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Name
BIOLOGY 262, SUMMER 2009
IN-CLASS EXAMINATION #1 (PART 1)
Date
MULTIPLE CHOICE.⎯For the following multiple choice questions circle the letter in front of the
response that best answers the question or completes the sentence. (20%, 2% each)
The samples below measured the density of
1. Which of the following is NOT an
common mallow plant per m2 in areas that
assumption of science?
undergo lawn mowing abd areas that do not
a. Different events can have the same
undergo mowing. The hypothesis is that mowing
general predictable cause.
will decrease common mallow density.
b. Hypotheses are proven absoultely
True.
c. Sense experience consistently and
accurately represents reality.
d. The universe is ordered.
e. None of the above. (All are assumptions)
2. Which of the following most limits
terrestrial primary production?
a. Light intensity and nutrients.
b. Light intensity and precipitation.
c. Light intensity and temperature.
d. Nutrients and temperature.
e. Precipitation and temperature
3. Which of the following describes the
interaction of a squirrel eating an acorn?
a. Interspecific amensalism.
b. Interspecific commensalism.
c. Interspecific predation.
d. Intrapecific amensalism.
e. Intrapecific commensalism.
f. Intraspecific predation.
4. Which of the following islands should
have the greatest species richness?
a. Large, compact, far from continent
b. Large, irregular, far from continent
c. Large, compact, near continent
d. Large, irregular, near continent
e. Small, compact, far from continent
f. Small, irregular, far from continent
g. Small, compact, near continent
h. Small, irregular, near continent
5. If a population of 1000 is undergoing
exponential growth with a yearly intrinsic
rate of increase of 0.50, then what is the
size of the population after 2 years?
a. 500
b. 750
c. 1000
d. 2000
e. None of the above
Table. Density per m2 quadrat samples of common mallow
(Malva neglecta). P-value for comparison between the
samples from the two areas = 0.009
Unmowed area
Mowed area
3
7
4
5
2
9
0
6
5
4
2
5
6. For the study above which of the following is
the treatment?
↑
a. Mowing.
b. Quadrat sampling.
c. Repeating the sampling.
d. The common mallows.
e. None of the above.
7. The hypothesis is…
↑
a. rejected.
b. supported.
c. (this cannot be determined with these data)
8. In an experimental study, the group that
does not receive the treatment and is the
basis for comparison is the…
a.
b.
c.
d.
experimental group.
naturalistic group.
negative control group.
positive control group.
9. Carbon (C) tends the make how many
covalent bonds with other atoms?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 5
e. None of the above
10. If a pop. of 500,000 is undergoing logistic
growth with a yearly intrinsic rate of increase
of 0.20 and a carrying capacity of 1,000,000,
then what is the size of the pop. after 2 years?
a.
49,500
b.
99,000
c.
100,000
d.
555,500
e.
599,500
f.
600,000
g.
720,000
h. 1,500,000
SHORT RESPONSE.⎯For the following write the appropriate number(s), word(s), sketch(es), bars, dots,
and/or line(s) in the indicated spaces.(10%)
1. Fill in the empty cells in the life table
below for a cohort of gorillas. (4%)
Survivor- Mortality
Age
Number
ship
0
1200
1
1100
2
1000
3
500
3. Briefly (1 sentence) explain what 1. and 2. at
left (←) allow you to reasonably but
tentatively conclude about the life history of
these gorillas? (2%)
4. Briefly explain (1 sentence) what the
2. Graph survivorship ↑ appropriately in the
space provided below. (Be sure to select the
following age-distribution graph for this
gorilla population allow you to reasonably
but tentatively conclude about the
demographics of these gorillas? (2%)
1200
graph type and to label the graph appropriately.)
1000
Number
800
600
400
200
0
0
1
2
3
4
Age
Age distribution of gorilla population.
(2%)
DEFINITIONS.⎯For the following BIOLOGICAL words or phrases define them as accurately
and concisely as possible. (20%, 4% each)
1. Commensalism:
2. Intermediate Primary Production (Nutrient) Hypothesis:
3. Keystone Species:
4. Population:
5. Resource:
5
Name
BIOLOGY 262, SUMMER 2009
IN-CLASS EXAMINATION #1 (PART 2)
Date
FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS/PROBLEMS.⎯ Address each in as concisely and lucidly. (50%)
1. A population of 10 fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) is growing logistically has a monthly
intrinsic rate of increase of 10.50. The carrying capacity is 100,000. (a.) What is the size of
this population after one month? After two months? Show your calculations. (8%)
At what population size will this fruit fly population be adding the greatest number of
individuals per month? (2%)
2. Provide the chemical formula for the overall processes of photosynthesis and glycolysis +
respiration. Be sure to include the chemical symbols if you use the names of each molecule.
(10%)
Generally explain how these two processes are related to concerns about global climate
change (global warming). (4%)
3. Explain why it is warm/hot at the equator? (4%)
Explain why it is usually wet at the equator? (4%)
4. Researchers∗ examined the effect of burning on species diversity of the low-growing mosses,
liverworts and lichens (photosynthetic organisms that grow along the ground underneath grasses and
forbs). They examined twenty 5m x 5m grassland plots (New South Wales, Australia) in each of
many areas that received different frequencies of burning treatments, grassland burned every two
years, every four years, every eight years, or not burned at all. After 12 years, the species richness of
each area was sampled.
The hypothesis in this study was: The areas burned every four years should show the
greatest species richness based on the predictions of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.
(a.) Explain the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, both stating what it asserts and the ecological
reasons for its prediction(s). (6%)
Data.
Table 1. Mean combined moss, liverwort, and lichen species richness in relationship to burning frequency areas.
Burning Condition
2-Year Burning
4-Year Burning
8-Year Burning
No Burning
mean of 20
26.0
23.5
16.1
5.6
plots
P = 0.002 (from a test called an ANOVA, indicating the general effect of burning interval.)
Given the hypothesis and the data, (b.) graph the data appropriately (4%),
(c.) indicate of the hypothesis was supported, rejected, or unable to be addressed, explaining why
(4%),
and (d.) use your understanding of ecological processes to provide a brief reasonable ecological
explanation for their results. (4%)
∗
The general results were taken from the following study, K.E. O’Bryan, S.M. Prober, I.D. Lunt, and D.J. Eldridge. 2009.
Oecologia 159: 827-838.