Download musical

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of music wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
MUSIC
THROUGH
THE AGES
MEDIEVAL MUSIC
(800-1450)

Church Music (Religious)


Secular Music (Non Religious)
This music consisted of songs. These songs were
single line tunes usually accompanied by medieval
instruments i.e. harp, fiddle, tabor (a drum).
One style of singing used in both secular and church
music was MELISMA.


PLAINCHANT/SONG – Single line melody sung in
latin by Monks. It was A CAPPELLA and MODAL
(not major or minor). It had free rhythm (no time
signatures or bar lines).
RENAISSANCE MUSIC
(1450-1600)
Renaissance means ‘rebirth’. Composers of this period
began to take a greater interest in writing secular music
(non-religious) and instrumental music.

MADRIGAL – The madrigal is a contrapuntal (many
parts played/sung at the same time, moving in different
directions) vocal piece which was usually secular. They
were through-composed, and can have a fa-la-la refrain.
BAROQUE MUSIC
(1600-1750)
During this period the system of modes finally fell away. Composers
started to sharpen and flatten notes. The major and minor key system
was finally established.






ORATORIO – A work based on a sacred story (usually from the bible). It
included recitatives, arias, and chorus.
RECITATIVE – A type of speech-like singing, used in operas and oratorios.
Always sung before an aria.
ARIA – A song from an opera, musical, and oratorio.
CANTATA – A work for soloists and chorus accompanied by an orchestra and
continuo – like a miniature oratorio.
FUGUE – A contrapuntal piece based on the idea of imitation. Usually in 3
or 4 parts. The entire piece grows from a single fairly brief tune called a
subject.
CHORALE – A German hymn tune.
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
(1750-1810)
This is a fairly brief period and features music of Haydn,
Mozart, and the earlier compositions of Beethoven.
MUSIC FOR PIANO
During the Classical period music for instruments became more
important than music for voices. Unlike a harpsichord, the piano
could convey different expressions through loud and soft, and various
playing
techniques (legato/staccato).


ALBERTI BASS – This consisted of simple broken chords repeated
in the left hand, keeping the music moving and supporting the melody.
SONATA – A work in several movements for one or two
instruments. E.g. piano or violin and piano.
THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
(1750-1810)
THE ORCHESTRA
The orchestra had now started to grow. An orchestra at the end
of the 18th Century included:





2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons
2 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 Kettle drums, strings
SYMPHONY – A piece of music for orchestra in 4 movements.
CONCERTO – A piece in 3 movements featuring a solo
instrument and orchestra.
STRING QUARTET – Music written for:



2 Violins
Viola
Cello
THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
(1810-1910)
The music of the Romantic period had a more powerful and
intense expression of emotions. Often the inspiration
behind a
composition was sparked by a painting or a book or a poem.


THE ORCHESTRA – had increased in size. The brass
section was now fully developed and brass instruments
had valves introduced.
PROGRAMME MUSIC – Music which ‘tells a story’
or is in some way descriptive – conjures up pictures in
the mind of the listener.
THE 20TH CENTURY
(1900 onwards)
Music in the 20th century is largely one of exploration and
experiment, leading to new ideas, techniques and sounds.

MICROTONE – The smallest interval in music.

ATONAL – Music that is not in any key.




MINIMALIST – A form of composition where the use of
harmony, rhythm, melody and instrumentation is limited.
ALEATORIC – Music which involves an element of chance or
unpredictability.
SPRECHGESANG – Atonal, German 20th Century singing.
IMPRESSIONISM – This music sounds dreamy and is
composed using the whole-tone scale. DEBUSSY is one of the
most famous impressionist composers.