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Environmental Science AP
2012 - 2013
Semester I: Chapters 1-16, 28, 29, and 30
Study Outlines: 61 pages
The Semester I Final will cover all 19 chapters listed
Please plan on 250-300 multiple-choice questions,
with the Final Exam point total being scaled to =
20% of the semester grade, - - a fairly traditional
comprehensive final relative point value.
As you know, you’ll have 2 hours to complete the
Chapter Study Outlines
Chapter 1: Part I
1. Noteworthy Environmental Science themes:
a. People & Nature: People and Nature are intimately connected; human survival
depends on the environment.
b. Rapid human population growth: - is generally considered to be a (“the”)
fundamental environmental issue/topic/challenge.
c. Sustainability: Human survival and human-built systems (e.g., an urban area), like
natural systems, depend on sustainable systems.
d. Human environmental impacts: Humans have had an impact on the environment
for millions of years.
e. Urban environments: Approximately 50% of the global population lives in cities,
and it is projected that about 65% of the global population will live in cities by the
year 2025.
f. Science and Values: Value judgments based on scientific knowledge: Solutions to
environmental challenges typically involve making value judgments based on
scientific knowledge. Environmental problems or challenges have a cultural and
social context, and understanding the role of cultural, social, and economic factors
is vital to the development of solutions.
g. Precautionary Principle: This principle implies that there is a social responsibility
to protect the public from exposure to harm when scientific investigation has
found a plausible risk, even though an exhaustive body of scientific evidence may
not exist at the time that a decision is made or could be made.
2. Describe what is meant by the phrase “an environmentally sustainable society”.
3. Compare and contrast “ecology” and “environmental science”:
4. Identify five different “natural sciences” which are generally considered to be a part
of environmental science.
5. Graphically display linear and exponential growth (show both on the same graph):
6. Describe the overall trend in human population growth over the last 500 years or so.
7. What has happened to the length of doubling time of the human population over the
course of human history?
8. Describe a relatively quick way to calculate doubling time. (For example, given a
growth rate of 2.0%, D.T. =?).
9. Define “economic growth” and identify the two basic ways this accomplished:
10. Define GNP and per capita GNP:
11. What does the “Ecological Footprint” refer to?
12. Describe the Gaia hypothesis:
13. How is a “megacity” defined?
14. Describe carrying capacity (K):
15. Why is there a time lag between a given population overshooting K and die-back?
16. Identify three environmental resistance factors:
17. Distinguish between renewable resources, potentially renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources; include an example of each.
18. Which resource(s) is considered “perpetual”?
19. Discuss the relationship between potentially renewable resources and sustainable yield.
20. Describe the four justifications or methods of placing value on the environment listed
a. Utilitarian justification:
b. Ecological justification:
c. Aesthetic justification:
d. Moral justification:
21. Define “environmental degradation” and give two examples:
22. Describe “the Tragedy of the Commons”:
23. Identify two approaches which might decrease/prevent “the tragedy of the commons”:
24. Define “pollution”:
25. Contrast “Point” and “Nonpoint” pollutant sources, providing two examples of each:
26. Identify two governmental approaches which might encourage pollution prevention
and pollution cleanup.
27. Describe two limitations or drawbacks to pollution cleanup strategies: (vs. prevention)
28. Identify three major environmental/resource problems from/associated with each of the
following categories:
(a) Water Pollution (b) Biodiversity (c) Air Pollution (d) Food Supply (e) Waste
29. Briefly explain the I = PAT equation.
30. Who was Julian Simon and what did he see as “the most valuable resource” on Earth:
31. “Julian Simon vs. Paul Ehrlich”: contrasting views on a global human carrying capacity ...
32. Identify two important changes that many environmental scientists think should take place
in the decades ahead in order for our species to experience sustainability on a global level.
Important Terminology:
1. Environmental Science
2. Ecology
3. Exponential Growth
4. Linear Growth
5. Doubling Time; Rule of 70
6. Natural Science
7. Social Science
8. Conservation
9. Preservation
10. Restoration
11. Natural Resources
12. Sustainability
13. Gross National Product(GNP)
14. Per Capita GNP
15. “MDCs”
16. “LDCs”
17. The Wealth Gap
18. Ecological Footprint
19. Perpetual Resource
20. Renewable Resources
21. Nonrenewable Resources
22. Common Property Resources
23. The Tragedy of the Commons
24. Sustainable Yield
25. Environmental Degradation
26. Mineral
27. Metallic Mineral Resources
28. Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
29. Economic Depletion
30. Recycling; Reusing
31. “Pollution”: Point sources, Nonpoint sources, Prevention, Cleanup
Chapter 1, Part II
Environmental History: Brief Overview
1. Describe how the American Bison was nearly driven to extinction.
2. Identify two approaches used which have helped to increase bison numbers.
3. Discuss major differences between hunter-gatherer societies and industrializedagriculture societies in terms of the following:
(a) The division of labor:
(b) The use of energy and material resources:
(c) The relationship between humans and the natural world:
(d) Population size:
(e) The impact(s) of their societies on the environment.
4. Homo sapiens (sapiens) have walked the earth for approximately how many
5. Earth is approximately how many years old?
6. Approximately how many years ago did each of the following begin?
(a) the agricultural revolution: ______ ; (b) the industrial revolution: ______
(c) the “information/globalization” revolution: ______
7. Describe three specific and significant positive impacts of the agricultural revolution:
8. Describe three specific and significant negative impacts of the agricultural revolution:
9. Describe three specific societal or environmental changes which occurred due largely or
solely to the industrial revolution.
10. Describe the fundamental difference(s) between Conservationists and Preservationists:
11. Briefly describe what each of the following legislative measures/agreements calls for:
{Note: Dates/Years, overall, are not a point of emphasis, but may provide insight regarding
particular time periods in U.S. and/or global history.}
(a) Forest Reserve Act (1891):
(b) Lacey Act (1900):
(c) Antiquities Act (1906):
(d) National Park Service Act (1916):
(e) Taylor Grazing Act (1934):
(f) Soil Conservation Act (1935):
(g) Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (1937):
(h) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947): FIFRA
(i) Atomic Energy Act (1954):
(j) Price-Anderson Act (1957):
(k) Wilderness Act (1964): Howard Zahniser & Aldo Leopold
(l) National Environmental Policy Act (1969): NEPA
(m) Resources Recovery Act (1970):
(n) Ocean Dumping Act (1972):
(o) Endangered Species Act (1973): ESA
(p) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972:
(q) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976): RCRA
(r) Clean Water Act (1977 + amend.):
(s) Safe Drinking Water Act (1974, 1984, 1996):
(t) Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977): SMCRA
(u) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980):
(v) Montreal Protocol (1987):
(w) Clean Air Act (1990 + amend.): NAAQS
(x) “The Kyoto Meeting”(1997):
(y) “The Copenhagen Summit” (2009): COP 15 (UN Conference of the Parties) –as one
example of the COP gatherings
(z) We may add one or more acts or treaties to the assemblage above:
12. Who was Rachel Carson? What is the title of her most famous book (in the context of this
13. Who was Aldo Leopold? Briefly describe his concept of “Land Ethics”:
14. Who was Garrett Hardin and what is the title of his most famous essay? Briefly describe
what this essay is about, beyond merely restating the essay title.
Important Terminology, Case Studies, Individuals, and Concepts:
Agricultural revolution
Slash-and-burn cultivation
Shifting cultivation
Sustainable cultivation
Industrial revolution
Sustainable yield
8. Multiple use
9. Wise-use Conservationists
10. Preservationists
11. The first Wildlife Refuge established,(1870, Lake Merritt, California)
12. Yellowstone National Park(1872)
13. First National Wildlife Refuge established,(1903, Pelican Island, Florida)
14. Civilian Conservation Corps
15. Tennessee Valley Authority
16. Soil Conservation Service (National Resources Conservation Service)
17. U.S. Forest Service
18. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring(published 1962)
19. Paul Ehrlich’s Population Bomb(published 1968)
20. Garrett Hardin’s Tragedy of the Commons (article published 1968)
21. Cuyahoga River fire(1969)
22. Santa Barbara off-shore oil well leaks(1969)
23. National Environmental Policy Act(1969)
24. EPA established(1970)
25. OPEC Oil Embargo(1973)
26. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina: CFCs and Stratospheric O3 (1974)
27. Love Canal(1978)
28. Three Mile Island(1979)
29. Bhopal, India accident: Union Carbide Chemical Plant(Pesticides)
30. Sagebrush Rebellion
31. Henry David Thoreau
32. George Perkins Marsh
33. John Muir
34. Theodore Roosevelt
35. Gifford Pinchot
Chapter 2: Critical Thinking & The Environment
-Solving/Attempting to Solve Environmental Challenges
Note: This section also includes fundamental science concepts, processes, and
terms related to science, energy, and matter. While many of these may
be review for you, we’ll make sure that we are fine with these, along with
the rest of the topic/chapter material.)
