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Many new democracies started up in the world, ,but
there was also a strong push for communist uprisings in
Germany, France and the United States
By the end of the 1920s. Most countries were overtaken
by a worldwide depression.
This table illustrates the exchange rates of 1US$ value
in German marks.
The many democratic nations set up after WWI soon
found themselves battling off other political ideologies
such as communism or socialism.
Fear of communism grew as nations saw Communists
not as revolutionaries, but as an attempt by the Soviet
Union to take over their nation.
A response to communism and a solution to the
problems of post WW I Europe was a new ideology
known as fascism
* Economic crisis
* Fear of communism
* Desire for leadership/order
* Fear of social unrest/chaos
Fascism allows one charismatic leader to take power and restore
the nation’s strength and pride by whatever means necessary.
Promotes the idea that everyone must work to make nation strong.
Three Fascist Nations
Treaty of Versailles
Total Control
of State by a
Black Tuesday
- stock market crashes
Great Depression
Increasing influence of new
political parties that emphasize
state control
-For example: Communism,
Nazism, Fascism
is it?
Describe its
Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state
(political, military, economy, social, cultural)
Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)
Strict controls and laws
Military state (secret police, army, military)
Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)
Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)
One leader (dictator); charismatic
Total conformity of people to ideas and leader
Terror and Fear
*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism,
are completely different theories that are bitterly
opposed; however they exhibit the same behavior
I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the
Soviet Union from 1922-1953.
What is Communism?
• based on theory by Karl Marx
• revolutionary idea of a political,
economic and social system that
creates a “classless society”
• state ownership and control of the
means of production (no private
• Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”,
was more of a totalitarian and
military state combined with
elements of communism
I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il
Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943.
What is Fascism?
• intense nationalism and elitismvisibly patriotic
• totalitarian control – strong military
• interests of the state more important
than individual rights
• maintain class system and private
•People serve the state
Interesting Fact: Fascism name was derived from
the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority
consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer)
or dictator of Germany from 1933 to
What is Nazism?
• extremely fascist , nationalistic and
• based on beliefs of the National
Socialist German Workers Party
• belief in the racial superiority of the
Aryan, the “master race”
• belief that all Germans should have
“lebensraum” or living space in Europe
•Violent hatred towards Jews and
blamed Germany’s problems on them
• GESTAPO: the Secret State Police
• SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps
“black shirts”, an elite guard unit
formed out of the SA
• SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers
"brown-shirts" early private Nazi
army that protected leaders and
opposed rival political parties
• Lebensraum (living space): concept
that emphasized need for territorial
expansion of Germany into east
German army
• HJ (Hitler Jugend): Hitler Youth
This Nazi propaganda poster reads,
‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.
“The Eternal Jew”
Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in one hand
and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of
the world, with the imprint of the hammer and
sickle. Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in
anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence
against the Jewish community.