Name BIOLOGY 262, SUMMER 2009 IN-CLASS EXAMINATION #1 (PART 1) Date MULTIPLE CHOICE.⎯For the following multiple choice questions circle the letter in front of the response that best answers the question or completes the sentence. (20%, 2% each) The samples below measured the density of 1. Which of the following is NOT an common mallow plant per m2 in areas that assumption of science? undergo lawn mowing abd areas that do not a. Different events can have the same undergo mowing. The hypothesis is that mowing general predictable cause. will decrease common mallow density. b. Hypotheses are proven absoultely True. c. Sense experience consistently and accurately represents reality. d. The universe is ordered. e. None of the above. (All are assumptions) 2. Which of the following most limits terrestrial primary production? a. Light intensity and nutrients. b. Light intensity and precipitation. c. Light intensity and temperature. d. Nutrients and temperature. e. Precipitation and temperature 3. Which of the following describes the interaction of a squirrel eating an acorn? a. Interspecific amensalism. b. Interspecific commensalism. c. Interspecific predation. d. Intrapecific amensalism. e. Intrapecific commensalism. f. Intraspecific predation. 4. Which of the following islands should have the greatest species richness? a. Large, compact, far from continent b. Large, irregular, far from continent c. Large, compact, near continent d. Large, irregular, near continent e. Small, compact, far from continent f. Small, irregular, far from continent g. Small, compact, near continent h. Small, irregular, near continent 5. If a population of 1000 is undergoing exponential growth with a yearly intrinsic rate of increase of 0.50, then what is the size of the population after 2 years? a. 500 b. 750 c. 1000 d. 2000 e. None of the above Table. Density per m2 quadrat samples of common mallow (Malva neglecta). P-value for comparison between the samples from the two areas = 0.009 Unmowed area Mowed area 3 7 4 5 2 9 0 6 5 4 2 5 6. For the study above which of the following is the treatment? ↑ a. Mowing. b. Quadrat sampling. c. Repeating the sampling. d. The common mallows. e. None of the above. 7. The hypothesis is… ↑ a. rejected. b. supported. c. (this cannot be determined with these data) 8. In an experimental study, the group that does not receive the treatment and is the basis for comparison is the… a. b. c. d. experimental group. naturalistic group. negative control group. positive control group. 9. Carbon (C) tends the make how many covalent bonds with other atoms? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 e. None of the above 10. If a pop. of 500,000 is undergoing logistic growth with a yearly intrinsic rate of increase of 0.20 and a carrying capacity of 1,000,000, then what is the size of the pop. after 2 years? a. 49,500 b. 99,000 c. 100,000 d. 555,500 e. 599,500 f. 600,000 g. 720,000 h. 1,500,000 SHORT RESPONSE.⎯For the following write the appropriate number(s), word(s), sketch(es), bars, dots, and/or line(s) in the indicated spaces.(10%) 1. Fill in the empty cells in the life table below for a cohort of gorillas. (4%) Survivor- Mortality Age Number ship 0 1200 1 1100 2 1000 3 500 3. Briefly (1 sentence) explain what 1. and 2. at left (←) allow you to reasonably but tentatively conclude about the life history of these gorillas? (2%) 4. Briefly explain (1 sentence) what the 2. Graph survivorship ↑ appropriately in the space provided below. (Be sure to select the following age-distribution graph for this gorilla population allow you to reasonably but tentatively conclude about the demographics of these gorillas? (2%) 1200 graph type and to label the graph appropriately.) 1000 Number 800 600 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 Age Age distribution of gorilla population. (2%) DEFINITIONS.⎯For the following BIOLOGICAL words or phrases define them as accurately and concisely as possible. (20%, 4% each) 1. Commensalism: 2. Intermediate Primary Production (Nutrient) Hypothesis: 3. Keystone Species: 4. Population: 5. Resource: 5 Name BIOLOGY 262, SUMMER 2009 IN-CLASS EXAMINATION #1 (PART 2) Date FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS/PROBLEMS.⎯ Address each in as concisely and lucidly. (50%) 1. A population of 10 fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) is growing logistically has a monthly intrinsic rate of increase of 10.50. The carrying capacity is 100,000. (a.) What is the size of this population after one month? After two months? Show your calculations. (8%) At what population size will this fruit fly population be adding the greatest number of individuals per month? (2%) 2. Provide the chemical formula for the overall processes of photosynthesis and glycolysis + respiration. Be sure to include the chemical symbols if you use the names of each molecule. (10%) Generally explain how these two processes are related to concerns about global climate change (global warming). (4%) 3. Explain why it is warm/hot at the equator? (4%) Explain why it is usually wet at the equator? (4%) 4. Researchers∗ examined the effect of burning on species diversity of the low-growing mosses, liverworts and lichens (photosynthetic organisms that grow along the ground underneath grasses and forbs). They examined twenty 5m x 5m grassland plots (New South Wales, Australia) in each of many areas that received different frequencies of burning treatments, grassland burned every two years, every four years, every eight years, or not burned at all. After 12 years, the species richness of each area was sampled. The hypothesis in this study was: The areas burned every four years should show the greatest species richness based on the predictions of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. (a.) Explain the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, both stating what it asserts and the ecological reasons for its prediction(s). (6%) Data. Table 1. Mean combined moss, liverwort, and lichen species richness in relationship to burning frequency areas. Burning Condition 2-Year Burning 4-Year Burning 8-Year Burning No Burning mean of 20 26.0 23.5 16.1 5.6 plots P = 0.002 (from a test called an ANOVA, indicating the general effect of burning interval.) Given the hypothesis and the data, (b.) graph the data appropriately (4%), (c.) indicate of the hypothesis was supported, rejected, or unable to be addressed, explaining why (4%), and (d.) use your understanding of ecological processes to provide a brief reasonable ecological explanation for their results. (4%) ∗ The general results were taken from the following study, K.E. O’Bryan, S.M. Prober, I.D. Lunt, and D.J. Eldridge. 2009. Oecologia 159: 827-838.