1. Mono Lake case study: please summarize this famous case study:
2. Accuracy (agreement w/ accepted value): Provide one example
3. Precision (degree of exactness measured): Provide one example:
4. Briefly summarize the Easter Island case study:
5. Briefly describe one of the significant challenges or limitations of the
environmental science discipline:
6. Describe what a hypothesis is, including the two most essential characteristics of
a functional hypothesis:
7. Contrast the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment:
8. Describe the purpose of the control in an experiment:
9. Discuss the value of reproducibility in experimentation:
10. Comment on the issue of sample size in experimentation:
11. Contrast theory and law as they apply to science:
12. Define a “system” and include the key components found in most systems:
13. Define positive feedback loop and negative feedback loop:
14. Explain how positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops can be coupled
to maintain stability.
15. Define homeostasis:
16. Discuss the concept of “delay” as it often applies to a complex system(s) in the
field of environmental science.
17. Explain what is meant by a “threshold level”:
18. Explain the concept of “leverage”:
19. Give an example of a synergistic interaction in environmental science.
20. Explain how full-cost pricing could likely reduce some types of pollution.
21. How many naturally-occurring elements are there?
22. How many different elements have been synthesized in the lab?
23. Contrast inorganic and organic compounds, and provide two examples of each.
24. Briefly describe the nature of the pH scale:
25. A solution which has a pH of 9 is how many times more alkaline than a solution
which has a pH of 4? __________
26. Distinguish between high-quality matter and low-quality matter:
27. Define Entropy:
28. What does material efficiency or resource productivity refer to?
29. Define Energy:
30. Contrast high-quality energy and low-quality energy:
31. Describe the Law of Conservation of Matter:
32. Identify the three factors that determine how severe the harmful effects of a
pollutant will possibly be:
33. Provide two examples of pollutants classified in each of the following categories:
(a) Degradable/Biodegradable
(b) Slowly Degradable
(c) Non-degradable
34. Assume that your Aunt Greta, who is a nuclear physicist, gives you one kilogram
of Uranium-234 as a graduation present. (You had been dropping subtle hints for
years). U-234 has a half-life of 250,000 years.
(a) How many grams of U-234 will remain after 250,000 years?
(b) How many grams of U-234 will remain after 750,000 years?
(c) How many grams of U-234 will remain after one million years?
Important Terminology:
1. Experimental Design
2. Controlled Experiment
3. Hypothesis
4. Independent Variable
5. Dependent Variable
6. Control
7. Reproducibility
8. Sample Size
9. Double-Blind Experiment
10. Placebo
11. Theory vs. Law
12. Inductive Reasoning
13. Deductive Reasoning
14. System: Inputs, Flows, Throughputs,
Stores/Accumulations/Sinks, Outputs
15. Positive Feedback loops
16. Negative Feedback Loops
17. Delays
18. Synergy
19. Homeostasis
20. Discontinuities
21. Chaos
22. Matter
23. Elements
24. Compounds
25. Mixtures
26. Atoms
27. Ions
28. Molecules
29. Subatomic Particles:
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
30. Nucleus
31. Atomic Number
32. Mass Number
33. Isotopes
34. Radioisotopes & Half-life
35. Ionizing & Non-ionizing Radiation
36. Low-level and High-Level Radioactive isotopes/materials
37. Safe-Storage time for radioactive isotopes/wastes: rule of 10 half-lives
38. Concentration
39. pH and the pH scale; Acids and Bases
40. Chemical Formulas: see the attached page
41. Bonds: Ionic, Covalent, Hydrogen
42. Organic and Inorganic Compounds
43. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
44. Chlorofluorocarbons
45. Monomers and Polymers
46. Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids
47. Nucleic Acids and Nucleotides
48. DNA, Genes, Chromosomes
49. Genome
50. Gene Mutations
51. Matter Quality: High vs. Low
52. Entropy
53. Material Efficiency (Resource Productivity)
54. Energy: Potential vs. Kinetic
55. Electromagnetic Radiation
56. Heat vs. Temperature
57. High- and Low-Quality Energy
58. Physical vs. Chemical Changes
59. Law of Conservation of Matter
60. Circle of Poison
61. Persistence
62. Degradable, Biodegradable
63. Nuclear Change: Fusion vs. Fission
64. Critical Mass
65. Chain Reaction
66. Gamma Rays
67. Alpha Particles
68. Beta Particles
69. Genetic vs. Somatic Change
70. Electromagnetic Fields (E.M.F.s)
71. Radiocarbon Dating
72. Tracers
73. The First and Second Laws of Energy
74. Energy Efficiency (Energy Productivity)
75. High-Throughput Economies
76. Sinks, Reserves, Accumulations
77. Matter-Recycling Economies
78. Low-throughput Economies
___________________ ___________________
Chapter 28: Environmental Economics
“The Commons”; “A” Commons
Full-Cost Pricing: the internalization of external costs
Public Service Functions of Nature
Ecosystem Services
Landscape Aesthetics
Nature Valuation
Risk-Benefit Analysis: Ex. DDT
Marginal Costs: in environmental economics, the cost to reduce one additional
unit of a type of degradation; for example, a specific air pollutant such as
mercury from combusting coal at a coal-fired power plant
10. Economic Policy Instruments: (please see information below)
11. Fishing Resources and Policy Instruments
12. U.S. Fisheries case study: Seeking Sustainability? Jobs/Economics/Food/ Fish
Information regarding #10. Policy Instruments (above)
Source: The World Health Organization
The common element of all economic instruments is that they effect change or influence
behavior through their impact on market signals. Economic instruments are a means of
considering "external costs," i.e. costs to the public incurred during production, exchange
or transport of various goods and services, so as to convey more accurate market signals.
Those external costs may include natural resource depletion, environmental degradation,
health impacts, social impacts, etc. Economic instruments facilitate the implementation of
Principle 16 of the Rio Declaration, commonly known as the "Polluter Pays Principle."
The article states: "National Authorities should endeavor to promote the internalization of
environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the
approach that the polluter, should in principle, bear the cost of pollution with due regard
to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment."
Economic Instruments can be designed in a variety of ways, and for a variety of
applications, including the following:
Increasing prices of goods and services that damage health and environment, as
well as increasing financial returns in the case of more sustainable approaches that
foster more environmentally- friendly production and consumption patterns.
Reduction of compliance costs by providing flexibility to polluters or users of
natural resources to chose the most cost-efficient and environmentally-effective
Incentives for investments in innovation and improved environmental technology
so that both environmental and financial benefits are generated.
Allocation of property rights and responsibilities of firms, groups or individuals in
a manner so that they have both the incentive and the power to act in a more
environmentally- responsible manner.
The raising of revenues to achieve environment and health objectives via tax
Relevance to policy-making
Economic instruments are often contrasted to "command and control" policy approaches
that determine pollution reduction targets and define allowable control technologies via
laws or regulations. In reality, however, command and control policy and economic
instruments frequently operate in tandem. A government may set limits on permitted
pollution levels for a region or a country in order to meet a certain health or environment
objective. Market-oriented approaches such as tradable permits might then be used to
allocate the allowable emissions in an efficient manner. Tax breaks or other financial
incentives might be offered to groups, individuals or industries investing in cleaner
Systems of Change: The Big Picture
Chapter 3
Environmental Science AP
Instructor: Ben Smith
Big Ideas and Supporting Material related to Ch.3:
1. The Amboseli National Reserve case study
2. Systems and Feedback: System defined; Positive & Negative Feedback Loops
3. Exponential Growth
4. Doubling Time
5. Rule of 70 (again)
6. “Sustainable Growth”: Is this an oxymoronic phrase?
7. Environmental Unity
8. Uniformitarianism
9. James Hutton: Early Rock Star
10. Steady State
11. Average Residence Time (A.R.T.)
12. Earth as a living system
13. Biota
14. Biosphere
15. Ecosystems
16. Gaia Hypothesis
17. Lag Time; Delay
__________________________ _________________________
Human Population: Growth, Demographics, & Carrying
Capacity : Chapter 4
Environmental Science AP
Instructor: Ben Smith
Peninsula High School
1. “If the human population continues to grow rapidly, it will ultimately overwhelm the
environment. That is why human population growth is a major theme of this
textbook.” Page 57 Botkin & Keller
- Given this quote early in chapter 4, what should be done to address this theme?
- If asked to choose one other “theme” mentioned in chapter 1 that is most critical in
somehow addressing or dealing with human population growth as a challenge, which
one would you select and why?
2. “The human population, the quality of life, and the human carrying capacity of
Earth”: page 66, 4.7, B& K
- Please be familiar with the following:
A. Human population and Logistic Growth:
B. The “Packing Problem” approach: ... 50 billion ... ? ?
C. The “Deep Ecology” movement:
3. Describe the Prophecy of Malthus: A Closer Look 4.3, p. 67
4. How Many People Can Earth Support? Identify the six factors considered in
attempting to answer this question in the Critical Thinking Issue on page 71.
