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Hemet High Honors Chemistry Name:________________________ Pd:___ Chapter 10 Homework Packet Date Assigned Date Due Assignment Stamp All Notes Completed and Attached ___/10 Ch 10.1 pg 332 #2-6 Ch 10.2 pg 336 #4-6 Ch 10.3 pg 341 #2 Ch 10.4 pg 348 #5, 6 Ch 10.5 pg 351 #4, 6 and practice problems #1-2 Chapter 10 Review Worksheet Due End of Class Today! Final Packet Test is on ___/50 Hemet High Chemistry 10 States of Matter Notes Section 1: The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in _______________. How it relates to gases: ____________________ = a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the KMT. o No ideal gases actually exist; some come close though, which is why we learn this. 5 Assumptions o Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size. o Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions. There is no net loss of total _____________________. o Gas particles are in continuous, rapid, random _________. Thus, they possess kinetic energy. o There are no forces of _________________ between gas particles. o The ______________ of the gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the particles of the gas. Properties of Gases: No Definite ______________ Ability to be compressed _______________ No Definite ______________ _______________ Ability to _________ (fluid) Effusion _________ Density Real Gases A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the __________________. ___________ gases and _____________ diatomic gases behave most like an ideal gas, as well as gases at high ___________________ and low _____________________. Section 2 and 3: Liquids and Solids Properties of Liquids: No Definite _____________ ____________ Tension ___________ density Evaporation Mostly incompressible, so definite _______ ____________ Diffusion Can Form ____________ Properties of Solids: Definite _________ ________ Density Definite ___________ Incompressible Defined _____________ Point ______ Rate of Diffusion Type of Solids: Crystalline Solids o __________ Crystals o __________ Crystals o Covalent ____________ Crystals o Covalent ___________ Crystals Amorphous Solids o Glass and ___________ Section 4: Changes of State Matter on earth can exist in any state—gas, ______, or solid—and can change from one state to another. The Possible changes of state are: Change of State Solid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Solid Liquid Gas Gas Solid Gas Liquid Process Example Ice Water Dry Ice CO2 Gas Water Ice Water Steam Water Vapor Ice Water Vapor Water Endo or Exo? Phase Diagram A graph of _____________ versus ______________ that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist. Tells you what __________ a substance will be in at a certain temperature and pressure. ______________________: the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor phases of the substance can coexist at equilibrium. ______________________: the critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance. ______________________: the temperature above which the substance cannot exist as a liquid. ______________________: the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid. Phase Diagram of H2O In which state is water at the following Temperatures and Pressures? Temperature Pressure 70°C 2.0 atm 100°C 0.5 atm 0°C 1.0 atm State Section 5: Changes of State Structure of Water Recall: Water has ____ Hydrogen and ____ Oxygen and has a ________ structure. Ice forms a hexagonal pattern: Look at Fig 19 on pg 350 The empty spaces result in ice’s low density and are why it ___________. Properties of Water Pure water is transparent, _____________, tasteless and almost ___________________. Water freezes and ice melts at 0°C and 1 atm. Water boils at 100°C and 1 atm. Molar enthalpy of fusion is 6.009 kJ/mol Molar enthalpy of vaporization is 40.79 kJ/mol Going from ice to water ___________ energy. Going from water to steam __________ energy. Going from water to ice ___________ energy. Going from steam to water __________ energy. The amount of energy is the ___________, it is just either required or released. Calculating Amount of Energy What quantity of energy is released when 804 g of water vapor condenses? Calculating Mass from Energy What mass of ice is required to release 2000 kJ of energy when melting?