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Life Span
Healthy Lifestyle
Defining Development
• The science of
human
development…
• Seeks to understand
how and why people
change over time.
Life Expectancy
• “The average number of years a
person is expected to live”
Why do some people live longer than
other?
• Nature
• Nurture
Which of the following is an
example of nature influencing life
expectancy?
A.The mother smoked while pregnant
with the child
B. Social-economical status
C. The year of birth
D.X-Y chromosome anomaly
The Life-Span Perspective
• Multidirectional
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cphgANTK0LA
•
•
•
•
Multicontextual
Multicultural
Multidisciplinary
Plasticity
Life expectancy
1850 1890 1920 1950 1970 1990 2011
38.3 42.5 56.3 66.3 67.9 72.7 78.4
Why?
• Why is life expectancy going up?
History of Health Care
• Early Civilization
• 1st med schools
–Greece
–600 B.C.
–Hippocrates
• “The Father of western medicine”
• Edward Jenner
–Father of
immunology
–Smallpox
vaccine
• 1749 - 1823
Bacteriology
• Louis Pasteur
– Germ theory
– Vaccine
advancement
• 1822 - 1895
Bacteriology
• Joseph Lister
–Father of
Antiseptic
Surgery
–Hand-washing
• 1827-1912
Bacteriology
• Robert Koch
–Founder of modern
bacteriology
–1st “Magic-bullets”
–Staining
• 1843 - 1910
• Alexander Fleming
–Discovered Penicillin
• 1881- 1955
Antibiotics
• When was penicillin first available as a
prescription drug?
A. 1868
B. 1927
C. 1928
D. 1939
E. 1943
What was the first vaccine available?
A. Small pox
B. Pertussis
C. Diphtheria
D. Tetanus
E. Polio
What was the first vaccine available?
A. Small pox (1796)
B. Pertussis (1904)
C. Diphtheria (1926)
D. Tetanus (1938)
E. Polio (1955)
1948 = DPT
• Measles (1963)
• Mumps (1967)
• Rubella (1969)
– MMR (1971)
•
•
•
•
Hepatitis B (1981)
Hib (1985)
Chickenpox (1996)
HPV (2006)
• What happened to the
small pox vaccine?
• D/C 1971
– eradicated
Nursing Role
•
•
•
•
Florence Nightingale
Clara Barton
Dorothea Dix
Lillian Wald
Why?
• Why is the USA not number 1?
Violence plays role in
lower U.S. life expectancy
• Denver Post
• The Associated Press: 09 January 2013
• WASHINGTON — The United States suffers far
more violent deaths than any other wealthy
nation, due in part to the widespread possession
of firearms and the practice of storing them at
home in a place that is often unlocked, according
to a report released Wednesday by two of the
nation's leading health research institutions.
Does “old age” = HEALTH?
Health
“A state of complete
physical, mental and
social (spiritual) wellbeing,
not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity”
Holistic Health
LIFE
Health – Illness continuum
Health Promotion
Empowerment
Small Group Questions
• Define health, holistic & life expectancy.
• Describe in general that history of health
care.
• Define nature vs. nurture
• How have the following people
influenced health care? Hippocrates,
Jenner, Pasteur, Lister, Koch, Fleming
Healthy Lifestyle
Nutrition
• Malnutrition
– Poor dietary practice
due to lack of nutrients
• Nutritious Diet 
–
–
–
–
Carbohydrates
Amino acids
Vitamins
Minerals
Chemical Avoidance
• Alcohol
Chemical Avoidance:
• Caffeine
Exercise
• 30 min/day
Stress reduction
Stress
• “Anything that
upsets our
psychological or
physiological
equilibrium”
Stress  Fight or Flight
Stress
Adrenal Gland 
Adrenalin & Cortisol
Fight
Or
Flight
Response
General Symptoms of Stress
• Respiratory rate
–h
• Blood shunted
from
– GI
• Blood directed to
– Muscles
General Symptoms of Stress
• Pupils
–Dilate
• Pain perception
–i
• Heart rate
–h
Responses to stress
• Physiological
• Emotional
• Intellectual
General Adaptation Syndrome
1.Alarm Stage
2.State of
resistance
3.State of
exhaustion
• Hans Selye
Anxiety
• “Multisystem
response to a
stressful
situation”
Levels of Anxiety
•
•
•
•
Mild
Moderate
Severe
Panic
Stress  Health
• SRRS
–Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Stress Reduction Techniques
1. Meditate
2. Imaging
3. Breath deeply
4. Focus on NOW
5. Show some
love
1. Massage
2. Take a time out
8. Music
9. Attitude break
Disease prevention
• Primary
– Before disease
• Secondary
– Diagnosis
• Tertiary
– Rehabilitation
Mental Health
•
•
•
•
•
Adjust
Cope
Contribute
Realistic
Fluctuates
Emotional Maturity
• When individuals
are able to control
their responses
and can express
their emotions in
socially
appropriate ways.
Small Group Questions
• List 5 healthy lifestyle practices.
• What are Hans Selye’s 3 stages of stress?
Describe each stage
• What is Anxiety?
• How can you reduce or manage stress?
• What are the levels of disease prevention?
Give an example of each level.
In GAS, what is the second stage?
A.Alarm
B. Resistance
C. Exhaustion
D.Adrenaline
E. Adaptation
Homework
• Read
–Key words
–Learning objectives
–Review questions
• Lecture notes