5. Would you add any other factors to this list in determining Earth’s human carrying
6. Please write the basic equation for calculating population change and be able to apply
7. ZPG stands for:
8. What is crude birth rate and what makes this value “crude”?
9. What is crude death rate and what makes this value “crude”?
10. Calculate the annual rate of population change for each of the following:
Annual Rate Pop. Change(%)
Globally: crude birth rate is 22; crude death rate is 9
MDCs: crude birth rate is 11; crude death rate is 10
LDCs : crude birth rate is 25; crude death rate is 9
Africa : crude birth rate is 38; crude death rate is 14
Latin America: crude birth rate is 24; crude death rate is 6
Oceania: crude birth rate is 18; crude death rate is 7
United States: crude birth rate is 15; crude death rate is 9
Europe: crude birth rate is 10; crude death rate is 11
11. Determine the rate of population change for a country which begins a year with
1 million people and has 1675 births, 450 deaths, 325 immigrants, and 150 emigrants
in a given year: _____ .
12. Globally, over the last 100 years, which have dropped more dramatically, birth rates
or death rates? Provide three significant reasons for this:
13. In 1963, the global growth rate was 2.2%; in 2000, global growth rate was 1.35%.
Currently, globally growth rate is approximately ____ %.
14. Given the global growth rate in year 2000, doubling time = _____.
15. Given a starting population of 7.2 billion people and using the global growth rate of
1.1%, how many people would be added to the planet in a given year? ___________.
16. Given a starting population of 310 million in a nation and a growth rate of 1.0%, how
many people will be added to this country in a given year? ____________.
17. Identify the five most populous nations: ___________, __________, ___________,
______________, and ________________. (as of Sept. 2012)
18. How does replacement-level fertility differ from total fertility rate?
19. Does TFR tend to be higher in developing or developed countries? ______________.
TFRs for: Developing nations: ____ Developed nations: ____
Global: ___
20. Describe two likely reasons or factors which contribute to TFRs being higher in the
category of countries identified in #19 above:
21. Why is replacement-level fertility not equal to 2.0?
22. On which continent is TFR the highest? __________.
23. Describe the demographic transition model? What is this model used for?
Be familiar with the following: the major stages of this model, the changes in
population, birth rate, and death rate which occur, and the major factors which help
bring about the changes in these three (pop, B.R, & D.R.).
24. When was the so-called baby boom in the United States? _____________.
25. When was the so-called echo boom in the United States? _____________.
26. Be familiar with the major factors affecting birth rates and fertility rates:
27. Describe two potential effects of advances in medicine on the demographic transition:
28. The rapid growth of the world’s population over the last 100 years is primarily the
result of __________________________________.
29. Provide three fundamental reasons which briefly explain how this change (from the
answer to #28 above) has come about: ___________________________________ ,
__________________________________ , ______________________________
30. Name the two most useful indicators of overall health of people in a country or region:
___________________________ and _____________________________.
31. Of the factors/indicators in #30 above, which one is considered the single most
important? ______________________.
32. Explain why population age structure diagrams are important in making population
growth estimates. Identify the three age categories and the four general types of age
structure diagrams:
33. Comparison of key demographic indicators in a:
-highly developed, -moderately developed, and -less developed country:
34. Approximately what percent of the world’s people live in populations that are stable
in terms of the rate of growth? _____ These populations are primarily in: _____________ .
35. Be familiar with the “Immigration in the United States” case study, in short:
36. Please present an argument in support of:
A. Slowing population growth:
B. Not slowing population growth:
37. Briefly summarize Garrett Hardin’s perspective on human population growth and carrying
38. Case studies in brief:
A. Thailand: be familiar with the factors which contributed to the success of
Thailand’s population growth rate reduction: (3.2% to 1.6% from 1971 to 1986,
then down to 1.0% by year 2000.)
B. India:
C. China:
39. United Nations Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, Egypt, 1994:
Population Plan(goals/policies/actions/recommendations):
Study Outline: Chapters 5, 6, & 9
Environmental Science AP
Biogeochemical Cycles: “Global Recycling Program” Ch. 5
1. Describe/characterize each of the following:
(a) Lithosphere (b) Hydrosphere (c) Atmosphere (Troposphere, Stratosphere)
(d) Ecosphere/Biosphere (e) Cryosphere
2. Distinguish between open and closed systems:
Identify four biogeochemical cycles:
3. Biogeochemical Cycles: (a) Major types of: Atmospheric, Sedimentary, Hydrologic
(b) Specific chemical cycles: N, C, H2O, P, S
4. Why is it necessary that biogeochemical cycles exist? Explain:
Hydrologic Cycle:
5. Briefly describe the seven main processes involved in the hydrologic cycle:
Evaporation, Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, Infiltration,
Percolation, Surface Runoff
6. Name the two driving forces behind the water cycle:
7. Relate precipitation and condensation nuclei:
8. Relate the following terms: groundwater, aquifer, and water table:
9. Describe three significant anthropogenic interventions in the hydrologic cycle:
10. Why is the water cycle vital to the biosphere?(Describe three specific functions
performed by or made possible by water.)
11. Absolute and Relative Humidity
12. Condensation Nuclei
13. Dew Point
Carbon Cycle:
14. Provide three specific ways in which carbon is essential for biota to function:
15. Carbon dioxide comprises approximately what percent of tropospheric gases?
16. How is this relative amount(%) of CO2 so important in contributing to the earth’s
“natural thermostat”? (e.g., relative to the amount of water vapor in the troposphere.)
17. Identify the two processes which have the greatest influence on tropospheric
concentrations of carbon dioxide on a monthly or yearly basis. Explain:
18. Name the two largest sinks(storage areas) for carbon; briefly explain how these
areas have become such substantial carbon sinks.
19. Though you may have commented on this above, relate “new carbon” stores to the
formation of “old carbon” stores.
Page 1 of 3 Chapter 5 Biogeochemical Cycles
20. Carbon Cycle: Carbon Dioxide, Glucose, Calcium Carbonate, Carbonate ions,
Bicarbonate ions, Calcium ions
21. “Global Warming”
22. Discuss how oceans play a major role in regulating CO2 levels in the troposhpere.
Include in your discussion the formation of the following ions or compounds:
CO32- , HCO3- , Ca2+ , CaCO3
23. Describe the two major human interventions in the carbon cycle:
24. Discuss three specific ramifications of increased tropospheric temperature as a result
of an increase in tropospheric CO2 concentration.
25. Duke’s F.A.C.E. Project: be familiar w/ (as well as other similar experiments):
26. Comment on the type of feedback loop(s) (the relationship) that would likely be involved
in a scenario in which tropospheric concentrations of CO2 increase and the amount of
snowpack and glacier size/area.
27. The Carbon-Silicate Cycle:
Nitrogen Cycle:
28. Why is the nitrogen cycle significant to biota?
29. Identify the two major ways that nitrogen is “fixed”;
30. Describe what takes place in each of the following processes or steps of the N-Cycle:
(include a description of the events and chemical transformations occurring in each step:)
(a) Nitrogen Fixation:
(b) Nitrification:
(c) Assimilation:
(d) Ammonification:
(e) Denitrification:
31. Nitrogen Cycle: N-Fixation (Cyanobacteria and Rhizobium)  Nitrification 
Assimilation  Ammonification  Denitrification
32. Identify the major sinks for nitrogen:
33. Describe five anthropogenic interventions in the nitrogen cycle
34. Acid Deposition: Nitric Acid (HNO3)
Phosphorus Cycle:
35. How, specifically, is phosphorus important to biota?
36. Explain why phosphorus cycles relatively slowly:
37. Identify the largest sinks for phosphorus:
38. Phosphorus is typically found in what ionic form?
39. Explain why the addition of phosphate compounds to aquatic areas typically has
a dramatic effect on biological productivity.
40. Comment on how human activities have influenced the phosphorus cycle regarding
each of the following:
(a) Mining phosphate rock:
(b) Deforestation(especially tropical):
(c) Animal wastes from Livestock Feedlots:
(d) Commercial phosphate Fertilizers in Agricultural areas:
(e) Discharge of Municipal Sewage/Wastewater Treatment Facilities:
Sulfur Cycle:
41. How, specifically, is sulfur significant to biota?
42. Identify the two largest storage areas for sulfur:
43. Comment on a major natural source of each of the following sulfur compounds:
(a) H2S
(b) SO2
(c) SO42(d) CH3SCH3 (dimethyl sulfide, or DMS)
44. How can fluctuating DMS emissions affect cloud cover in a given region?
45. Illustrate the chemical transformations(reactions) which occur when SO2 reacts with O2
and H2O in the troposphere to eventually become sulfuric acid:
46. Identify the three major human activities influencing the sulfur cycle:
47. Sulfur Cycle: associated acid deposition (SO2 + O2  SO3 + H2O H2SO4)
The Rock Cycle:
48. Describe the forces and processes involved in the rock cycle.
49. The three rock types/categories and an example of each
50. Mechanical and Chemical Weathering: briefly describe
51. Plate Tectonics: brief description
Ecosystems and Ecosystem Management: Chapter 6
Environmental Science AP Instructor: Ben Smith
1. Identify the five major “levels of organization of matter” within the field of ecology:
2. Describe three fundamental characteristics of ecosystems.
3. What are the two basic principles of Ecosystem Sustainability? Hints are certainly not
needed, but just for the record:
(a) Energy Source = ________ ;
(b) Is Earth a “Closed” or an “Open” system for matter? Still _________.
