Download The Ancient Fertile Crescent

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Akkadian Empire wikipedia, lookup

History of Mesopotamia wikipedia, lookup

Mesopotamia wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
The Ancient Fertile Crescent
The Middle East: The Cradle of Civilization
Mesopotamia
• Between Tigris and
Euphrates rivers
• Not a lot of resources
• Control of rivers key
to development
• Traders use the rivers
or go overland
• Wealth builds
Sumerian cities
Sumerian Civilization
• 12 separate citystates that battle for
land and water
• Ruler in each city is
chief servant of the
gods
• Maintains city walls,
irrigation system,
leads armies
Social Structure
• Each city-state has its
own hierarchy
• Ruling family;
officials; high priests
• Lesser priests;
scribes; merchants;
artisans
• Peasants; slaves
Religion
• Polytheistic
• Gods have human
characteristics
• Afterlife
• Underworld
• Each city-state built a
ziggurat dedicated to
the city’s god or
goddess
Ziggurat at Ur
Temple
Mountain of the
Gods
Cuneiform
• Earliest form of
writing
• Pictographs of clay
tablets
• Becomes symbols for
complicated thoughts
• Records; economic
exchanges; myths;
prayers; laws,
business contracts
Cuneiform Writing
Deciphering Cuneiform
Sumer’s Legacy
• 1900 BC Sumer is gone
• Other’s adapt cuneiform and spread
Sumerian ideas
• Astronomy and mathematics
• 60 minute hour; 360 degree circle
• Knowledge is passed along to the Greeks
and Romans
Hammurabi
• 1790 BC-King of
Babylon
• Controls
Mesopotamia
• Law Code
• Civil Law
• Criminal Law
Hammurabi’s Code
Babylonian Numbers
Other Empires
• 1400 BC Hittites
• Iron working; horsedrawn chariot
• 1350 BC Assyrians
• Trade and war
• 612 BC
Nebuchadnezzer
revives Babylon
The Persians
• Cyrus the Great
• 580-529 BC
• 539 BC conquers
Babylon
• A tolerant ruler
• Empire stretches from
Asia Minor to India
Darius the Great
• 522-486 BC
• Divided empire into
provinces headed by
a governor called a
satrap
• Law code; money
economy
• Built the Royal Road
and Persepolis
Persepolis
The People of Persepolis
Persepolis
The Royal Road
Zoroastrianism
• Founded by Zoroaster
about 600 BC
• Ahura Mazda aka the
Wise Lord
• Good vs. Evil
• Judgment Day
• Heaven/Hell
• Priests are called
magi
The Phoenicians
• Sailors and traders
• Carriers of civilization
• Colonized and traded
all around the
Mediterranean
• Developed an
alphabet with 22
symbols that the
Greeks adapt-it
becomes ours
The Egyptians
• Nile River
• Upper and Lower
• Old, Middle, New
Kingdoms
• Pharaoh
• Pyramids and
mummies
• Hieroglyphics
Roots of Judaism
• Hebrews; Palestine
• Monotheistic;
• 2000 BC-Covenant
with Abraham
• Torah
• Prophets
• Law and Morality; The
Ten Commandments