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Transcript
Interior Routing Protocols
Interior routing protocols or interior gateway protocols (IGPs) are used
to exchange routing information between routers within a single
autonomous system. They are also used by routers which run exterior
routing protocols to collect network-reachability information for the
autonomous system.
Note: The term interior routing protocol has no abbreviation in common
use, so we shall use the abbreviation IGP as is usual in TCP/IP literature.
The most widely used IGPs are:



The Hello protocol.
Routing Information Protocol.
The Open Shortest Path First protocol.
Before discussing these three protocols in detail, we shall look at two
important groups of routing algorithm used in IGPs.
Routing Algorithms
In this section, we discuss the Vector-Distance and Link-State, Shortest
Path First routing algorithms.
Vector-Distance
The term Vector-Distance refers to a class of algorithms that gateways
use to update routing information. Each router begins with a set of routes
for those networks or subnets to which it is directly attached, and possibly
some additional routes to other networks or hosts if the network topology
is such that the routing protocol will be unable to produce the desired
routing correctly. This list is kept in a routing table, where each entry
identifies a destination network or host and gives the ``distance'' to that
network. The distance is called a metric and is typically measured in
``hops''.
Periodically, each router sends a copy of its routing table to any other
router it can reach directly. When a report arrives at router B from router
A, B examines the set of destinations it receives and the distance to each.
B will update its routing table if:


A knows a shorter way to reach a destination.
A lists a destination that B does not have in its table.

A's distance to a destination, already routed through A from B, has
changed.
This kind of algorithm is easy to implement, but it has a number of
disadvantages:

When routes change rapidly, that is, a new connection appears or
an old one fails, the routing topology may not stabilize to match the
changed network topology because information propagates slowly
from one router to another and while it is propagating, some routers
will have incorrect routing information.
Another disadvantage is that each router has to send a copy of its
entire routing table to every neighbor at regular intervals. Of
course, one can use longer intervals to reduce the network load but
that introduces problems related to how well the network responds
to changes in topology.
Vector-distance algorithms using hop counts as a metric do not
take account of the link speed or reliability. Such an algorithm will
use a path with hop count 2 that crosses two slow-speed lines,
instead of using a path with hop count 3 that crosses three tokenrings and may be substantially faster.
The most difficult task in a vector-distance algorithm is to prevent
instability. Different solutions are available:

Counting to infinity
Let us choose a value of 16 to represent infinity. Suppose a
network becomes inaccessible; all the immediately neighboring
routers time out and set the metric to that network to 16. We can
consider that all the neighboring routers have a piece of hardware
that connects them to the vanished network, with a cost of 16.
Since that is the only connection to the vanished network, all the
other routers in the system will converge to new routes that go
through one of those routers with a direct but unavailable
connection. Once convergence has happened, all the routers will
have metrics of 16 for the vanished network. Since 16 indicates
infinity, all routers then regard the network as unreachable.
The question with vector distance algorithms is not will
convergence occur but how long will it take? Let us consider the
configuration shown in Figure - The Counting to Infinity Problem.
Figure: The Counting to Infinity Problem - All links have a metric
of 1 except for the indirect route from C to D which has a metric of
10.
Let us consider only the routes from each gateway to the target
network.
Now, consider that the link from B to D fails. The routes should
now adjust to use the link from C to D. The routing changes start
when B notices that the route to D is no longer usable. For RIP this
occurs when B does not receive a routing update on its link to D for
180 seconds.
The following picture shows the metric to the target network, as it
appears in the routing table of each gateway.
Figure: The Counting to Infinity Problem
The problem is that B can get rid of its route to D (using a timeout
mechanism), but vestiges of that route persist in the system for a
long time (time between iterations is 30 seconds using RIP).
Initially, A and C still think they can reach D via B, so they keep
sending updates listing metrics of 3. B will receive these updates
and, in the next iteration, will claim that it can get to D via either A
or C. Of course, it can't because the routes claimed by A and C (D
reachable via B with a metric of 3) are now gone, but they have no
way of knowing that yet. Even when they discover that their routes
via B have gone away, they each think there is a route available via
the other. Eventually the system will converge, when the direct link
from C to D has a lower cost than the one received (by C) from B
and A. The worst case is when a network becomes completely
inaccessible from some part of the system: in that case, the metrics
may increase slowly in a pattern like the one above until they
finally reach ``infinity''. For this reason, the problem is called
counting to infinity. Thus the choice of infinity is a trade off
between network size and speed of convergence in case counting to
infinity happens. This explains why we chose as low a value as 16
to represent infinity. 16 is the value used by RIP.