4. Distinguish between the following: Population, Community, Ecosystem
5. What is meant by “ecosystem services or ecological services”? Identify seven examples:
6. Food Chains and Food Webs:
7. Trophic levels; Trophic structure
8. Keystone Species: (definition/description)
9. Comment on the efforts by men and women to “replace” or mimic ecological services
in terms of the relative ease or difficulty in achieving similar outcomes to those delivered
or accomplished by nature.
10. Describe what abiotic ecosystem components are; include three examples:
11. Identify two physical factors and two chemical factors that generally markedly
influence ecosystem health/function.
12. Briefly describe the famous Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study:
13. Ecosystem Borders: briefly comment on the significance of these areas
14. Succession:
15. Field Research, Remote Sensing, GIS, Systems Analysis
16. Ecological (Ecosystems) Services
17. What is GIS and how does it assist environmental scientists in expanding the knowledge
and understanding of ecosystems?
18. Describe systems analysis:
Biological Productivity and Energy Flow: Chapter 9
Environmental Science AP
Instructor: Ben Smith
1. Laws of Thermodynamics
2. Identify and distinguish between seven types of consumers.
3. Contrast detritus feeders and decomposers:
4. Which consumer type feeds at every trophic level; Briefly explain:
5. Food Chains and Food Webs
6. Biomass
7. Ecological Efficiency
8. Ecological Pyramids:
(a) Pyramid of Energy Flow (b) Pyramid of Biomass (c) Pyramid of Numbers
9. Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
10. Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
11. Briefly describe the events which take place in/on Earth’s Sun to release large
amounts of energy.
12. About 34% of the solar energy reaching the troposphere is reflected:
(a) how is this “reflection” generally accomplished?
(b) What natural dynamic changes/events might increase albedo (reflectivity)?
(c)What anthropogenic(human-caused) events or changes might increase albedo?
(d)What anthropogenic changes or events might decrease albedo?
13. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis:
14. Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration:
15. Compare and contrast terrestrial producers and aquatic producers:
16. What other category of producers exists besides the photosynthetic producers?
17. Identify two locations/environments where you might find such non-photosynthetic
18. What is the fundamental difference between food chains and food webs?
19. In food chains and food webs, what specifically is indicated by the arrows?
20. Identify the three basic types of Ecological Pyramids:
21. Which of these three can never appear as an inverted pyramid?
(which of the three must always appear as a “classic” pyramid with a wide base)
22. Name the two types of ecological pyramids which may appear inverted; explain:
23. Approximately what percent of the kilocalories found in the “preceding” or lower
trophic level actually become incorporated into the tissues of organisms in the trophic
level directly above it?
24. What happens to the remainder of the kilocalories (those kcals which do
not make it into the biomass of the consumer organisms feeding on the trophic level
below them.)
25. If there are 1,000,000 kilocalories in the producer level of an energy pyramid, how
kilocalories will be incorporated into the bodies of the:
(a) Primary Consumers? (b) Secondary Consumers? (c) Tertiary Consumers?
26. Define Gross Primary Productivity (GPP):
27. Define Net Primary Productivity (NPP):
28. Explain why GPP is always greater than NPP in a given ecosystem, biome, or
aquatic life zone, or when looking at the planet as a whole.
29. Which of the two, GPP or NPP, represents the number of kilocalories that are
available for use by consumers?
30. What is the upper limit determining earth’s carrying capacity (K) for all consumer
species? (note: Solar input is not what we are after here, although, clearly, ultraviolet
light is essential in order to drive earth’s systems.)
31. Identify typical units for expressing Net Primary Productivity:
Biological Diversity: Chapter 7
Environmental Science AP
Instructor: Ben Smith
1. Four Processes leading to Evolution:
a. Mutation B. Natural Selection c. Migration d. Genetic Drift
2. Genetic Drift: Changes in gene frequency in a population due simply to chance, NOT
to mutation, selection, or migration. - - Significance with SMALL populations - 3. Natural Selection: Four Primary Characteristics:
a. Heritable Traits
c. Differential Reproduction
b. Environmental variation
d. Environment Influences Survival & Reproduction
4. Biological Diversity
a. Genetic
b. Habitat c. Species
5. Species Diversity
a. Richness = Total # of Species
b. Evenness = Relative Abundance
c. Dominance
6. Earliest Known Fossils: approximately 3.5 billion years old
Botkin & Keller’s statement:
“ Life has always changed the environment on a global scale.” P. 122 right column
7. “Innovations” required for Life on land:
8. Number of Species on Earth: Named = _______ ; Estimate of Total existing = ______.
(1.5 mill.)
(10-100 mill.)
9. Species Interactions: Types
10. Table 7.1 Species
Plants: around 500,000
Animals: 870,000 – 1,870,000
Class Insecta:
11. Competitive Exclusion Principle: Garret Hardin’s quote from P. 129 left column
- - “Complete competitors cannot coexist” - Example: American Gray Squirrel and British Red Squirrel
12. Habitat and Niche: Basic Definitions:
Habitat = “Address” of a critter ;
Niche = “Occupation” of a critter
13. Hutchinsonian Niche:
14. Fundamental Niche:
15. Realized Niche:
- - Which tends to be greater, Fundamental or realized Niche, and WHY?
16. Practical Application: “Saving” Listed (E/T = Endangered/Threatened) Species:
- - Habitat, - - Niche, - - Species
17. Symbionts: Example: Ruminants
- - Obligate Symbionts
18. Environmental Factors that influence Biodiversity:
Geology, Soil, Topography, Moisture, Temperature, Aspect, Slope,
Watershed Dynamics, Latitude,
19. Factors which Increase and Factors which Decrease Biodiversity: Table 7.2, P.133
Biogeography: Chapter 8
Environmental Science AP
Instructor: Ben Smith
1. Wallace’s Realms: Biogeographical Regions:
- Based on fundamental features of __?__. (animals)
2. Wallace’s Realms are now sometimes called ____ _____ and are
regions inhabited by a characteristic set of taxa.
Taxa = __?__ (level of classification, such as class, order, family)
3. Biotic Provinces can be thought of as “evolutionary units”, with the environment
determining the evolution of organisms which are often similar in form & function, but
not necessarily in ___?___. (Ancestral origins, genetic similarity)
4. #3 above forms the “Rule of Climatic Similarity” and leads to the “Biome Concept”:
Example: Euphorbs from East and South Africa ........ Spurge Family
Saguaro from North America ....................... Cactus Family
Joshua Tree from North America .................. Agave Family
5. Biotic Province: “Based on Who is related to Whom”
6. Biome: Based on Niches and Habitats
7. Climate: Two most Important factors determining climate = ____ and ______.
8. Divergent Evolution:
Example: Ostrich from Africa Rhea from South America
Common Ancestor, but Evolved ___?___
Emu from Australia
9. Convergent Evolution: (Not to be confused with Coevolution)
Example: Shark and Dolphin
Bat and Raven
10. Continental Drift: Significance of Plate Tectonics regarding Evolution
11. Island Biogeography:
Species Diversity on “Islands”:
Distance from Mainland/Source Population and Island Size
12. Characteristics of Successful Invader Species: discussed with Cane Toads video
a. Generalists
c. High Dispersal Rate
e. High Reproductive Rate
b. Long-lived
d. High Genetic variability
13. Characteristics of Ecosystems vulnerable to Invasive Species:
a. Similar habitat to invader
c. Absence of Predators
b. Low diversity of native species
d. Absence of Fire
14. Pelagic =
15. Benthic =
16. Ocean Zones: Euphotic, Bathyal, Abyssal
17. Significance of Oceans and Ocean Currents:
- Coastal Areas: Long-term Weather (ex. Southern California vs. St. Louis)
- Currents: (Ex. Gulf Stream, Warming Influence on Northern Europe:
about 10 degrees F warmer due to Gulf Stream)
- El Nino: Trade Winds(East to West) Weakened/Suppressed, therefore
Cold-Nutrient-Rich Upwellings do not occur – Decreasing productivity
- Do upwellings occur in the Open Ocean? .......................
Yes; - - therefore, the N.P.P. would be markedly greater in such Open Ocean
Upwelling Areas, as opposed to the relatively low N.P.P. of the Open Ocean in
18. Biomes and Aquatic Life Zones: Prominent Characteristics/Features of Each:
Ex. A. Permafrost B. Conifers C. Dark, Rich, Fertile Soil
D. Cold, Cloudless Nights Prime for Star-Gazing!
19. A few Aquatic Life Zone Items:
A. Wetlands: Inland and Coastal ........
How & Why these areas are important?
1. Economically: Ex. Reduction of Flooding and Erosion by the Absorption of
Stormwater and slowly releasing it; Absorbing stream and lake overflows, Providing
valuable natural products such as fish, shellfish, blueberries, cranberries, timber, wild
rice, and medicines derived from wetland soils, plants, and habitats, Improvement of
Water Quality by filtering, diluting, and degrading toxic wastes, excess nutrients,
sediments, and other potential pollutants.
