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OBJECTIVE: Review for Final
Final Exam Study Guide
1. How do thunderstorms form?
1. Warm moist air rises forcefully
2. Water vapor condenses providing energy for
the storm
3. Updrafts and downdrafts maintain storms
4. Storm dissipates when it runs out of energy
2. Where do they form?
• Along cold fronts
3. How is lightning created?
• Electrical discharge between two oppositely
charged surfaces.
4. Where can lightning travel?
• From one part of the cloud to another part
• From one cloud to another cloud
• From cloud to ground
5. What is thunder?
• Rapidly expanding and contracting air from
the lightning bolt creates sound waves
6. What kinds of clouds produce
• Cumulonimbus clouds
7. What is a supercell?
• Powerful thunderstorm that can produce
8. How do tornadoes form?
• Warm and cold air meet and rotates
• Updrafts push column of air vertical
• Rotating air descends it picks up dirt and
9. What is a hurricane? How do they
• Massive tropical cyclone that forms over warm
waters, with extremely strong winds and rain
• Water vapor evaporating and then condensing
within the storm gives it energy
• As clusters of thunderstorms strengthen, they
begin to rotate
10. Where do each of these tropical
cyclone form?
• Cyclone
• Hurricane
• Typhoon
• Indian Ocean
• Atlantic Ocean
• Pacific Ocean
11. What is the rainband of hurricane?
• Region of heavy thunderstorms beyond the
eyewall that spiral outward from the center of
a hurricane
12. What is the Coriolis Effect?
• Spiraling of winds due to the Earth’s rotation
13. What is the eye of the hurricane?
And what is the pressure there (high
or low)?
• Circular region located at the center of a
• Warm air is rising, creating a low pressure
• Surrounded by the eyewall which is the most
destructive part of a hurricane.
14. What is global warming?
• A gradual increase in average global
• Due to:
– Burning of fossil fuels
– Extra heat in the atmosphere
– Greenhouse Effect trapping more heat than
• Normally a natural process, but humans are
speeding it up, thus making it worse.
15. What are the two gases that make
up most of our atmosphere?
• Nitrogen
• Oxygen
16. What is wind?
• Movement of air from high to low pressure
17. What are the three phases of
matter? Describe each phase.
• Solid
– particles are barely moving
– Substances hold their own shape and do not flow
• Liquid
– particles are moving slowly
– Substances take on the shape of their container and
• Gas
– Particles are moving quickly
– Substance fills the shape of it’s container and flows
18. What is the Fujita Scale?
• Measures the intensity of a tornado
• F0 – F5
19. Where is Tornado Alley located?
• American Midwest
– Great Plains
20. What can destroy/diminish a
Wind shear
Cold water
Saharan Air Layer
21. What is a front?
• The boundary between air masses
22. Describe the weather at each of
these fronts:
• Cold front
• Warm front
• Stationary front
• Occluded front
• Severe thunderstorms
• Drizzly weather
• Many cloudy and rainy
• Cool temp. & a lot of
23. Describe each layer of the
• Troposphere
• Stratosphere
• Mesosphere
• Thermosphere
• All weather happens
• Ozone layer
• Meteor’s burn up
• Hottest but you would
feel cold / satellites fly
24. Describe each type of air mass:
Maritime polar
Maritime tropical
Continental polar
Continental tropical
Moist, cold
Moist, warm
Dry, cold
Dry, warm
25. What is the water cycle? What
powers it?
• Continuous movement of water within Earth’s
atmosphere, land, and oceans/lakes
• Sun
26. Create a flow map of the water
Cloud / Condensation
Infiltration /
27. What happens to water content as
warm rises? As it cools?
• Warm air rises and becomes cooler, it loses
the ability to hold water
• Cool air sinks and becomes warmer, it gains
the ability to hold water
28. What is the Greenhouse Effect?
• Greenhouse gases trap heat and keep the
Earth warm
29. What causes the seasons?
• Tilt of the Earth’s axis
30. Why type of star is the hottest
(blue or red)?
• blue
31. What could happen when a star
White Dwarf
Neutron star
Black hole
32. How are craters formed on the
• Asteroid/meteoroid impacts
33. List the contributions of each of
these astronomers:
• Ptolemy
• Copernicus
• Tycho Brahe
• Johannes Kepler
• Galileo Galilie
• Isaac Newton
• Edwin Hubble
• Geocentric universe
• Heliocentric universe
• Made large, detailed
• Used Brahe’s work to
prove heliocentric
• Used telescope
• Law of gravity
• Discovered many other
galaxies / universe bigger
than imagined
34. How many stars are in our solar
• 1 – OUR SUN!!!
35. What type of star is our Sun?
• Main-sequence Star
36. What are sunspots?
• Cooler, darker areas of the Sun
37. What is astronomy?
• The study of the universe
38. What is the difference between a
refracting and reflecting telescope? Which
one is more accurate?
• Refracting telescope
– Lenses bend light to eyepiece
– Negatives:
• Cannot make them too big
• Do not focus perfectly
• Reflecting telescope
– mirrors bounce light to eyepiece
– More accurate
39. Describe each part of the
electromagnetic spectrum:
Radio waves
Visible light
Ultraviolet light
• Gamma rays
Radios use them
Microwaves use them
Heat energy
Energy we see / colors
Gives you a
• High energy that cannot
go through solids
• Incredibly high energy
40. List facts for each planet:
• Neptune
Smallest planet
Year is longer than a day
Only one with life
Largest volcano
Largest planet
Has visible rings around it
Diamonds possibly in the
• Sonic speed winds
41. What is a solar eclipse? Lunar
• Solar eclipse - When the Moon comes in
between the Sun and Earth and casts a
shadow on the Earth
• Lunar eclipse - When the Moon gets covered
by the Earth’s shadow