The other solutions will be discussed within the RIP protocol (see
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)).
Link-State, Shortest Path First
The growth in networking over the past few years has pushed the
currently available Interior Gateway Protocols, which use vector-distance
algorithms, past their limits. The primary alternative to vector-distance
schemes is a class of protocols known as Link State, Shortest Path First.
The important features of these routing protocols are:




A set of physical networks is divided into a number of areas.
All routers within an area have an identical database.
Each router's database describes the complete topology (which
routers are connected to which networks) of the routing domain.
The topology of an area is represented with a database called a Link
State Database describing all of the links that each of the routers in
the area has.
Each router uses its database to derive the set of optimum paths to
all destinations from which it builds its routing table. The
algorithm used to determine the optimum paths is called a Shortest
Path First (SPF) algorithm.
In general, a link state protocol works as follows. Each router periodically
sends out a description of its connections (the state of its links) to its
neighbors (routers are neighbors if they are connected to the same
network). This description, called a Link State Advertisement (LSA),
includes the configured cost of the connection. The LSA is flooded
throughout the router's domain. Each router in the domain maintains an
identical synchronized copy of a database composed of this link state
information. This database describes both the topology of the router's
domain and routes to networks outside of the domain such as routes to
networks in other autonomous systems. Each router runs an algorithm on
its topological database resulting in a shortest-path tree. This shortestpath tree contains the shortest path to every router and network the
gateway can reach. From the shortest-path tree, the cost to the destination
and the next hop to forward a datagram to is used to build the router's
routing table.
Link-state protocols, in comparison with vector-distance protocols, send
out updates when there is news, and may send out regular updates as a
way of ensuring neighbor routers that a connection is still active. More
importantly, the information exchanged is the state of a router's links, not
the contents of the routing table. This means that link-state algorithms use
fewer network resources than their vector-distance counterparts,
particularly when the routing is complex or the autonomous system is
large. They are, however, compute-intensive. In return, users get faster
response to network events, faster route convergence, and access to more
advanced network services.
The Hello Protocol
This was used in the ``Fuzzball'' software for LSI/11 minicomputers,
which were widely used in Internet experimentation. The Hello protocol
is described in RFC 891 - DCN Local-Network Protocols. It is not an
Internet standard.
Note: OSPF (see Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF) Version 2)
includes a quite separate protocol for negotiation between routers which
is also called the Hello protocol.
The communication in the Hello protocol is via Hello messages which are
carried via IP datagrams. Hello uses protocol number 63 (reserved for
``any local network'').
The Hello protocol is significant partly because of its wide deployment
during the early expansion of the Internet and partly because it provides
an example of a vector-distance algorithm that does not use hop counts
like RIP (see Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIP, RIP-1)) but,
instead, network delays as a metric for the distance.
A Distributed Computer Network (DCN) physical host is a PDP11compatible processor which supports a number of cooperating sequential
processses, each of which is given a unique 8-bit identifier called its port
ID. Every DCN host contains one or more internet processes, each of
which supports a virtual host given a unique 8-bit identifier called its host
ID. There is a one-to-one correspondence between internet addresses and
host IDs. Each DCN physical host is identified by a host ID for the
purpose of detecting loops in routing updates, which establish the
minimum-delay paths between the virtual hosts.
Each physical host contains two tables:
Host Table
This contains estimates of round-trip delay and logical-clock offset
(that is, the difference between the logical clock of this host and the
logical clock of the sender's host). It is indexed by the host number.
The host table is maintained dynamically using updates generated
by periodic (from 1 to 30 seconds) Hello messages.
Net Table
This contains an entry for every neighbor network that may be
connected to the local network and certain other networks that are
not neighbors. Each entry contains the network number, as well as
the host number of the router (located on the local network) to that
network. The Net table is fixed at configuration time for all hosts
except those that support the GGP or EGP routing protocols. In
these cases the Net table is updated as part of the routing operation.
In addition, entries in either table can be changed by operator commands.
The delay and offset estimates are updated by Hello messages exchanged
on the links connecting physical neighbors.
Here is the format of a Hello message:
Figure: Hello Message Format
Where:
Checksum
contains a checksum covering the fields indicated
Date
is the local host's date
Time
is the local host's time
Timestamp
used in round-trip calculation (see below)
L Offset
contains the offset of the block of entries of internet addresses used
on the local network
#hosts
contains the number of entries from the host table that follows
Delay n
delay to reach host n
Offset n
offset from host n (difference between clocks)
Let us consider the two main steps of the Hello protocol.
Round-Trip Delay Calculation
Periodically each host sends a Hello message to its neighbor on each of
the communication links common to both of them. For each of these links
the sender keeps a set of state variables, including a copy of the sourceaddress field of the last Hello message received. When constructing a
Hello message the sender sets the destination-address field to this state
variable and the source-address field to its own address. It then fills in the
date and time fields from its clock and the time stamp from another state
variable. It finally copies the delay and offset values from its host table
into the message.
Round-trip delay calculations are performed on the host receiving the
Hello message. Each link has an internal state variable assigned, which is
updated as each Hello message is received; this variable takes the value
of the time field, minus the current time-of-day. When the next Hello
message is transmitted, the value assigned to the time stamp field is
computed as the low-order 16-bits of this variable minus the current timeof-day. The round trip delay is computed as the low-order 16-bits of the
current time-of-day minus the value of the timestamp field.
Host Updates
When a Hello message arrives which results in a valid round trip-delay
calculation, a host update process is performed. This consists of adding
the round trip delay to each of the ``Delay n'' entries in the Hello message
in turn and comparing each of these calculated delays to the delay field of
the corresponding host table. Each entry is then updated according to the
following rules:


If the link connects to another host on the same network and the
port ID of the link output process matches the port ID field of the
entry, then update the entry.
If the link connects to another host on the same network and the
port ID of the link output process does not match the port ID field
of the entry and the calculated delay is less than the host delay field
of the host table by at least a specified switching threshold
(currently 100 milliseconds), then update the entry. For example, if
host A sends host B a Hello message, and if B's current delay to
reach a given destination, D, is greater than the delay from A to D
plus the delay from B to A, B changes its route and sends traffic to
D via A.
The purpose of the switching threshold is to avoid (together with
minimum delay specification) unnecessary switching between links and
transient loops which can occur due to normal variations in propagation
delays.
Please refer to RFC 891 for more details.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
There are two versions of RIP. Version 1 (RIP-1) is a widely deployed
protocol with a number of known limitations. Version 2 (RIP-2) is an
enhanced version designed to alleviate the limitations of RIP while being
highly compatible with it. The term RIP is used to refer to Version 1,
while RIP-2 refers to Version 2. Whenever the reader encounters the term
RIP in TCP/IP literature, it is safe to assume that it is referring to Version
1 unless explicitly stated otherwise. We shall use this nomenclature in
this section except when the two versions are being compared, when we
shall use the term RIP-1 to avoid possible confusion.
Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIP, RIP-1)
RIP is a standard protocol (STD 34). Its status is elective. It is described
in RFC 1058, although many RIP implementations pre-date this RFC by a
number of years. RIP is generally implemented with a daemon named
routed. RIP is also supported by gated daemons.
RIP was based on the Xerox PUP and XNS routing protocols. It is widely
used, as the code is incorporated in the routing code of Berkeley BSD
UNIX which provides the basis for many UNIX implementations.
RIP is a straightforward implementation of vector-distance routing for
local networks. RIP communication uses UDP as a transport protocol,
with port number 520 as the destination port (see User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) for a description of UDP and ports). RIP operates in one of two
modes: active (normally used by routers) and passive (normally used by
hosts). The difference between the two is explained below. RIP messages
are sent in UDP datagrams and each contains up to 25 pairs of numbers as
shown in Figure - RIP Message.
Figure: RIP Message - Between 1 and 25 routes may be listed in a RIP
message. With 25 routes the message is 504 bytes long (25x20+4) which
is the maximum size message that can be transmitted in a 512-byte UDP
datagram.
Command
is 1 for a RIP request or 2 for a RIP reply.
Version
is 1.
Address Family
is 2 for IP addresses.
IP address
is the IP address for this routing entry: either a host or a subnet (in
which case the host number is zero).
Hop count metric
is the number of hops to the destination. The hop count for a
directly connected interface is 1, and each intermediate router
increments it by 1 to a maximum of 15, with 16 indicating that no
route exists to the destination.
Both active and passive RIP participants listen to all broadcast messages
and update their routing table according to the vector-distance algorithm
described earlier.
Basic Operation




When RIP is started it sends a message to each of its neighbors (on
well-known UDP port 520) asking for a copy of the neighbor's
routing table. This message is a query (command set to 1) with an
address family of 0 and a metric of 16. The neighboring routers
return a copy of their routing tables.
When RIP is in active mode it sends all or part of its routing table
to all of its neighbor routers (by broadcasting and/or by sending it
on any point-to-point links to its neighbors). This is done every 30
seconds. The routing table is sent as a reply (command is 2, even
though it is unsolicited).
When RIP discovers a metric has changed, it broadcasts the change
to other routers.
When RIP receives a reply, the message is validated and the local
routing table is updated if necessary.
To improve performance and reliability, RIP specifies that once a
router (or host) learns a route from another router, it must keep that
route until it learns of a better one (with a strictly lower cost). This
prevents routes from oscillating between two or more equal cost
paths.