- - - and - - 2. Ecologically: Ex. Carbon Dioxide Uptake and storage within plant
communities and soils, and the cycling of other nutrients Cycling, food and habitat for
fish, migratory waterfowl, shorebirds, and a variety of other wildlife, including
approximately one-third of the endangered and threatened species in the United States
20. The major cause of reduced/declining inland wetland area, overall, in the United
States, is due to ____________.
21. Lake Zones: Describe/locate each: Littoral, Limnetic, Profundal, Benthic
Which two lake zones would typically contain greater decomposer bacteria levels?
22. Oligotrophic vs. Eutrophic Lakes: Comparison
23. How does an Oligotrophic Lake become a Eutrophic Lake?
24. Dissolved Oxygen Levels may vary due to what five major factors?
25. Aquatic vs. Terrestrial Environments: Significant differences regarding critters found
in each type of environment and the major abiotic factors which influence biota in
26. D.O. Levels: below 5 ppm considered poor for most aquatic aerobic organisms
27. Climatograms = Climate Graphs: Temperature and Precipitation plotted over Time;
frequently displayed as a “trio”, with “polar, temperate, & tropical” Rep. shown
28. Rainshadow Effect: Windward and Leeward Sides; Ex. Sierra Nevada Mountains and
the Owens Valley.
29. Estuaries: High N.P.P. - - How/Why?
Salinity and Temperature: Both vary significantly over time(24 hour cycle & year)
30. Units: Turbidity, N-Nitrate, Dissolved Oxygen
Wildlife, Fisheries, and Endangered Species:
Exploitation, Management, and Conservation
Environmental Science AP
Chapter 14 Study Guide
Peninsula High School Instructor: Ben Smith
Comprehensive Points:
1. Why conserve and preserve species? Identify the eight justifications (P.263 in Ch. 14
and P.13 in Ch.1) for saving a species.
2. The phrase “To Save a Species” may put the “Saving” focus on one of four distinct
levels or in four different contexts. Briefly describe each of these four.
3. Contrast a logistic growth curve with an exponential growth curve.
4. Briefly explain why/how carrying capacity changes.
5. Define maximum sustainable yield.
6. Explain the flaws with each of the following assumptions as they pertain to attempts at
applying science to the conservation and management of wildlife and fisheries:
A. The population of a given species can be represented by a single
number (its total size).
B. Undisturbed by human activities, a population would grow to a
fixed size, called the carrying capacity.
C. The environment is constant, except for human-induced changes.
7. Define minimum viable population.
8. Briefly explain why/how carrying capacity changes.
9. What are the two major reasons for the endangered status of the Grizzly Bear in
the United States?
10. Given a grizzly bear density of 4 grizzlies per 100 square miles, estimate the
grizzly population in a geographic range of comprised of 82,915,200 hectares.
(Note: 1 hectare = 2.47 acres; 1 square mile = 640 acres)
11. What are the two main reasons for the North American Bison being driven to near
12. Discuss the possible advantage(s) of approaching wildlife management from the
“ecological community & ecosystem level” vs. the “single species level.
13. Propose two ways of trying to prevent a tragedy of an open resource commons.
14. Briefly describe what an “open resource” is.
15. In what way are (even) developed countries still hunter-gatherers?
16. In what way(s) have humans “domesticated” this (from #16 above)?
Fisheries Cluster (w/ additional fisheries & aquatic items throughout this study guide):
17. The major threats to global fisheries include:
18. Briefly describe “scientific-based management of fish”:
19. Identify five major ocean-bottom fish which are thought to be on the brink of
20. What is bycatch?
21. Describe one potential advantage and one potential disadvantage of the aquatic biotaharvesting technique known as bottom trawling:
22. State the Primary and Secondary goals of the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection
Act of 1972.
23. Explain why coastal zones contain the most productive fisheries.
24. Explain the following statement:
“Commercial fish species are being mined, not sustained.”
25. Describe four anthropogenic stressors on the largest estuary in the United States.
26. Briefly describe each of the following fish/aquatic species harvesting methods:
A. Trawling
B. Long-lining
C. Purse-Seining
D. Drift-Netting
27. Contrast fish farming and fish ranching: Identify two species that are commonly
farmed and two species that might be ranched. Be familiar with the term anadromous.
28. Describe two specific concerns regarding the extensively maricultured Atlantic
29. What is the Red List?
30. According to the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973, define:
A. Endangered:
B. Threatened:
31. How have local and global extinction rates changed since the beginning of the
Industrial Revolution?
32. Based on Figure 14.15, the majority of the extinctions since 1860 are due to the
loss of many organisms in which “group”?
33. How many mass extinctions are recorded in the geologic record?
34. Briefly describe the four “causes of extinction”, or “risk categories”, as they are
sometimes called.
35. Briefly describe the four main ways in which humans may cause extinction.
36. By far, the two major anthropogenic causes of species decline are:
#1 Cause = _________________________; #2 Cause = ___________________
37. Identify three “success stories” regarding species once endangered which are now
much improved in terms of numbers/health.
38. Which two U.S. agencies are charged with listing species as endangered or
39. Be familiar with the Kirtland’s Warbler case study regarding environmental
40. Describe how Michigan jack-pine stands represent an ecological island.
41. (Review Item): Be familiar with the fundamentals of the Theory of Island
Biogeography, first proposed by Robert MacArthur and E.O Wilson in the 1960s.
42. Habitat requirements and the use of spatial relationships to preserve/conserve
43. Be familiar with the passenger pigeon case study.
44. (Review Item): What is the “best guess” of the total number of species on Earth?
45. Identify the life-forms in the U.S. with the highest level of risk.
46. Contrast the “ecosystem protection approach” and the “species-by-species
protection approach”. The essence of this item number is more than eluded to in a
previous item in this document.
47. Define a “rare” species.
48. What, specifically, does the “species-area relationship” suggest?
49. Be familiar with the E/T species mentioned in class.
50. Describe four characteristics of extinction-prone species.
51. Contrast background extinction and mass extinction.
52. When was the most recent mass extinction?
53. Why do some biologists/environmental scientists suggest that there is a “new
mass extinction”?
54. Provide five examples of “nature’s pharmacy” (plants which provide chemicals
used in health care, hygiene, etc., such as the previously noted neem tree):
55. Describe the term “biophilia”.
56. Discuss the role of habitat loss, habitat degradation, and habitat fragmentation in
terms of the general health of wild species.
57. Discuss the influence of nonnative species on native plant and animal
58. Name four introduced species that are generally considered to be beneficial.
59. Name four introduced species which are generally considered to be harmful or
60. Describe three likely mechanisms or avenues for accidentally introducing a
species to a new area.
61. Identify the three biome types in the U.S.A. which have been disturbed to the
greatest extent.
62. Why have the numbers of migratory birds declined?
63. Describe kudzu/the kudzu case study.
64. (Review item): Describe seven characteristics of successful invader species
(nonnative) species.
65. (Review item): Describe six characteristics of ecosystems vulnerable to invader
66. Comment on the role which commercial hunting plays in the management of
species. Include three examples of commercially-hunted species.
67. Identify four species in North America (or elsewhere) which have been the target
in eradication efforts; briefly describe why these species were/are viewed as pests.
68. What is the CITES Treaty?
69. What does the Convention on Biological Diversity call for from signatory
70. (Review item): Describe the Lacey Act. Who was the U.S. President when it was
signed into law?
71. Describe the E.S.A. Who was the U.S. President when it was signed into law?
72. How has the number of (U.S.) species on the E/T list changed from 1973-today?
73. The addition or removal of a species from the E/T list is, by law, supposed to be
based only on ______________________, not on ________________________
or ________________________ considerations.
74. The majority of U.S. species listed are: (Plants or Animals?)
75. (Review item): Identify the “Top Six Biodiversity Hot Spots” in the U.S.A.
76. How can private land owners be encouraged to protect E/T species? Include a
description of the following:
A. Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs)
B. Safe Harbor Agreements (SHAs)
C. Candidate Conservation Agreements (CCAs)
77. Be familiar with the National Academy of Sciences recommendations for making
the ESA more scientifically sound and more effective:
78. Because of limited funds, relatively limited information and few trained
personnel, it is possible that not all E/T species will be “saved”. Given
this, which species should be the focus, at least initially? Explain:
79. Describe four approaches to protecting species from further decline:
Note: these approaches or measures are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
80. What is the focus of wildlife management? (Thank you for not merely going with
the “manage wildlife” response).
81. Provide three supporting statements for sport hunting.
82. (Review item): What is an endemic species?
83. Provide two examples of poaching.
84. Describe the founder effect.
85. (Review item): Describe a demographic bottleneck.
86. Describe a TED.
87. Describe three reasons why sea turtles are E/T.
88. What is the IWC and what is the primary goal of this body?
89. What is an ITQ.
90. Describe two proposals which might enhance the Columbia River’s (could be
applied to other dammed rivers) salmon populations.
