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RSCCD:
DRUG USE IN AMERICA
A drug is a chemical other than food
that is purposely taken to affect the
body processes.
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
1
IDEAL VS REALITY
Weight Control Drugs
• In the late 60’s fashion models were 8%
thinner than the averaged sized woman:
today they are 23% thinner
• Today average model is 5’10” and weighs
110-115 vs 5’4” 140-160lbs
• One third of Am. Women wear a size 16 or
larger
• “Barbie” would be 5’9” at 36-18-33
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
2
Guidelines When Taking
Medications
• Take the prescribed
dosage - no more no
less
• Follow the directions
• Finish the prescription
even after you are
feeling better; Women
often relapse when
they fail to finish pres.
• Ask the pharmacist or
physician about
directions of you are
unsure about using the
medication properly
• Seek a second opinion
if you are concerned
about taking any
prescribed drug
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
3
Questions to ask when taking
Prescription Medicine
• What is the purpose of this medicine?
• What are the possible side effects of this
medicine?
• What foods, beverages, or other
medications should be avoided
• When and How do I take the medication
• How long should I take this medication
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
4
LEGAL DRUGS
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CAFFEINE
NICOTINE
ALCOHOL
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
OTC’S- OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
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ILLEGAL DRUGS
• Illegal drugs are those that an individual is
not authorized to have
• Illegal or Illicit drugs include:
• Marijuana *Cannabis sativa
• Hashish extract of cannabis 2 to 10 times
more potent than marijuana
• Cocaine (coke, snow, lady, rock)
• Heroin -narcotics
include the opiates
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
6
COMMONLY PRESCRIBED
DRUGS
• AMPHETAMINES
• ANTIDEPRESSANTS:
zoloft; prozac;
• SEDATIVEHYPNOTICS BENZODIAZEPINES;valium;
xanax
• HORMONE Therapy:
premarin; estraderm
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BARBITUATES
SLEEPING PILLS
PAIN KILLERS
OPIATES/
NARCOTICS
• ANTI-ANXIETY
• ANABOLIC
STEROIDS
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
7
OVER-THE-COUNTER
DRUGS
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Analgesics
Antihistamines
Stimulants
Laxatives
Topical Analgesics
Antacids
Sleep Aids - Compoz, Nytol, Unisom, Ultra Sleep
• Weight Management Products-phenylpropanolamine;
Dexatrim and Acutrim
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
8
STIMULANTS
• CRACK MIXTURE OF BAKING SODA
AND COCAINE-smoked in glass water
pipe-hyperactivity, paranoia, powerful
chemical dependence occurs
• COCAINE Popular recreation drug- brain
becomes tolerant which results in the need
for more and more- headache, exhaustion,
shaking, blurred vision, nausea, impotence,
loss of sexual desire
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
9
PSYCHEDELICS AND
HALLUCINOGENS
• PEYOTE
• MESCALINE
• LSD LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE
“trips” trigger panic, depression, confusion,
fear of insanity, distorted thoughts and
perceptions
• PCP phencyclidine “angel dust”
behaviorally toxic -psychotic attacks
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
10
temporary insanity
INHALANTS
• Chemicals that produce vapors with
psychoactive effects
• Solvents, aerosols, cleaning fluids, and
petroleum products
• Local irritation to nose and upper
respiratory tract, nosebleeds, loss of
coordination, loss of appetite
• Decreased breathing and HR
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
11
DEPRESSANTS
• RELAX CNS
• SLOW DOWN PHYSIOLOGICAL
EFFECTS OF BODY
• FUNCTION TO POINT OF COMA AND
EVENTUAL DEATH
• SEDATIVES, HYPNOTICS, ALCOHOL
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
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DESIGNER DRUGS
• PRODUCED IN CHEMICAL LABS
• SOLD ILLEGALLY
• SYNTHETIC NARCOTICS : Methadone, Dilaudid, Percodan,
Darvon,
• DARVON produces euphoric high and KILLS MORE PEOPLE
THAN HEROINE
• RISK OF BRAIN DAMAGE
• FATAL OVERDOSE from ingestion
• FEELINGS OF WARMTH AND OPENESS
• MORE POWERFUL THAN THOSE DERIVED FROM NATURAL
SUBSTANCES
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
13
ENTRANCE MODALITIES
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ORAL ADMINISTRATION
INHALATION
INJECTION
SUBCUTANEOUSLY
INTRAMUSCULARLY
INTRAVENOUSLY
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
14
DRUG USE TERMINOLOGY
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DRUG MISUSE
DRUG ABUSE
HABITUATION
TOLERANCE
TOXICITY
CUMULATIVE
POLYABUSE
• PHYSICAL
DEPENDENCE
• PSYCHOLOGICAL
DEPENDENCE
• CROSS
TOLERANCE
• CROSS ADDICTION
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
15
SYNERGISTIC EFFECT
• SYNERGISTIC EFFECT is a dangerous effect of
taking 2 drugs in the same general category at the
same time.
• Alcohol and tranquilizers taken together, both are
depressants, produce an effect that is @4X greater
• Than the total effect of each of the two drugs
taken separately
• Thus a much-amplified, perhaps fatal sedation will
occur.
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
16
ADDITIVE EFFECT
• When two or more drugs are taken
• The result is merely a combined total effect
of each drug
• The result is an additive effect.
• The sum of the effects are not as
exaggerated as with the synergistic effect
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
17
POTENTIATED EFFECTS
• One drug intensifies the action of a second drug
• An example Quaaludes(barbiturate) and beer, both
depressants
• Quaaludes potentiates the inhibition-releasing,
sedative effects of alcohol
• This particular combination produces inexpensive
but potentially fatal drunk like euphoria
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
18
ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT
• A drug’s action in reducing another drug’s
effects.
• Knowledge of this principle useful in
medical treatment of drug overdoses
• Tranquilizers used to relieve the effects of
LSD of other hallucinogenic drugs
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
19
The Effects of Drugs on Mother
• On mother:
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Poor Nutrition
HBP
Fast HR
Low Wt. Gain
Low Self-Esteem
Preterm Labor
STD’s
Early Delivery
HIV/AIDS
Depression
Physical Abuse
• On baby:
DRUG USE
• Premature Birth
• Low Birth Weight
• Infections
• Small Head Size
• SIDS
• Birth Defects
• Stunted Growth
• Poor Motor Skills
• HIV/AIDS
• Learning Disabilities
• Neurological
Problems
CHAPTER
4
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VOCABULARY CHAPTER 4
DRUG
USE
IN
AMERICA
BIOAVAILABILITY
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OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS
ANTIHISTIMINES
ANALGESICS
STIMULANTS
LAXATIVES
TOPICAL ANALGESICS
ANTACIDS
CONTRAINDICATIONS
ILLICIT DRUGS
TOLERANCE
PHYSICAL DEPENDANCE
PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDANCE
WITHDRAWL
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
ANTIDEPRESSANTS
SEDATIVE-HYPNOTICS
HRT
DRUG USE CHAPTER 4
AMPHETAMINES
21