When RIP receives a request, other than one for the entire table, it
is returned as the response with the metric for each entry set to the
value from the local routing table. If no route exists in the local
table, the metric is set to 16.
RIP routes learned from other routers time out unless they are readvertised within 180 seconds (6 broadcast cycles). When a route
times out, its metric is set to infinity, the invalidation of the route is
broadcast to the router's neighbors, and 60 seconds later, the route
is deleted from the local routing table.
Limitations
RIP is not designed to solve every possible routing problem. RFC 1720
(STD 1) describes these technical limitations of RIP as ``serious'' and the
IETF is evaluating candidates for a new standard ``open'' protocol to
replace RIP. Possible candidates include OSPF (see Open Shortest Path
First Protocol (OSPF) Version 2) and OSI IS-IS (see OSI Intermediate
System to Intermediate System (IS-IS)). However, RIP is widely
deployed and therefore is unlikely to be completely replaced for some
time. RIP has the following specific limitations:





The maximum cost allowed in RIP is 16 which means that the
network is unreachable. Thus RIP is inadequate for large networks
(that is, those in which legitimate hop counts approach 16).
RIP does not support variable length subnet masks (variable
subnetting). There is no facility in a RIP message to specify a
subnet mask associated with the IP address.
RIP has no facilities to ensure that routing table updates come from
authorized routers. It is an unsecure protocol.
RIP only uses fixed metrics to compare alternative routes. It is not
appropriate for situations where routes need to be chosen based on
real-time parameters such as measured delay, reliability, or load.
The protocol depends upon counting to infinity to resolve certain
unusual situations. As described earlier (Vector-Distance), the
resolution of a loop would require either much time (if the
frequency of updates was limited) or much bandwidth (if updates
were sent whenever changes were detected). As the size of the
routing domain grows, the instability of the vector-distance
algorithm in the face of changing topology becomes apparent. RIP
specifies mechanisms to minimize the problems with counting to
infinity (these are described below) which allows RIP to be used
for larger routing domains, but eventually RIP will be unable to
cope. There is no fixed upper limit, but the practical maximum
depends upon the frequency of changes to the topology, the details
of the network topology itself, and what is deemed as an acceptable
maximum time for the routing topology to stabilize.
Solving the counting to infinity problem is done by using the split
horizon, poisoned reverse and triggered updates techniques.
Split horizon with poisoned reverse
Let's consider our example network (shown in Figure - The Counting to
Infinity Problem) again.
Figure: The Counting to Infinity Problem - All links have a metric of 1
except for the indirect route from C to D which has a metric of 10.
As described in Vector-Distance the problem was caused by the fact that
A and C are engaged in a pattern of mutual deception. Each claims to be
able to reach D via the other. This can be prevented by being more careful
about where information is sent. In particular, it is never useful to claim
reachability for a destination network to the neighbor from which the
route was learned (reverse routes). The split horizon with poisoned
reverse scheme includes routes in updates sent to the router from which
they were learned, but sets their metrics to infinity. If two routers have
routes pointing at each other, advertising reverse routes with a metric of
16 will break the loop immediately. If the reverse routes are simply not
advertised (this scheme is called simple split horizon), the erroneous
routes will have to be eliminated by waiting for a timeout. Poisoned
reverse does have a disadvantage: it increases the size of the routing
messages.
Triggered updates
Split horizon with poisoned reverse will prevent any routing loop that
involves only two gateways. However, it is still possible to end up with
patterns in which three routers are engaged in mutual deception. For
example, A may believe it has a route through B, B through C, and C
through A. This cannot be solved using split horizon. This loop will only
be resolved when the metric reaches infinity and the network or host
involved is then declared unreachable. Triggered updates are an attempt
to speed up this convergence. Whenever a router changes the metric for a
route, it is required to send update messages almost immediately, even if
it is not yet time for one of the regular update messages (RIP specifies a
small time delay, between 1 and 5 seconds, in order to avoid having
triggered updates generate excessive network traffic).
Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIP-2)