Wildlife, Fisheries, and Endangered Species
Please be familiar with ALL items on the Chapter 14 Study Guide, including the brief
responses to #s 43-90 below:
43. Passenger Pigeon case study: 1800’sMost abundant bird in U.S.A.; in 1900, last
wild passenger pigeon killed; 1914Martha died in the Cincinnati Zoo; hunting, habitat
loss, feathers, bones, entrée, easy to kill/“stool pigeon”
44. Ten- fourteen million.
45. Flowering plants and Freshwater aquatic species:
46. Focus on “The Whole” vs. “Some of the Biotic Parts”
47. Never abundant: many island species, African violets, some orchids
48. - On avg., a 90% loss of habitat causes the extinction of about 50% of the species
living in that habitat
49. E/T Species: a few examples—Mountain Gorilla, Florida Manatee, Black lace
Cactus, Symphonia, Grizzly Bear, Hawksbill Sea Turtle, Loggerhead Sea Turtle, Black
Rhino, Florida Panther, Giant Panda, Oahu Tree Snail, Swallowtail Butterfly, Utah
Prairie Dog, California Condor, Devils Hole Pupfish, Palos Verdes Blue Butterfly, Ghost
Bat, Northern Spotted Owl, Black Footed Ferret, Arabian Oryx, Snow Leopard, West
Virginia Spring Salamander, Eastern Indigo Snake, Pine Barrens Tree Frog, Mojave
Desert Tortoise, Kirtland’s Warblers, White Top Pitcher Plant, Whooping Crane, …….
50. Low repro. rate(K-strategists), Specialized Niche, Narrow distribution, Feed at high
trophic levels, Fixed migratory patterns, Rare, Commercially Valuable, Large territories
51. Background ext: small number of species lost to ext. Mass ext: “typically” 25-70%
species lost
52. 65 m.y.a.
53. Due to the rate of habitat alteration/degradationloss of species
54. Neem tree(India)toothpaste, fungicide, spermicide; Pacific Yew(PNWUSA)ovarian cancer; Foxglove(Europe)digitalis for heart failure; Rauvolfia(SE
Asia)high b.p.medicine; Rosy Periwinkle(Madagascar)Hodgkin’s disease,
lymphocytic leukemia; Cinchona(SA)quinine for malaria treatment
55. Famous biologist E.O. Wilson suggests that because of the millions and
millions(billions) of years of biological connections leading to the evolution of the human
species, we have an inherent affinity for the natural world; one of E.O.Wilson’s more
well-known books is titled Biophilia, (1984).
56. Habitat Loss, degradation, reduction, fragmentation: resources, territory, food chains,
food webs, migrations, wildlife corridors, edge effect
57. Nonnatives/introduced species = the second leading cause of species decline (behind
habitat loss)
58. Rice, Wheat, Corn, Cattle
59. Purple Loosestrife, Knapweed, Kudzu, Water hyacinth, Nutria, Argentine fire ant
60. Hitchhikers on imported products, aircraft stowaways, in bilge water
61. Temperate Broadleaf Forests, Temperate Evergreen Forests, Temperate Grasslands
62. Tropical forest logging, Fragmentation of their summer forest & grassland habitats in
North America, deaths from collisions with TV, Radio, Phone, and other Towers(approx.
4 million migrating songbirds)
63. Introduced in the SE USA to control erosion in the 1930’s; prolific growersoon
became invasiveengulfing native vegetation
64. High reprod. output, Pioneer Species, High dispersal rate, Release growth-inhibiting
chemicals, Generalists, High Genetic variability
65. Similar climate to habitat of invader, Absence of predators on invading species, Early
successional species, Low diversity of native species, Absence of fire, Disturbed by
human activities
66. Numbers/Population Size(s), Habitat/Resources: Deer, Elk, Duck, …..
67. Gray Wolf (livestock), Coyote, Prairie Dogs(grazing competitors w/ cattle), Bison,
Carolina Parakeet(Crops), …
68. Convention on (the) International Trade in(of) Endangered Species: 1975 agreement;
152 signatory nations; approximately 30,000 species whose international trade is
monitored & regulated(w/ some species trading banned); enforcement difficult; violators
often faced w/ small fine; exemption
69. Legally binds signatory nations to reversing the global decline of biological diversity
(US is not a signatory nation of the CBD, which came out of the 1992 Rio Earth
Summit); nations are to adopt national biodiversity protection strategies and action, estab.
Nationwide systems of protected areas, restoring degraded habitats, conserving E/T
species & ecosystems, ecologically sustainable resource use, safe use/application of
biotech. Products, equitable sharing of biodiversity benefits(e.g., new medicines)
70. Animal(-parts)(-Birds esp. across state linesPermit; Animal(biota)Trade; 1900
71. E/T or potentially strong candidates for E/T species; 1973
72. Increased, ---from about 92 in 1973 to (approx.) 1,322 today (as of 12/10/09)
73. Biological basis, not on an economical or political basis
74. Plants (roughly 750 as of 11/01/11)
75. Hawaii, S.F. Bay area, Death Valley, Southern California, Southern Appalachians,
Florida Panhandle
76. HCPs: a 1982 amendment to the ESA; allows the Secretary of the Interior to use
HCPs to strike a compromise between private landowner interests and the interests of E/T
wildlife with the goal of not reducing the recovery chances of protected species;
landowners, developers, loggers, etc. are allowed to alter some critical habitat on private
land in exchange for taking steps to protect that species; protective measure might
include estab. a preserve or relocating the species; plans based on scientific data. In
1999, the USFWS approved two new approaches which strive to better protect E/T
species on private land: SHAs: landowners Voluntarily agree to take steps to restore,
improve, or maintain habitat for E/T species on their land; in return, landowners get tech
help from conservation agencies, gov’t assurances that the land, water, and other natural
resources involved will not face future restrictions; CCAs: landowners agree to take
specific steps to help conserve a species which is declining but is not yet listed as E/T; no
additional restrictions can be placed on the landowner if the species is listed
77. Be familiar with the National Academy of Sciences recommendations for making
the ESA more scientifically sound and more effective:
A. Increase funding
B. Develop Recovery Plans more quickly
C. Develop guidelines to avoid provisions that are scientifically or
economically unsound and that spell out which actions are likely to hinder
D. Establish a Core Area (survival habitat) as a temporary emergency measure
when a species is first listed that could support the species for at least 2550 years.
78. My ears are open…-Bacteria? -Plants? –Decomposers in general? -Keystoners?
–Herbivores? -Most Photogenic? ...
79. Preserved areas (Refuge areas, National/International/State/Provincial Parks, etc.),
Captive breeding, Egg Pulling, Zoos, Surrogate Moms/Embryo transfer, …
80. Manipulating wildlife populations and their habitats for their welfare and for human
benefit; sustainable yield via laws, quotas, pop. management plans, improvement of
wildlife habitat, international treaties to protect migrating game species
81. Protection of habitat by controlling pop. size (absence of historical predator), health
of species population(herd culling of weak/sick), “maintenance of ecosystem
dynamics” …to some extent
82. Found nowhere else; species found in only one location
83. Snow leopards (Nepal, India), Elk (Rocky Mountains), Elephants, …….
84. The limited genetic diversity of a few individuals founding a population may not be
enough to sustain the population
85. Occurs when only a few individuals survive to perpetuate a population after a
catastrophe; the marbles-in-a-bottle analogy.
86. Turtle Exclusion Device: “trap door”, escape exit in fishing net
87. Degradation of beach habitat, egg poaching (exactly), increased uses as food,
medicinal ingredients, jewelry, bycatch
88. International Whaling Commission: established in 1946 to regulate the whaling
industry by setting annual quotas; has been unable to stop the decline of most
commercially hunted whale species to the point of commercial extinction, although
the Commission has spearheaded a number of success stories regarding the
population size of several whale species.
89. Individual Transfer Quota(s): each fishing vessel owner is given a specified
percentage of the total allowable catch (TAC) for a fishery in a given year
90. -Building hatcheries upstream of the dams and releasing juveniles from these
hatcheries to under-populated streams(so they will return to them to reproduce),
-Building fish ladders to allows some adult salmon to bypass dams during their
upstream migration,
-Using trucks and barges to transport juvenile wild salmon around dams,
-Turning off turbines to allow juveniles to swim through dam (turbine chamber)
during heavy downstream migration,
-Releasing extra water from dams to help wash juvenile salmon downstream at a
(faster) rate closer to their natural migration rate
-Putting more stream areas off-limits for hydropower development,
-Reducing silt/soil erosion from logging roads located above salmon spawning
Ecological Restoration
Environmental Science AP
Chapter 10
Instructor: Ben Smith
1. What does Ecological Restoration mean?
2. What are the possible goals of ecological restoration?
3. How do ecosystems restore themselves?
4. What role do disturbances play in the persistence of ecosystems/in succession?
5. Briefly describe the intermediate disturbance hypothesis:
6. Be familiar with the Tigris-Euphrates Marshlands case study:
7. Describe the three major tenets of the “Balance of Nature” paradigm and be
familiar with the Equilibrium Model of Succession:
8. Briefly describe the “older” view of succession:
9. What labels have gradually come in to use in place of or used in conjunction with
“climax community”?
