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Transcript
TCP/IP, Addressing and
Services
S. Hussain Ali
M.S. (Computer Engineering)
Department of Computer Engineering
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
1
Topics Covered in this Session
What is TCP/IP?
 TCP/IP Utilities
 TCP/IP Protocol suite
 TCP/IP Addressing, Sub netting
 Domain Name System
 IPv6

2
TCP/IP
Industry-Standard Suite of Protocols
 Routable Enterprise Networking Protocol
 Technology for connecting dissimilar
systems
 Robust, scalable, cross-platform
client/server framework
 Method of gaining access to the Internet

3
Sample TCP/IP Utilities
FTP, TFTP, RCP, Telnet
 RSH, REXEC, LPR, LPQ, LPD
 Ping, Ipconfig, nslookup, hostname, netstat
 Nbtstat, route, tracert, arp, finger

4
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
TCP/IP Model
Application
Transport
Internetwork
Network
Interface
TCP/IP Protocols
FTP
Telnet
TCP
HTTP
NetBIOS
UDP
IP (ICMP, IGMP, ARP)
LAN (Ethernet,
WAN (Serial,
TR, FDDI)
Frame Relay, ATM)
5
Network Interface Technologies

IP Over LAN Technologies
» Ethernet, Token Ring, ARCnet, FDDI

IP Over WAN Technologies
» Serial lines
» Packet switched networks
» Frame Relay
» ATM
6
Address Resolution Protocol
Successful mapping of an IP address
(logical) to a hardware address (physical).
 Address resolution is the function of ARP
 ARP uses a local broadcast to obtain a
hardware address
 Address mappings are stored in a cache for
future reference

7
Internet Protocol
Addresses and Routes packets
 Connectionless

» No session is established
“Best effort” delivery
 Fragments and reassembles packets

8
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP)
Connection oriented
 Reliable delivery
 Byte-stream communications
 Uses port numbers as endpoints to
communicate
 Examples: FTP (21), Telnet (23), DNS (53)

9
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
Connectionless
 Does not guarantee delivery
 Reliability is the responsibility of the
application
 Uses port numbers as endpoint to
communicate
 Examples: TFTP (63) , SNMP (161),
Domain (53)

10
IP Addressing




Each host is identified by a logical unique IP
address.
Each IP address defines network ID and host ID.
Patch choice is based on location
Location is represented by an address
Network ID
Host ID
32 Bits
11
IP Address Classes

Class A
N
H
H
H
N
N
H
H
N
N
N
H
» (1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0)
» Number of hosts addresses: 16,777,214

Class B
»
»

(128.1.0.0 to 191.254.0.0)
Number of hosts addresses: 65,534.
Class C
»
»
(192.0.1.0 to 223.255.254.0)
Number of hosts addresses: 254

Class D: for multicast Class E: for research

N: Network ID assigned by NIC
H: Host number assigned by network administrator

12
Subnetting



With subnetting, you can divide your network into
smaller networks by using some of the host ID bits
(in the IP address) as part of Network ID.
It is achieved by the clever use of Subnet mask.
Routers are used to send traffic between two subnets. These devices are identified as Gateway
address.
13
Exercise

Find out your machines IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway address.

Solution: Run ipconfig /all
14
Domain Name System



Humans identify network resources with names
while machines identify them with the number.
Domain Name System does the hostname to IP
address resolution or vice versa.
DNS offers a distributed client/server database of
forward mappings (hostname to IP addresses)
and reverse mappings (IP address to host names)
in a TCP/IP network like Internet.
15
How it works?

In DNS jargon, clients are identified as resolvers
and servers as name servers.
» Resolvers pass name requests between applications
and name server
» Name server takes requests and resolve computer (or
domain name) to IP address.
» If the name server is not able to resolve the request, it
may forward the request to another name server that
can resolve it.
» Name servers are grouped into different levels that are
called domains.
16
Domain Name Space
Root level Domain
.ae
.com
.sa
.edu
.com
.org
compaq
.edu
Top level
Domain
mit
kfupm
ccse
www
17
Exercise

Find out the DNS server address of your
machine.
» Use ipconfig command

Find out IP address of
www.ccse.kfupm.edu.sa.
» Use ping www.ccse.kfupm.edu.sa
» Use nslookup command.
18
Establishing Network
Infrastructure
Perimeter
Network
Internet
Corporate
Network
Web Farm
19
Summary
» TCP/IP Protocol
» IP Addressing
» Domain Name System
» Network Infrastructure
20