RIP-2 is a draft standard protocol. Its status is elective. It is described in
RFC 1723.
RIP-2 extends RIP-1. It is less powerful than other recent IGPs such as
OSPF (see Open Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF) Version 2) and ISIS (see OSI Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS)), but it
has the advantages of easy implementation and lower overheads. The
intention of RIP-2 is to provide a straightforward replacement for RIP
which can be used on small to medium-sized networks, can be employed
in the presence of variable subnetting (see Subnets) or supernetting (see
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)) and importantly, can
interoperate with RIP-1.
RIP-2 takes advantage of the fact that half of the bytes in a RIP-1
message are reserved (must be zero) and that the original RIP-1
specification was well designed with enhancements in mind, particularly
in the use of the version field. One notable area where this is not the case
is in the interpretation of the metric field. RIP-1 specifies it as being a
value between 0 and 16 stored in a four-byte field. For compatibility,
RIP-2 preserves this definition, meaning that it agrees with RIP-1 that 16
is to be interpreted as infinity, and wastes most of this field.
Note: Neither RIP-1 nor RIP-2 are properly suited for use as an IGP in an
AS where a value of 16 is too low to be regarded as infinity, because high
values of infinity exacerbate the counting to infinity problem. The more
sophisticated Link-State protocol used in OSPF and IS-IS provides a
much better routing solution when the AS is large enough to have a
legitimate hop count close to 16.
Provided that a RIP-1 implementation obeys the specification in RFC
1058, RIP-2 can interoperate with RIP-1. The RIP message format is
extended as shown in Figure - RIP-2 Message.
Figure: RIP-2 Message - The first entry in the message may be an
authentication entry, as shown here, or it may be a route as in a RIP-1
message. If the first entry is an authentication entry, only 24 routes may
be included in a message; otherwise the maximum is 25 as in RIP-1.
The fields in a RIP-2 message are the same as for a RIP-1 message except
as follows:
Version
Is 2. This tells RIP-1 routers to ignore the fields designated as
``must be zero'' (if the value is 1, RIP-1 routers are required to
discard messages with non-zero values in these fields since the
messages originate with a router claiming to be RIP-1-compliant
but sending non-RIP-1 messages).
Address Family
May be X'FFFF' in the first entry only, indicating that this entry is
an authentication entry.
Authentication Type
Defines how the remaining 16 bytes are to be used. The only
defined types are 0 indicating no authentication and 2 indicating
that the field contains password data.
Authentication Data
The password is 16 bytes, plain text ASCII, left adjusted and
padded with ASCII NULLs (X'00').
Route Tag
Is a field intended for communicating information about the origin
of the route information. It is intended for interoperation between
RIP and other routing protocols. RIP-2 implementations must
preserve this tag, but RIP-2 does not further specify how it is to be
used.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask associated with the subnet referred to by this
entry.
Next Hop
A recommendation about the next hop that the router should use to
send datagrams to the subnet or host given in this entry.
To ensure safe interoperation with RIP, RFC 1723 specifies the following
restrictions for RIP-2 routers sending over a network interface where a
RIP-1 router may hear and operate on the RIP messages.
1. Information internal to one network must never be advertised into
another network.
2. Information about a more specific subnet may not be advertised
where RIP-1 routers would consider it a host route.
3. Supernet routes (routes with a subnet mask shorter than the natural
or ``unsubnetted'' network mask) must not be advertised where they
could be misinterpreted by RIP-1 routers.
RIP-2 also supports the use of multicasting rather than simple
broadcasting. This can reduce the load on hosts which are not listening
for RIP-2 messages. This option is configurable for each interface to
ensure optimum use of RIP-2 facilities when a router connects mixed
RIP-1/RIP-2 subnets to RIP-2-only subnets. Similarly, the use of
authentication in mixed environments can be configured to suit local
requirements.
RIP-2 is implemented in recent versions of the gated daemon, often
termed gated Version 3. Since the draft standard is new at the time of
writing, many implementations will comply with the earlier version
described in RFC 1388. Such implementations will interoperate with
those adhering to RFC 1723.
For more information on RIP-2, see:




RFC 1721 - RIP Version 2 Protocol Analysis
RFC 1722 - RIP Version 2 Protocol Applicability Statement
RFC 1723 - RIP Version 2 - Carrying Additional Information
RFC 1724 - RIP Version 2 MIB Extension