10. Define Inertia as it applies to an ecosystem:
11. Define Resilience as it applies to an ecosystem:
12. Compare the inertia and resilience of a grassland with the inertia and resilience of
a tropical forest:
13. The selection of goals for restoration largely comes down to ____ ____.
14. Be familiar with the boundary waters case study:
15. Briefly describe what the Wilderness Act attempts to do:
16. The anthropologist Paul S. Martin describes the “only truly natural time” how?
17. Be familiar with the Kissimmee River case study:
18. This type of ecosystem once occupied more land in the United States than any
other kind of ecosystem:
19. What are the two basic types of restoration for this ecosystem type (referenced in
#18 above)?
20. Briefly describe the conditions in which Primary Succession occurs:
21. Briefly describe the conditions in which Secondary Succession occurs:
22. Be familiar with the major ecosystem structure and/or function characteristics
listed below in both Early (Immature) Successional Stages(S.S.) and Late
(Mature) Successional Stages:
Early S.S.
1. Plant Size ...........................__________________
2. Species Diversity .............. __________________
3. Trophic Structure .............. __________________
4. Ecological Niches ............. __________________
5. Community Organization... __________________
6. Biomass ............................. __________________
7. NPP .................................. __________________
8. Food Chains/Food Webs .. __________________
9. Efficiency of Nutrient
Cycling/Recycling ........ __________________
10. Efficiency of Energy Use .. _________________
Late S.S.
23. Patterns in Dune Succession, Bog Succession, and “Old-Field” Succession: Be
familiar with the basic processes and significant players (biotic and abiotic)
regarding succession in Dunes, Bogs, “Old-Fields”.
24. Comment on the relative rates of primary succession in Polar vs. Tropical areas:
25. What possible advantage(s) might there be in being a small perennial plant vs. a
small annual plant, regarding succession?
26. Describe facilitation:
27. Describe interference:
28. Describe chronic patchiness:
29. What is the general message of the precautionary principle?
30. Be familiar with the concept of: a “mature community” and a “mosaic of
vegetation patches”
Forests, Parks, and Landscapes Chapter 13
Environmental Science AP Instructor: Ben Smith
-- Items to be familiar with --
1. Describe five ways in which forests are economically significant and five ways in
which forests are ecologically significant.
A. ___________________________
A. ___________________________
B. ______________________________ B.____________________________
E.______________________________ E.____________________________
2. Botkin and Keller state that “Our society is of two minds about wildland fires.”
Briefly explain what they are referring to.
3. What is silviculture?
4. Approximately what percent of Earth’s surface is forest-covered?
5. Using the figure from the beginning of the twenty-first century, this works out to be
about ____ hectares or ____ acres per person.
6. Identify the “Top Ten Forest-Rich” nations:
7. Approximately what percent of U.S. land is public land?
8. Identify six types/categories of public lands in the United States and briefly
provide the management approach/types of activities permitted for each. Also have
a sense of the approximate number of public land areas/units in each category.
A. _________________________________________________________
B. _________________________________________________________
C. _________________________________________________________
D. _________________________________________________________
E. _________________________________________________________
F. _________________________________________________________
9. Distinguish between the following:
A. Old growth forests:
B. Second growth forests:
C. Tree Farms or Tree Plantations:
10. Contrast even-and uneven-aged forest management: be familiar with the
advantages and disadvantages of each.
11. Briefly describe each of the following tree harvesting methods:
D. “Selective cutting”:
E. Shelterwood cutting:
F. Seed-tree cutting:
G. Clear cutting:
H. Strip cutting:
I. Whole-Tree harvesting.
12. Describe the three main factors influencing forest productivity:
13. Describe site quality:
14. Describe four benefits of periodic surface fires.
National Forests:
15. Be familiar with the following regarding U.S. National Forests:
A. The percentage of the nation that is forested (area):
B. Use of National Forest lands for grazing/raising livestock:
C. Economic value of mineral resources, oil, and natural gas mined annually:
D. Percentage of the nation’s protected wilderness areas contained in national
16. National Forests are supposed to be managed based on these Two Principles:
A. ___________________________
B. ___________________________
17. Briefly describe the trend in overall timber harvesting from national forests
between 1930 and 1990 and identify three factors which contributed to this trend.
18. If a reduction in the number of trees harvested in the United States is a goal,
propose three ways that would potentially help meet this goal.
19. Be familiar with proposed improvements in U.S. National Forest management:
20. In short, what is the goal of the sagebrush rebellion?
21. Be familiar with the major goals and suggestions made by the Wise-Use*
Movement (*the more recent version of this paradigm.)
22. Describe the takings and property rights movement; the county movement.
23. What is regulatory taking?
24. Who has eminent domain? What does this refer to?
25. Be familiar with the “Livestock and U.S. Public Rangeland” case study.
26. Describe what a “conservation easement” is?
Tropical Forests:
27. Tropical forests cover approximately what percent of earth’s land area?
28. Which type of tropical forest has been most severely altered by human
29. Be familiar with the Madagascar case study.
30. Provide two examples of (potential) cultural extinction: (two which may very well
be closer to this “dead-end point” than others.)
31. Describe three significant and underlying causes of most tropical deforestation.
32. It is said that the process of altering a forest, be it tropical, temperate, or a higher
latitude forest, often begins with this: please include a brief explanation:
33. Describe four mechanisms or approaches to reducing tropical forest deforestation:
34. Briefly describe the “fuel wood”, or fuelwood, crisis:
35. Be familiar with the Costa Rica case study:
36. The neem tree (the “dream neem”, to some) has numerous potential
applications. Identify four of these potential uses:
National Parks:
37. Many ecologists question whether some U.S. National Parks can actually
be managed/should be managed under the principle of natural regulation. Explain:
38. Describe four major challenges faced by most of the world’s national parks,
including NPs in the U.S.A.
39. Provide four suggestions for improving national park management in the U.S.
Additional Items:
40. What ecological principle(s) and goals should be utilized in establishing and
managing nature reserves?
41. Be familiar with the Global Biodiversity Hot-Spots mentioned in class.
42. What is Gap Analysis?
43. What is “wilderness”, as it is defined in the Wilderness Act of 1964?
44. The Wilderness Society estimates that a wilderness area should consist of an area
at least this size:
45. What does the word “untrammeled” mean? Why did Howard Zahniser choose this
46. Why preserve wilderness? –Present an argument in support of preserving
47. Identify one or more potential drawbacks to preserving wilderness.
48. Identify the basic steps in ecological restoration:
49. Present an argument in support of ecological restoration:
50. Present an argument opposed to ecological restoration efforts:
Forestry Summary: Noteworthy forestry information to be familiar with; includes a
number of items not referenced in the preceding pages, as well as many repeat concepts.
(a) Describe three ways in which forests are ecologically important:
(b) Describe three ways in which forests are economically important:
(c) What are the major types of forests?
(d) In what regions of the world is deforestation occurring at the greatest rate?
(e) In what specific tropical regions of the world is tropical deforestation
occurring at the greatest rate?
(f) What are the major types of forest management? Describe the major
characteristics of each of the following:
1. Short- versus Long-Rotation Cycles
2. Even-Aged Management and Uneven-Aged Management
(Industrial Forestry)
(g) What are the major tree harvesting methods? Describe the major
characteristics of each of the following:
1. Selective Cutting
2. Shelterwood Cutting
3. Seed-Tree Cutting
4. Clear-Cutting
5. Strip-Cutting
6. Whole-Tree Harvesting
(h) Discuss the effects of pathogens, insects, and other introduced species on
(i) Describe an approach for protecting forests from over-harvesting and other
damage, while maintaining the manufacturing/consumer need/demand for
forest products.
(j) Propose two methods of meeting economic needs (jobs & goods) and
preserving the integrity of forest areas (Biodiversity & Ecological Dynamics).
(k) Describe three specific ways to reduce the need to harvest trees:
(l) Fire Ecology:
1. Describe the significant effects of fire on Forested areas.
2. Discuss the ecological significance of fires in forested areas.
3. Describe each: Surface fires, Ground Fires, and Crown Fires:
4. Fire Management Policies: Pros and Cons of each:
a. “Let-it-Burn” Policy (*unless fire threatens human life,
Park facilities, private property, or endangered wildlife.)
b. Fire Suppression: all fires are put out as quickly as possible.
(m) Air Pollution and Climate Change: Potential Threats to Forest Health
1. acid deposition: Coal Combustion SO2 + O2  SO3 + H2O  H2SO4
2. Increasing Tropospheric O3 Levels
3. Synergistic effects of Multiple Air, Water, and Soil Pollutants
4. Potentially Shifting Climate Belts; particularly in mid-latitude regions
Climate Belts would likely shift toward earth’s poles;
(100-150 kilometers = 60-90 miles for every one C or 1.8 F;
this would equate to approximately 150 meters = 500 feet)
(n) What are the two principles on which U.S. Forests are managed?
