
He accused them of poisoning the wells.
Feb 24, Charles V, king of Spain, was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was
the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope.
Jan 7, This was the last day of the Julian calendar in Bohemia & Holy
Roman empire. The 1582 Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted by this
time in Belgium, most of the German Roman Catholic states and the Netherlands.
A Belgian created roller skates by replacing the blades of ice skates with
Aug 25, Belgium rebelled against Netherlands.
Dec 20, An international conference declared the dissolution of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands effectively recognizing the independence of Belgium.
Jan 23, The Belgian Provisional Government decreed: The flag of
Belgium is red, yellow and black. These colors are arranged vertically.
May 5, The first mainland railway line opened in Belgium.
Neuhaus began making chocolate in Belgium.
Mar 27, 1st successful blood transfusion took place in Brussels.
Aug 4, Britain and Belgium declared war after German troops entered
Belgium. The United States proclaimed its neutrality.
Godiva Chocolates, founded by Joseph Draps, began as a family business.
Aug 4, The 1st train with Jews departed Mechelen, Belgium, to
Sep 2, Troops of the U.S. First Army entered Belgium.
Jan 12, German forces in Belgium retreated in Battle of Bulge.
Religion: Roman Catholic--75%
Population: 10,423,493
Growth rate: .082%
Median age male– 40.7 yrs.
female- 43.3 yrs.
Average Life Expectancy: 79.37 yrs.
Ethnic Groups: Fleming—58%, Walloon 31%, other—11%
Soccer and cycling are very common sports in Belgium.
•Average temp: 4 degrees C in Winter and 22 degrees C in the
•Belgium's climate receives an average of 785 mm (30.9 in) of
rainfall per year
•The weather is typically wet with 135 rainy days in a year.
•Terrain--flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast.
•Lowest point--North Sea 0 m
•Highest point--Botrange 694 m
arable land: 27.42%
permanent crops: 0.69%
other: 71.89%
•By the 28 of Feb., Belgium had gone 249 days without a
government, and is trying to establish peace in it’s
•NATO plans to make a new headquarters in brussels,
which will cost members 1B Euros.
•A Beer producing abbey watched over by monks caught
fire. The monks had been producing beer there since the
13th century.
•A man renovating his house in Gehnt, Belgium found
225,000 unclaimed Euros left from when the house was
a bank.