Download Hymenoptera

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

External morphology of Lepidoptera wikipedia, lookup

Myrmecophily wikipedia, lookup

Army ant wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
HYMENOPTERA
IMPORTANT POINTS
• 3rd or 4th most species-rich order.
• “Membrane-wing”; well developed ovipositor;
most live in constructed “nests”.
• Includes: sawflies, parasitoids, “wasps”, ants, & bees.
• “Wasp” = general, paraphyletic term; may describe
almost any hymenopteran.
• Many “beneficial” species but also many pests.
• In many habitats may be most numerous insects in numbers of
individuals because of social species with large colonies,
especially ants, which may be “keystone” species.
• Bees are the primary pollinators of zoophilous vascular plants; they are
linked to survival of the earth’s modern vegetation.
Taxonomy & Diversity
Suborder SYMPHYTA sawflies
<10% of species
Suborder APOCRITA
Division Parasitica, parasitoids,
>70% of species
Division Aculeata, stinging wasps, ants, & bees
~20% spp.
Phylogenetic hypothesis for the
evolution of the Hymenoptera
IMPORTANCE
Natural World
“The little things that run the world.” --E. O. Wilson
Special ecosystem functions:
• Resource cycling, especially ants
• Population control, parasitoids, predators
• Pollination (plant reproduction), bees, others
IMPORTANCE
Anthropophilic World
Beneficials
• Bioloical Control: horticultural & agricultural
• Pollinators: honey bees, bumble bees, solitary
bees
• Hive Products: honey, wax, misc.
Pests
• Agriculture: phytophagous sawflies
• Structural damage: carpenter bees & ants
• Nuisance: stinging wasps, ants
• Medical: stings to allergic individuals, trauma
Typical Features of HYMENOPTERA
Sawflies vs. Apocrita
• Larvae
• Wings
• Mouthparts
Larvae
Sawflies: caterpillar-like, one pair stemmata,
> 6 pair prolegs; free-living.
Apocrita: grub-like maggots, relatively
featureless; live in protected nest cells.
lepidopterous caterpillar
> 6 prolegs
multiply-segmented
antennae
single stemma
SYMPHYTA, sawflies
from Peterson 1962
from Borror, Triplehorn & Johnson, 1980
sawfly larvae
Larvae of APOCRITA
• live in protected spaces
• fed by adults
• soft, grub-like, reduced
features
from Peterson 1962
Wings
Sawflies: always 2 pair,
veination heavy, basic
Apocrita: 2 pair or one
sex apterous, venation
often reduced,
mambrane may be
patterned, fore- &
hindwings attached with
hammuli.
representative sawfly wings
Wings of Apocrita
Chalcidoid (parasitoid) wings,
Most very small, reduced veins
Wings of aculeate wasps & bees,
normal size, rel. full veination
Wing coupling
velcro-like
hamuli
Adult Mouthparts
Sawflies: chewing or nonfunctional
Apocrita: may be highly modified with
manipulative, chewing mandibles, maxillae
& labium formed into a liquid-sucking
device. In some very long for feeding from
deep-corolla flowers.
Mouthparts
from Snodgrass
honey bee mouthparts
tongue of a Euglossine bee
Other Features of APOCRITA
Abdomen
mesosoma
metasoma
propodeum
petiole
gaster
Propodeum & gaster configurations in APOCRITA
Sting
• Modified abdominal
tergites/sternites
• Double stylet with levering
valves at base
• Venom glands in some spp.
• Evolution:
Ovipositor 
Host-paralysing 
Defensive Sting
parasitoid,
egg-laying
aculeate bee or wasp,
offensive, defensive
specialized, barbed
honey bee sting
Genetics
Haplodiploidy is the rule: Female 2N, Male 1N
Sociality
Symphyta & Parasitica, solitary
Aculeata, most solitary but many social
Multiple origins of sociality, even within
families, e.g. sweat bees
Parasitoids:
Natural & Agricultural
Biocontrol
parasitoid & host
chalcidoids
aphid mummies
Braconid wasp
ovipositing into
lepidopterous pupae.
Pupae of a parasitoid
formed on host’s
exterior as larvae exit.
some cynipid galls
A parasitoid cynipid ovipositing
into a gall made by a gall-making
cynipid.
Cynipidae,
gall-wasps and parasitoids
cuckoo wasp (Chrysididae)
velvet ant (Mutilidae)
Charismatic aculeates.
“Acule” = “spear”.
Important features of non-parasitic Aculeata
“Central-place” foragers:
Nests
Complex behavior, homing ability
+ Larval protection
- Requires defense
- Energetically expensive
- Resource dependent
Vespidae: yellow jackets, paper wasps:
pests & beneficials
larva
Nest-building
Provisioning (hunting)
Egg-Laying
Larval Development
• An important clade within the Hymenoptera
• Specialized wasps
• Food: nectar & pollen
(not predators, as their close relatives)
• Coevolved with vascular plants
• Pollinaton
Natural World
Anthropophilic world (agriculture)
More on BEES later…
Red Imported Fire Ant
Solenopsis invicta
• Native to the Pantonal, a semitropical region in SW Brazil
• Introduced early 1900’s
in Alabama
• Exotic pest with no natural
enemies  explosive
population growth
• Expansion to many warm
regions
• Native counterparts in genus
Solenopsis
~2008
Original
introduction,
1920’s
RIFA range in USA (slightly outdated)
Typical mode of infestation showing early mound development.
Closely-related colonies may
form “super colonies” covering
many square miles.
queen
RIFA caste
polymorphism
day 1
~ 1 week
typical RIFA welts & pustules
dense population of RIFA in pasture
A generalist, RIFA attacks many species of wildlife
Integrated Pest Management of
Red Imported Fire Ant
• RIFA is essentially impossible to eradicate in the open and
difficult to manage.
• Toxic pesticides were initially sprayed over wide areas
yielding no significant overall effect but causing massive
contamination and side effects.
• Current use of pesticides is generally limited to local
“mound drench”.
• Mounds can be knocked down but are quickly rebuilt.
• Biological control methods offer some promise of future
management.
• RIFA is climate limited but climate warming may expand its potential
distribution northward.
• RIFA was detected in WA in 1999 in a greenhouse; it was eradicated.
~ fin ~