(o) Describe the “fuelwood crisis”; Where is it occurring; Propose a remedy for
this environmental challenge/problem:
(p) Discuss the major causes of tropical deforestation:
(q) Describe four approaches which could potentially reduce tropical
(r) Describe the major ecological principles and goals that stand out in
establishing and managing sustainable nature reserves (both forested reserves
and others):
Important terminology, concepts, and other items:
1. Multiple-Use Lands
2. National Forest System
3. National Resource Lands
4. Bureau of Land Management
5. Moderately-Restricted Use lands
6. National Wildlife Refuges
7. Restricted-Use Lands
8. National Park System
9. National Wilderness Preservation System
10. Sagebrush Rebellion
11. Wise-Use Movement
12. Takings and Property Rights Movement
13. Regulatory and Physical Taking
14. Eminent Domain
15. Stand (of trees)
16. Forest Productivity
17. Saw Timber
18. Board-Foot
19. Even- and Uneven-aged Management
20. Rotation Cycles; Rotation Time
21. Industrial Forestry
22. Plantation Forestry
23. Dominant trees
24. Codominant trees
25. Intermediate trees
26. Suppressed trees
27. Site Quality
28. Selective Cutting
29. Shelterwood Cutting
30. Seed-Tree Cutting
31. Clear-Cutting and Strip-Cutting
32. Thinning
33. Sustainable Forestry
34. Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest
35. H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest
36. Certified Timber/Forestry
37. Indirect Deforestation
38. Fuelwood Crisis
39. Community Forestry
40. Bark Beetles, Spruce Budworm, Gypsy Moth, Hemlock, Wooly Adelgid
41. Surface Fires, Crown Fires, Ground Fires
42. Sustainable Yield and Multiple-Use
43. Kenaf
44. Neem Tree
45. Conservation Easements
46. Debt-for-Nature Swaps
47. Natural Regulation
48. Species-Area Curve
49. Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
50. Theory of Island Biogeography: Ecological Islands/Habitat Islands
51. Edge Effect
52. Minimum Safe Population Size; Minimum Viable Population
53. Wildlife Corridors
54. Buffer Zones
55. Gap Analysis
56. Wilderness Recovery Areas
57. 1964 Wilderness Act
58. Ecological restoration
59. Public Service Functions; Ecosystem Services
60. Artificial Ecosystems
61. Wangari Maathai
62. Chico Mendes
63. Howard Zahniser
64. Aldo Leopold
65. Henry David Thoreau: Wilderness and Wildness
66. The “Managing Wilderness Paradox”
67. The Scientific Study of Wilderness; Research Preserves
68. Wendell Berry
Agriculture and the Environment
Chapter 12 Environmental Science AP Instructor: Ben Smith
1. Be familiar with the potential environmental challenges or problems that result
from agriculture:
A. Soil erosion:
B. Sediment transport:
C. Sediment deposition in downstream areas:
D. On-site pollution from overuse and secondary effects of fertilizers and
E. Off-site pollution of other ecosystems , of soils, water, and air:
F. Deforestation:
G. Desertification:
H. Degradation of Aquifers:
I. Salinization:
J. Accumulation of toxic metals:
K. Accumulation of toxic organic compounds:
L. Loss of Biodiversity:
2. George Perkins Marsh: within his most famous book, --the “dirt” of Vermont and
the “dirt” of Italy:
3. The “American Dust Bowl”: the significance of this event
-The Prairie, the Plow, and the Physical & Chemical Changes which took place
on thousands of acres of land in the 1930’s:
4. Soil Profiles and Soil Horizons:
5. Be familiar with Soil Horizons O, A, B, and C, as well as Horizon E just beneath
Horizon A; also be familiar with what lies below Horizon C:
6. Identify the four basic soil particle types, ranking these four from smallest to
7. Which of these soil particle types is the most likely to become waterlogged?
8. If you were asked to “design” or create a soil type which would be quite versatile
for successfully growing a variety of crops, what soil combination/what
percentage of each soil particle type would you select to be a part of your created
combination? (Ex: X % ____, X % ____, X% ____etc.) --Note: 0% could be a
9. Soil Texture Triangle:
10. Identify the major factors which determine what a given soil is like.
11. Briefly define or describe Soil Porosity and Soil Permeability:
12. Describe, (in a response that is more developed than a one-word answer, thank
you), the rate of soil formation.
13. Be familiar with the Haber-Bosch Process and the role that this process played/
continues to play in the Green Revolutions and in overall crop production around
the world.
14. I apologize if the following sounds like a question from your favorite country
song, -but where does eroded soil go?
-With at least one discrete statement which includes some type of quantifiable
data, offer a response here to support the assertion that the “eroded soil receiving
area/location”(not that the eroded soil will necessarily “stop” here) will
potentially bring about one or more negative impacts. (p. 221-222)
15. Describe three ways to reduce soil erosion before planting, while the crop is
growing, and after harvest.
16. Annuals and Perennials: advantages and disadvantages of each
17. First Generation Pesticides:
18. Second Generation Pesticides:
19. The DDT case study:
20. Broad-spectrum and Narrow-spectrum pesticides:
21. Biological control of pests:
A. Natural predators:
B. Biopesticides:
C. Bioengineering:
D. Birth control:
E. Pheromones:
F. Hormones:
22. Botanicals: Ex: Rotenone, Pyrethrum, Camphor
23. The “perfect pesticide”: characteristics
24. The “ultimate pest”: characteristics
25. Pest resurgence:
26. Pesticide mobility:
27. “Circle of poison”:
28. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt or BT)
29. Chlorinated hydrocarbons:
30. Organophosphates:
31. Carbamates:
32. Briefly describe the “pesticide treadmill”:
33. Cosmetic spraying: Why is this done?
34. FIFRA: What does this law require?
35. Describe bioaccumulation (bioconcentration):
36. Descibe bioamplification (biomagnification):
37. The “terminator gene”:
38. Grazing on rangelands and rangeland management:
39. Desertification:
40. Should rice be grown in a dry climate?
Natural Disasters & Catastrophes: Chapter 16
-andUrban Environments: Chapter 29
Environmental Science AP Instructor: Ben Smith
[-Definitely some overlap & repetition within & between these two chapters-]
Natural Disasters: Chapter 16
1. Describe how natural hazards can be viewed as natural processes with natural
service functions:
2. Describe two examples of natural ecosystems providing protection for humanbuilt systems against forces of nature:
3. Describe two recently discussed (within the past 6 months) adjustments or
preparatory and preventive measures regarding natural (perhaps influenced by
human activity, perhaps not; -- time and further study may provide greater
insight) hazards:
4. Present a short discussion explaining why former disasters are now becoming
5. Common denominators of vastly destructive natural events/processes:
commonalities ...?
6. Hurricane Katrina Case Study
7. Subsidence: description of and major causes of:
8. Levees; Natural Levees
9. Overbank deposition of sediment
10. Embankments
11. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Please describe
12. Earthquakes, Volcanic Activity, Landslides, Hurricanes, Tsunami, Wildfires,
Tornadoes, Floods, Heat Waves, Drought
13. Land Use Transformations and Natural Hazards
Urban Environments: Chapter 29
1. Describe how cities can be viewed as ecosystems.
2. How do location and site conditions determine the success, importance, and
longevity of a given city?
3. Describe three ways in which cities often change their environments and
influence surrounding environments. Please be familiar with several ways in
which design and planning might minimize some of these impacts.
4. How can cities be designed or redesigned to promote biological conservation?
5. Restoring New Orleans Case Study
6. “Urban area” defined
7. Briefly explain how cities/urban area can be viewed as “Systems”:
8. Describe the major contributing factors to urban growth:
9. Describe three major global urbanization patterns:
10. Percentage of the world’s folks who live in urban areas:
11. “Megacities” defined:
12. Urban Growth in Developing vs. Developed nations
13. How cities may alter environmental conditions:
14. Describe the Urban Heat Island Effect:
15. How might the Urban Heat Island Effect be minimized?
16. Describe how trees and other vegetation can enhance urban
17. Describe “site’ and “situation” as they apply to cities/towns:
18. Describe the “Fall Line”:
19. Lewis Mumford’s quote on regarding cities: P.629 rt. Column
20. Describe two potential “City Planning Dangers”:
21. Classic (historically) Spatial patterns of Urban Development:
a. Concentric Circle
b. Sector City
c. Multiple-Nuclei
22. Briefly describe three resource challenges of large cities.
23. Ecological Land Use Planning, “Smart Growth”, Making Urban areas more
24. Preserving Urban Open Space
25. Urban Sprawl, Suburban Sprawl: Contributing factors
26. The advantages and disadvantages of urban life:
27. Urban Resources and Environmental Challenges:
A. Life Span, I.M.R., Medical care
B. Land Area
C. Overall Resource Use
D. Water:
E. Waste Production/”Throughputs”
F. Recycling
G. Self-Sufficiency
H. Density-dependent population control factors
I. Microclimates:
J. “Metabolism”
28. Crime and the Environment
29. Transportation in Urban areas
30. Greenbelts
31. LEED; LEED-certified buildings, homes, and other structures
32. USGBC: United States Green Building Council
33. Noteworthy ideas, approaches, and concepts from the Design e2 dvd segments
viewed in class/asked to be familiar with: