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Subskill # 6
Construct Meaning: Cause & Effect Part II
Read the passage below. Then choose the best answer for each question.
Why is the sound of the ocean’s roar in a conch shell so pleasing? Why do a few
notes from an “oldie” evoke happy memories? Does music move your body and soul?
The average person who enjoys music of any type is quite aware of the mood-lift
that comes from listening to music. For example, one person recounted that she dances to
rock music before taking an exam because she found that this makes her think better.
Another reported that listening to her favorite musical artist helped her complete her ironing
and housework in record time. Finally, some students found that listening to music with no
distinguishable hard beat helps them study and to recall information more efficiently.
Apparently, there are several medical studies currently being performed and
analyzed to prove the soundness of our laymen’s observations. The effects of music on
every cell in our bodies is documented and valued in various medical fields. Also, scientists
who have studied sounds in the universe conclude that everything, from planets and stars in
outer space, to bugs, birds, and humans on earth, to the creatures of the deep all send and
receive sound waves. These waves of sound have a direct impact not only on our feelings,
as many of us already know, but also on the way we think.
This new knowledge is called by many names – “tuning in and tuning up,” music
therapy, overtone chanting, psychoacoustics and the like. Regardless of the name, the
results on the human body are consistent. The speed of body rhythms can be slowed
(entrainment) or speeded up (syncopation) based on vibrations and anticipated beat
patterns. In addition, brain scans have shown that soft music increased necessary blood
flow to the brain’s right hemisphere, while rock music’s rhythm and pitch affected the left
hemisphere as well. A melody affects the brain’s limbic system, which is the center of
emotions. For example, a fast tempo produces happiness, and slow rhythm leads to
sadness, or melancholy.
Surprising positive effects of music are on immune systems, in the health of
premature babies, in those with neurological disorders, in surgical preparation and recovery,
and in chronic pain. Even the severely hearing impaired respond favorably to music’s
vibrations. Researchers are hoping that in the near future, a process called sonocytology
will allow doctors to listen to the patterns of sound bouncing off cell membranes. This
would allow doctors to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy cells.
In short, humans do not absolutely require music to survive. Our physical makeup
demands the beat, tone, melody, and tempo for emotional and physical health.
Now choose the best answer for each question.
1. To get the reader’s attention and
interest, the author
A. Uses a surprising statistical
B. Uses examples of oral tradition.
C. Uses a cause and effect
questioning technique.
D. Uses historical documentation.
Based on the passage, which of
these is an effect of musical
vibrations on deaf students?
A. They are unaffected by music
or it’s vibrations.
B. They “hear” musical vibrations.
C. They require musical vibrations
in order to learn.
D. Some parts of their brains
respond, but the limbic system
does not.
Vocational Preparatory Instruction
Subskill # 6
Construct Meaning: Cause & Effect Part II
Which of these best states the main
idea of the selection?
A. Doctors and researchers are
excited about the new process
called sonocytology.
B. Many positive health effects are
realized through various
sources of music.
C. Many objects in outer space
send and receive sound waves.
D. Music therapy, overtone
chanting, psycho-acoustics are
examples of entrainment.
4. The passage states, “a fast tempo
produces happiness” and “slow
rhythm leads to sadness, or
melancholy.” The relationship within
each of these ideas is one of:
6. According to the passage, what kind of
music did students find that actually
helped them study more effectively?
A. Rap music
B. Music with a heavy bass beat
C. Oldies
D. Music with a soft beat
7. What result are researchers who study
sonocytology hoping for?
A. A better understanding of the
limbic system
B. Improved methods of performing
brain scans
C. To prove that sound waves bounce
off dolphins
D. To turn unhealthy cells into healthy
A. Classification.
B. Comparison/contrast.
C. Cause/effect.
D. Simple listing.
According to the passage, what is
the cause of syncopation?
A. The listener anticipates the
B. The listener has melancholy.
C. The listener is in chronic pain.
8. What best states the main idea of the
last paragraph?
A. Music has a positive effect on the
immune system.
B. Because of our physical makeup,
we crave music in our lives.
C. Different tempos of music produce
different results.
D. Many studies show positive results
of music in our lives.
D. The listener is hearing
Read the following advertisement from a local paper. Then choose the best
answers to questions 9 and 10.
HYPNOTIST-Stop smoking, Stop overeating.
Improve memory & concentration. Eliminate bad
habits. Past life regressions. Learn self-hypnosis.
Low rates for students. John Smith, AAPA, NGH
certified. 555-1111
Vocational Preparatory Instruction
Subskill # 6
Construct Meaning: Cause & Effect Part II
Now choose the best answer to each question.
9. Why might someone be interested in
inquiring about this ad?
A. To teach self-hypnosis.
10. What promised effect might be a
misrepresentation of the uses of
B. To find more information on “NGH
A. Improve memory
C. To offer suggestions to John Smith.
C. Low student rates
D. To experience an alternative selfhelp method.
D. Improve concentration
Vocational Preparatory Instruction
B. Eliminate bad habits.
Subskill # 6
Construct Meaning: Cause & Effect Part II
Cause/Effect Post Test Module
1. C
2. B
3. B
4. C
5. A
6. D
7. D
8. B
9. D
10. B
Vocational Preparatory Instruction